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^&l AND mrnp,.: 


Clarke Co ti n t v , ! o w a 

Co^'TAI^•I^"G Portraits of all the Pi:es:dk:;t3 of tee United States fecm Yv''ASF.n;':4To; 


State of Iowa ; I'orteaits and BiocRArKiES of the Go\"esnop.? 07 the Tes?.!- 
TORY AND State; Engratingu of Prominent Citizens in 
CouNTY, WITH Personal Histories of many of the Leading- 
Families, and a Concise History of Clarze 
. ■ .^ ' County and its Cities and Villages. 

- ■• ' A"* ' -.•■'. - V ■ - ■ • ■ -. 


113 Ad.vms Street, CincAco. 


1613332 ■ 



n O ^/!^- 

^'^'^n^'lin^rf^^^^ placing this \olume 
=^4i^S\'"' l'?Hf'~:;A. cRsi the publishers feel 

before their patrons, 


that their work will 

stand the test of can- 

^^ did criticism, and that 

■^-^';pj^W " the BioGRAi'incAL 

f^. Clarke County will be re- 
:'.-Mf. ceivcd and perused with pleas- 
"''^'^W^ urc by all. This is not merely a 
j^^N'^ local work, but one which in 
^t^l^' some measure is interesting to 
^^^ eveiy true citizen of the United 
\^^ States. The nation justly is 
^ proud of its rulers, and their 
portraits and biographies will 
prove of interest in ever}' American home. 
A State looks with pride over its develop- 
ment and growth from a barren tract to its 
present position among its sisters, and is 
interested in knowing something of the men 
who have stood at the head of its affairs ; 
and in like manner the citizens of a county 
are interested in hearing and reading of 
those who have labored to make their 
count)- and its cities what they are to-da}-. 
Thus we have endeavored tomeelall these 
desires and have prepared this volume. It 
may contain some errors, as perfection is 
not attainable in this world, but we trust 
they are so trivial that they will be over- 
shadowed by the many entertaining and in- 

structive points that are free from error. 
In some instances we have noticed that 
members of the same family differ in the 
spelling of the name, and also in the dates 
of certain events. In these cases we have 
tried to "follow copy," not knowing which 
was correct. Thus it will be seen that if 
members of the same family differ, mem- 
bers of a community also will not agree in 
relating the same circumstance, and the 
historian is often at a loss to know \vhich 
statement 'to record. We have tried to 
prove all things and to give to our readers 
those items which are of interest in as re- 
liable a form as is possible. 

We are glad to be able to give to the citi- 
zens of Clarke County this Record, and 
feel sure that as the years go by it will 
grow in interest and value, giving the ris- 
ing generation an account of the lives and 
adventures of their forefathers — the pio- 
neers, who labored to make the homes 
they now enjoy. Many of these, were it 
not for works of this kind, would soon be 
forgotten, and the part they took in the 
early days would in many cases be ascribed 
to others ; but in after years, when the his- 
torian is gathering data he will e.Kamine 
and cull from this I^ecord the items with 
which to prepare a memorial of the early 
settlers of Clarke County. 

The PuBLiiUER.s. 

Chicago, /w/i', i8S6. 

, 1 : : ■: i'•^' 




< J J J j^ J J J j.jj ju J jy_'.'_';ij j_i -•. 


George W.Tihington 9 

John Adams 14 

Thomas JelTors-on 20 

James Madison '..... 26 

James Monroe 32 

John Quincv Adams 38 

Andrew Jackson 47 

Martin Van Duron 52 

William Henry Harrison 56 

John Tyler 60 

James K. I'olk 64 

Zachary Taylor 68 

Millard Fillmore 72 

Franklin Pierce 76 

James Buchanan So 

Abraham Lincoln 84 

Andrew Johnson 93 

Ulysses S.Grant 96 

Rutherford H. Hayes 102 

James A. Gnrfie)d ' 109 

Chester A. Arthur 113 

Grovcr Cleveland 117 

^HISTORY * OF » lOVvTA.t- 

Aboriginai.- 123 

Caucasian 12^ 

Pioneer Life 133 

Louisiana Terriiorj- 137 

Iowa Territory 130 

State Organization and Subse. 

quent History 141 

Patriotism 146 

Iowa Since the War 151 

State Institutions 151 

Educational 154 

.Staliftica! 157 

Physical Fcatui-cs 15S 

Geology i:;S 

Clim.ate 163 

Census of Iowa i .164 

Territorial Officers .164 

State Oliicers 165 


Robert Lucas ....171 

John Chainbers 173 

James Clarke 175 

Ansel Briggs 179 

Stephen HL-m[)St;'r,d 183 

James W. Grimes iSy 

Ralph P. Lowe 191 

Samuel J. Kirkvoij.i 105 

William M. i-tone 1.^9 

Samuel Mci ri'd 203 

Cyrus C. Carpenic.- 207 

Joshua G. Ne«iy)!d 2n 

John H. Gear 215 

Buren R. 2/9 

William I.,arral'Ce 223 


Abernathy, George 241 

Adams, R. M 426 

Adams, Wil ham 474 

Adkins, G. C 433 

Adkins, R. M 243 

Adkins, W. H 440 

Adkins, Wyatt 3&6 

Agnew, W. G 400 

Anderson, O. P 439 

Anderson, T. J 337 

Arnett, Thomas 434 

Arnold, Benjamin ... 356 

Arnold, ). j 304 

Atkir.s, E. A 271 

Aytes, C. T 351 

Ayres, Justin 345 


Babb, S. R 291 

Baldwin, John 31S 


Balduin, J. L 317 

Ball, J. M 245 

Banker, G. W 365 

Barnard, Tlieodore 418 

Bates, Randall 404 

Bcchtcl, D. B 367 

Beckett, A. J 412 

Beede, W. W 296 

Bell, Edgar 309, Lemon 263 

Benson, Alester 242 

Beva.-u.J. F 292 

Bevard, Jon.itlian 290 

Black, L. F 394 

Bivth-, Cilvin 324 

Boden, J. W . . .3^:; 

Bovle, 1 2G6 

Brown, B. F 27S 

Brown, E. H 39'; 

llumgaidncr, George 4f}S 

Burg us, Charles 238 

Burgus, Ferdinand .\ 424 

Burgus, John 250 

Burrows, A. H 2S2 

Burrows, Hon, B 31S 


Carder, George 429 

Carder, J. M ^(la 

Carson, Abraham 251 

Carter, Abraham 235 

Carter, Casrer 3.1.6 

Chancy, John 248 

Chupman, B. F 293 

Chew, R. I, 304 

Cl.ark, }-)^\V. A 292 

Clark, James 363 

Clark, J. A 3'» 

Cochran, M. J 297 

Combs, J. D 420 

ConawLv, War: en 232 

Coon, Josiah 306 



Coppock, Boniainir 417 

O^wlei;.; -MS 

Cox, IsratI 3^3 

Crew, A. I ::57 

Crowley, Jacob 359 

Curti?, Francis 435 


Danitl, ]. S 25' 

Daniel, j. W 42S 

Dav,T."\V 237 

De'itrick, B 270 

Delong, Kphrai'.n 305 

Ucnly, T. J 237 

Diehf, Jolin 3' 4 

Donner, Charles 433 

Duke, H. R 322 

Duncan, W. M 392 


Emary, F. J. Sr 43- 

Emary, F. 1 4'6 

Emary, W.'B. F 334 

Emery, Jesse 321 

Erb, E. A 405 

Evsns, E.J 340 

Evans, M. L 3S3 

Evans, W. G 236 


Farley, J. K 37^ 

Farley, \V. T 310 

Fclger, Bei-;3min 2S4 

Findlav, R. S 373 

Flyi\n,' >f:chael 3S1 

f o!ger, H. C 41S 

Ford, William 3S0 

Fcister, M. C 361 

Fouch, G. W 405 

Fouch, Isaac 406 

Fowler, P. L 357 

Fox, Patrick 23S 

Freeman, L. B 392 

Funston, T. C 30S 


Gardner, Alphonzo 33S 

Gardner, R. E 3!;2 

Gardner, W. H 319 

Garrctson, B. F 410 

Gates, J. M 431 

Gibson, E. P 242 

Glenn, S. P 232 

Graves, Elon 294 

Graves, J. N 317 

Green, J. E 286 

Gregg, Thomas 313 

Gregg, Wesley 246 

Grigg, R. C 246 

Gross, II. F 297 

Gutches, George 352 


Hadley, A. M 239 

Iladlev, Jesse 413 

Hall b.'F 30*5 

Hal'.,I. W ....397 

Hall,W U 427 

Hailing, H. P 2ij6 

Halloway.J. P 3S2 

Hamilton, W.J 43f. 

Hanks, ls:'.:ah iCi 

Karlan, George 373 

Harlan, Ichn 261 

Harper, V,'. E 3-^3 

linrri-on, J. C 413 

Ha:ri^on, 'T. V 393 

Hart, Kiijib 42S 

^endri..■i^, W. S 403 

Hermanc.', H. B 363 

Hill, A. K 2y^ 

Hill, Mor.iecai 300 

Hodges Albevt 3SS 

Hodi;es, Charles 344 

llofiman, Nicholas 253 

lIo,5ue, William 315 

Holcomb, Cvrus 2S3 

HoUovvav, T. W 3SG 

Hood, j: W 300 

Horton, C. C 252 

Howe, Charles 294 

Howe, G. W 231 

Huber, J. B 354 

Hudgel, R. T 399 

Huff, R. W 325 

Humiston. James 324 

Hutsmpiher, W. B. H 331 


Jackson, Andrew 339 

Jamison, J. II 371 
aniison, Robert 259 

Jenkins, William 3S9 

Venks, Edward 415 

Jenks, Jerry 311 

Jenni'on, J. C --S^^ 

Johnson, A. C 414 

Johns'-'n, A. 5 3S1 

JohnsoQ, Beniamin 366 

lohnson, C;. R 434 

lohns.'.u, F. W 332 

Johnson, M. T 265 

Jolinton, T. P 269 

Johnson, Thomas 321 

Johnson, T. E 372 

Johnson, W. H 385 

Jolly, N.J 412 

Jones, J. A 341 


Kar;-, H. L ' 369 

Keen?.Ti, Thomas 37S 

KelicV, J. P 277 

Kelk-'v, I.W 253 

Ke'.ley, Josfiph 315 

Kerns, Adam 249 

Kerr, John 240 

Kerr, 'M.-.tthias 267 

Kiien, Theobald 439 

Knotts, Jedidiah 337 

Kyte, F. M 254 

Kyte, John 272 


Lambcrtson, P-. K 29S 

Lamson, M. K 431 

Land!^ A. C 410 

Landis, S. L 334 

Lane, J B 320 

Lanharn, E. A 312 

Lav.rence, Edward 415 

Law;, E. M 379 

Lavnn, Alexander 272 

Le:;ve!,R. J 29O 

Lent, James 399 

Lewi.. John 343 

Like^, Wi'.'.iam 270 

Linder, T. M Zf'i 

Lowe, W. S .-..303 

Luce, W. .S 4'.i 

Lyons, Ander^oii 425 


Manly, B. H 3^.2 

Manlv, Wiliiara 370 

Marquis, J. 1! 353 

Manii!i»,S. N 3=;S 

M..rquis,W. W 3i5 

Martin, M. T 247 

Martindale, J. H 360 

Mathews, W. T 326 

Maxwell, D. K 414 

Mnvtiirn, William 265 

McAuley, J. 396 

McCartney, P. H 3S.; 

McDor.oiiVli, fohri 233 

Mclntiie, C. C 3S4 

McKinney, Lemuel 245 

McKni^h't, Janies 36.1 . 

McXciC D. T ^t'l 

McNichols, Nathaniel 299 

Meany, Mich.aei 394 

Messenger, S, C 344 

Miller, "Frederick , 423 

Milier, Philip 293 

Moore, E. J 326 

Morris, Rev. J. A 2,S7 

Morris, J. S .202 

Morrow, W. E 20t 

Mowrey, Conrad 370 

Movers', K . R 367 

Mullen, II. M 291 

Mussehnan, John 407 

Miiss.-Imrn. S. G J'J'J 

Myers, L. P 364 

Myer, \V. L 29^ 


Neal, C. W 4=5 

Neist, Frederick 41: 

Newsome, John 307 


Oehlert, H.ins 244 

O'NeMl. T. B 235 

Otis, W. G 2,44 


Painter, J. C 39° 

Parker, S. M' 285 

Parrisii, W. O 239 

Perdue, C. C 3°6 

Perdue, Daniel 251 

Piper, John 3'-'J 

Pitt, R 289 

Porterficld, Nathaniel 4 :6 

Powell, St. Clair 333 

Proudfoot, Jacob 311 


Rankin, E. E. ... 
Rariek, A. C... 
Rarick, A. C. .. 

Read, J. H 

R.eam, Levi 

Regan, Jeremia': 
Reish, Sun.uel... 
Rice, James 

■ 377 

• -33^ 
..2.! 9 



Richards, ]. W 35S 

Ricluird<, \V. S 377 

Rickcr, K F 271 

R inner, Peter 341 

RHev, E. F 350 

Robins. B. M 431 

Robinson, Erastus 371 

Rodgr;rs, I. M 277 

Rogers, Siillon 269 

Ronk, A. I 294 

Rook,T. '1 362 

Ryan, H. H 26S 


Sanders, Abisha 323 

SchalT, Matthew 391 

Scott, A. L 409 

Sherer, F. M ..31^2 

yherer, lohn 2SS 

Sherman, J. W. & J. H 36S 

Shockling, Sebastian 373 

Smith, A . P 264 

Smith, C. B 299 

Smith, Rev. G. W 38S 

Smith, I. G 299 

Snider, J. G 2S0 

Spellerberg, Henrv 429 

Standish, W. A 407 

Stephenso!!, James 430 

Stevens, W. H 30-9 

Stifiler, J. W 2C3 

Stifiler, Wesley. 423 

Stivers. Henry 31; i 

Stonei-, H. A 3S2 

Strnwn, J. C 252 

Sw.m, J. O 258 

Switzer, J. F 333 

Switzer, J. T 336 

■ .• . • . A ■ 


TaUman, W. B . 2S6 

Taylor,.!. J 3^5 

Taylor, K. P 316 

Tedrow, J. L 279 

Teller, Tobias 3S4 

Thra-.her. V. F -,66 

Tillotson, G. N !}27 

Ti ol>oiigb, G. A 424 

Turner, G. \V 290 

Tui ner, Phineas 40S 

Ury, Charles 261 


Vaught, G. W 316 

Vinson, T. G 356 


Wade, J. A 432 

Wallace, J. M 33S 

Watson, W. C. 29^ 

Weakland. S. -\ 2S5 

Web-.ter, Dickinson 374 

Welch, Andrew 36S 

Wclls,J. B 339 

Whaling, Isaac 395 

Wharfl; William 400 

Wiant, Isaac 243 

Williams I- S 2S7 

Williams, W. W 406 

\V:llfair.son, E E 423 

Williamson, Kicliard 398 

WiUon, W. M 260 

Woodbury, J. A 281 

'Vv'oods, A. A 240 

Woodward, H. D 26.S 

Wyalt.S 234 


Young, J. S 319 

Young, W. i 409 


Zink, Lewis 403 


A^new, W. G 401 

Carter, Casper 3 j S 

Carter, Mrs. Casper •!49 

Folger, H.C 420 

Folger, Mrs. Ernily 421 

Hamilton. W. J 437 

Hood, J. W ^oi 

Howe, G. W 230 

Kvte, F. M 255 

K^te, Mrs. X. 1 256 

Kvle, )ohn 274 

Kyle. Mrs. M. J 275 

.McDonough, John 233 

Moore, E. J, 32S 

Muore. Mrs. E. J 329 

Webster, Dickinson 375 


Introductorv 4-^5 

Early and Civil History 419 

Political .453 

The Civil War 471 

The Press 4S7 

The Bar 490 

The Medical Profes.'^ion 494 

Educational 496 

Agricu'.:ura! ioo 

R.'.ilroad:-; 507 

Miscclianeous 5,09 

Osceola 51 s 

Villages 525 




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Gt:oh'nE (IMS I// XI '; ro.v. 







JLr- A...A 

-:•-'■■ -Qlr EORGE WASHING- 
; : ' ; !''J> TON, the " Father of 
• /'■■^- I his Country" and its 
.: "y': ;:; first President, 17S9- 
, ■■ '-^ '97, was bora Febru- 
"=r^.-- ■^\' a'T --. ^73-y i" Wash- 
V" "^ ington Parish, West- 
moreland C o u n ty, Virginia. 
His father, Augustine A\'ash- 
ington, first maiTied Jane But- 
ler, who brire him four chil- 
dren, and March 6. 1730, he 
married Mary Ball. Of six 
-S'2:S?"* children bv_^us second mai-- 
'~V riage, (ieorge was the eldest, 

the others -being Betty, Samuel, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the 
youngest died in infancy. Little is known 
of the early years of \Yashington, bc\-ond 
the fact that the house in which he \\as 
born was burned during his early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited from his paternal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford Countv, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron 
AVorks in the immediate vicinity, and dicil 
there in 1743. 

From earliest childhood George devel- 
oped a noble character. Me had a vigorous 
constitution, a line form, and great bodily 
Strength. His education \\'as somcv/hat de- 

fective, being confined to the elementary 
branches taught him by his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fondness for' mathematics, and en- 
joyed in tliat branch the instructions of a 
private teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount N^ernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealth}- William Fairfax, for some 
time president of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and 
^vere friends and correspondents of Admiral 
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probably through the influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his 
mother the project was abandoned. Th.e 
family- connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career for the -voung 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
jjointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who \v'as then 
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Green way Court, in the Shenandoah Valley. 

. .J- K.n:. ' 



Three _vears were passed by young' Wash- 
ington in a rough frontier life, gaining ex- 
perience which afterward proved very es- 
sential to him. 

In 1/5 1, when the \'irginia militia were 
put under training wiih a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep- 
tember of that year tKc failing health of 
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces- 
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
George accompanied him in a voyage to 
Barbadoes. They returned earl3- in 1752, 
and Lawrence shorti}- afterward died, leav- 
ing his large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was named one of tlie 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the death of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to that estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Diuwiddie as 

■ Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
the militia was reorganized, and the prov- 

, ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddle Adju- 
• tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of Uiat year a most 
important as well as hazaroous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian f)osts recently establisiicd on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed by ^'irginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one ofTicer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes, 
either hostile to the Englisii, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission wilh alacrity ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le Bceuf on French Creek, delivered 
his disjjatches and received rejily, wiiich.of 
course, was a polite refusal to f urrcnih-r the 
posts. This reply was of such a character > 


\ as to induce the Assembly of Viiginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regimeni 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory- claimed. As Washing- 

I ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Fr}-, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a party previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back by a considerable French force, 
which had completed the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. This was the beginning of the 
great " French and Indian war,'' which con- 
tinued seven j-ears. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief 

I of all the forces raised in the colony. 

! A cessation of all Indian hostility on the 

I frontier having followed the expulsion of 

I the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 

. signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a 3-oung 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only by his annual attendance in 
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 
It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question of local 

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self-government, whicli, after ten vcnrs, cul- 
minated by act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — if possible 
bv peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel Washington was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress th'^; following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the ne.xt 
Congress, May lO, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This office was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against wh*h point the British 
ministr}- had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed city. 
During the fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
come to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
York: "A reconciliation with Great Brit- 
ain is impossible When I took 

command of the army, I abhorred the idea 

of independence ; but I am now fully satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not the object of this sketch to trace 
the military acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United States were confided during the 
seven 3-ears' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treaty of 17S3, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of ^\''ashington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetenc}', and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took leave of his offi- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everj'where, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to ]SIoimt Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congress 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
any public attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom they regarded as the chief de- 
fender of their liberties, and everywhere 


.1 i •■' 

*:>; 13 ■ > - j^/c/-:s/nB.\TS OF rmc vxiTKn states. :♦>; 

he was hailed witli tliose public manifesta- 
tions of joy, regard and love whicli spring- 
spontaneously from the hearts of an affec- 
tionate and grateful peoj'le. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration tbtjk 
place April 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert W. 
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When 
this sacred pledge was given, he retired 
with the other officials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the newly con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
equal to the requirements of his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization into complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 
this legislation the nature and character of 
the new system came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it to be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department; it still 
remained "the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no change 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
with other emblems, under the great and 
expressive motto, ^' E Plunbus Untnii." 

The first division of parties arose ujx)n 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled "strict 
constructionists" and " lalitudinarinn con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action of the Government strictly- 

within its spccilic and limited sphere, while 
the others were for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet, 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect- 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties, 
which have existed, under dilTerent names, 
from that d.ny to this. Washington was re- 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
passed by the part}' headed by Hamilton, 
which was based upon a principle construct- 
ivel}- leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto power under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
; suance of Mr. Jefferson's viev.'s, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap- 
I portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the hew Con- 
I gress, Washington announced the gratify- 
I ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
! lina" to the Constitution of 17S7, and June 
I of the same )'ear he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
j Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
1 the happ)- event which " united imder the 
I general Government" all the States which 
I were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
! tion, ^Vashington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wisli of the 
I country, and was again chosen President 
^ by the unanimous vote of ever)- electoral 
' college. At the third election, 1796, he was 
■ again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, before 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
, memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
I After March 4, 1797, he again retired to 
1 Mount Vernon for peace, quiet and repose. 

.'(' I III 
.-Hi „• 



His administration forthc two terms had 
been successful bcvoiid the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of the country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
public credit was fully restored, life was 
given to ever)- department of industry, the 
workings of the new S3'stem in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not onl}- harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from $19,000,000 to over $56,000,- 
000 per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedingly encouraging, not only to the 
friends of liberty within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

01 the call again made on this illustrious 

chief to quit his repose at Mount \'ernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutcnant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
179S, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note the fact as an unmistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in wh.ich he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all shades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 

■.V>' -:",-■- /'^ 

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''"^|;^f;^/"OHN ADAMS, the second 
fe. "-isf^vV^pr '3: President of the United 

States, 1797 to 1801, was 
born in the present town 
of Ouincy, then a portion 
of Braiiitrce, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a worthy and 
industrious man. He was 
c^^ 1; 3, a deacon in the church, and 
^i'.'y® was very desirous of giving 
^|i£^i his son a collegiate educa- 
»g*;^i$ tion, hoping that he would 
^^f^ become a minister of the 

*^' 1 T-> 

gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a plav-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of sixteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755. ^t the age of twentv, highly esteemed 
for integrity, energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into the stormy world at a time 
of great political excitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for tiic mastery over 
the New World. The fire of patriotism 

I seized 3-oung Adains, and for a time he 
studied over the question whether he 

1 should take to the law, to politics or the 

i army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 

; future greatness of this country which have 

! since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught school and studied law, 

I wasting no odd moments, and at the early 
age of twenty-two years he opened a law 
office in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 

: his profession caused him to rise rapidly 

' in public esteem. 

I In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss --\bigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 

I man at ^Vevmouth and a Jad}- of rare per- 

I sonal and intellectual endowments, who 

' afterward contributed much to her hus- 

1 band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 

I America reached its climaw The Boston 
merchants employed an attorney by the 

' name of James Otis to argue the legality of 

' ojjpressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard the argument, and 
aftersvard wrote to a friend concerning the 

' ability displayed, as follows: "Otis was a 
llame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical alhision, a depth of research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 





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'7. «- 

prophetic glance into futuritv, he hurried 
away all before him. American indcpcv.dcuce 
7vns then and there born. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go away, as I did, ready to take up 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention. It M-as pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one of the 
very best productions ever seen from North 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, b)' more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore appointed Jeremy Grid- 
ley, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldlv 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violation 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 

Directly Mr. Adams was employed to 
•defend Ansel! Nickerson, who had killed an 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the Iving's service, and his 
client was acquitted, tlie court thus estab- 

lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment could 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Adams and Josiah 
Quinc}' defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
thev had been only obej-ing Governmental 
orders ; and when reproached for thus ap- 
parently deserting the cause of popular 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the woi^st of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected by too great labor, 
retired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 soon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston '■ Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that Great 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it was irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her S3-s- 
tem, and that ver}' determination deter- 
mines me on mine. You know that I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my country, is rsxy unalterable 
determination." The rumor beginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly. 
He advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Atiams, 
residing near Boston, kept her husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events tran<:piring 
in her vicinitv. The battle of Bunker Hili 

> >■ 




'>.>>;>;>>lcc»i>;>;A:*>.>;>.«..«; * ,■ 


came on. Coiiyress Imd to do somcthinjj 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for the — we 
can't say •' army " — the fighting men of tlic 
colonics. The New England delegation 
was almost unanimous in favor of appohit- 
ing General Ward, then at the head of the 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without oppo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the ro3-al 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the wa}-, a few weeks later, viz., 
June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British Government would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, " that these United States are, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then appointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up ihe bold document, but the 
latter persuaded jNIr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fiftv-five members present, 
and the ne.xt day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British vengeance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture bv the 
British, who knew of his mission, which 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French. Besides, to take him- 

self awav from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
ci"itical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing the 
sea, he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise a 
stormy and eventful one. During the 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but was 
immediately dispatched back to France, to 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
soon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successful as a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fuUy re- 
covered he was in London, whence he vvas 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermirted his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 1785 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor! Accordinglv he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three jxars, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and published 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled : 
" A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had prophesied, a 
carefully draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 1789, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to I^hiladelphia for ten years, until suitable 























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buildings should be erected nt the new- 
capital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
Adams then moved his family to Phila- 
delphia. Toward the close of his term of 
office the French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
sympathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams the first 
place by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
tics. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled through almost 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not truly a popular man, and his cha- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phila- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. The friendly 
intimac}' between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams finally made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefulh' accepted by 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private life, where he could rest 
his mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
Hy a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public duty a thorny one. For 
twenty-six years his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one im- 
portant sense he was as much the " Father 
of his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. During these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was laying. 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 

greatest nation th.e sun ever shone upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager support. The only privilege he 
carried witli him into his retirement was 
that of franking his letters. 

Although taking no active part in public 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Quincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them an}- sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even for this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a very able 
paper, exposing- the atrocity of the EJritish 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly ail his famil3'. 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained their strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of July, 1826, 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives — 
that of Adams and Jefferson — were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams lay upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, he had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so ; 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
last. ■ . ,. . 






'. il/. 


'1 y 7 

1 ; . 1 . 


20 phes/Sexts of the uxited states. 



^ ^>^i»>|H O M A S J E F F E R- 
son, the third Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i8oi-'9, was 
born April 2, 1743, 
rQ? the eldest child of 
his parents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
fei'son, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle County, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen )-ears of 
age, his father- died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She was a beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lad} , a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Church of England, 
and arc said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is knoNvn of them, however. 

Thomas was naturallv of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mary College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gaj- society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 


society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily pi-Oiicient in Latin and Greek 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the study of law, and 
pui"sucd it diligcntlv until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this lime he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of tlie fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that body. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
bv an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jeilerson met with a great 
loss; his house at Shadwcll was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, a? from 
his 5,oco acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In 1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accom.plished 








young widow, wlio owned 40,000 acres of ■ of Congress. Tiie signing of this document 
land and 130 skives: yet he laborer! assidii- i was one of the most solemn and inoinentous 
oiislv for the abolition of slavery. For his J occasions ever attended to by man. Praver 
new home he selected a majestic rise of j and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
land upon his large estate at Shadwell, ' and each signer realized that if Amei'ican 
called Monticello, whereon he erected a , independence was not finally sustained by 
mansion of modest )-et elegant architecture, j arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste ! After the colonies became independent 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 

At this period the British Government j in Congress in order to aid in organizing 
graduallv became more insolent and op- ! the government of Virginia, of which State 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foi'emost to resist its encroachments. From 

time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the year 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonics to defend 
themselves. His pamphlet entitled : " x\ 
Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," attracted much attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he alwa3-s made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hopes of reconciliation with the 
parent countr}'. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 

he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the British had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Tarleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his famil}', his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
carried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, ''to give them 
freedom, they would have done right." 

The year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Virginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against him 
throughout the State, severel}' criticising 
his course as Governor. Being verj^ sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
quick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from piublic life 
for the rest of his days. For weeks Mr. 

dence," and this responsible task was de- Jefferson sat lovingl}", but with a crushed 

volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 

Adams suggested a few verbal corrections which time unfeeling letters were sent to 

before it was submitted to Congress, which him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 

was June 28, 1776, only six days before it fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 

was adopted. During the three da\s of so much propcrt}' and at the same time 

the fiery ordeal of criticism through v.hich ' done so much for his countr}-! After her 

it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened death he actually fainted away, and re- 

not his lips. John Adams was the main mained so long insensible that it was feared 

champion of the Declaration on the floor , he never would recover! Several weeks 


(i; . /-(:-'< t ' 

A "t, , ,, 


passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 17S2 the [jcople of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remaik, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 17S4, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory. Hi$ slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out bj" the pro- 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybod}- or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister plenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactorily accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicitv 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
sympathizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
constitutional government as well as re- 

garding tlie issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Sccretar\- of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal pariv, 
while >fr. JetTerson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong moriarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finally adopted by the cabinet and approved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Prcsi- 
denc}- he desired Mr. Jefierson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washington parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at ^f onticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disquiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in anvthing public! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the promotion of the latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the forn:er was chosen 
President. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to have either office, 
he was "so weary" of party strife. He 
loved the retirement of liome more than 
any other place on the earth. 



.♦; .♦.■'>: 

But for iour long years liis ^'ice-Presi- 
dt-ncv passed jovlcsslv awav. wliilc the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever growing li()tter. The 
former party split and the result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. JctTerson to the Presidency! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing partv, their 
election was hailed everywhere with joy. 
On the other hand, many of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the " incarnation of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaughter ! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
: expressed in fuie language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicity. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
upon him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
days, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was alwa^-s polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in liis countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disposition. 

The political principles of the Jeflersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even b)- Wasliington. 
Under his administrati(jn, in 1S03, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000.. 
the " Louisiana Territory- " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocecm. 

The year 1S04 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highly accomplished 
and most beUucd daughter Maria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 

stricken parent as it wa^ jiossiblc for him to 
survive with anr degree of sanit\-. 

The same year he was re-elected to the 
Presidency, w ith George Clinton as \^ice- 
Pi"esident. During his second term our 
relations with Fngland became raore com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1S07, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jellcrson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
evident that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory' 
solution was reached, Mr. Jefferson's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello. his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washington at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
j)roperty, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his liome resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty-seven house servants were required ! 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs. 

Mr. Jefferson did much f(jr the establish- 
ment of the University at Cliarlottesville, 
making it unscctarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing v.hat he would. He even 
went so far as to petition the Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions bv lolter\', in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted : but before tlic plan V'.ms carried 
out, Mr. Jellcrson died, July 4, 1S26, at 
12:50 r. M. 

t J,-. ; ' ■ ' I. 

J ■ ■'■') "•• 

r/c/^s/v/iXTs or the uxited states. 


l^i^'-O'fl* "fe'A 'T- fa^j •■^- ^ •'\- tij '■•'(«? V 

CPiilO €C3 



^^^^■:|,'^'aMES MADISON, the 
"-^^i^f-f^'l": fourth President of the 
=^"^fj j^;*» United States, 1809-'! 7, 
.,,,,- was born at Port Con- 

J^f ;.»_., (»>-> '^ ^va}-, Prince George 
County, Virginia, March 
16, 1 75 1. His father. 
Colonel James Madison, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpelier," only 
twenty-five miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Moniiccllo. The closest 
personal and political at- 
tachment existed between 
these illustrious men from their early youth 
until death. 

James was the eldest of a family of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of whom attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at home, 
under a private tutor. Being naturally in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated hnn- 
self with unusual vigor to study. At a very 
early a^-e he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of whicli the illus- 
trious Dr. WeathcrspDon was then I'resi- 

acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Church of England was the estab- 
lished church in Virginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongly characterized b}- them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of his own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the spring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring the passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rights as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for "toleration" a more emphatic 


He graduated in 1771, ^\■ilh a ciiar- I assertion of religious liberty. 




^ttU^^ ^yC{ ec^^^ i<V. 

yA.^tES .\fAP/SOX. 

In 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virginia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but little part in the public debates. His 
main strength lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of the Council of 
State, and in March, 17S0, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper monev by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 

In 17S4 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church and State in Virginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his luminous and discriminating mind and 
of his extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closelv in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
ways the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
eminent station which he held in the great 
National Convention of 17S7 ; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 

new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and the fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henr^'. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumn}' has ever attempted to 
sully. Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdcrm of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 17S6, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed;, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then and there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal document than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist. 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, i7S9-'97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate opposition to Hamilton's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secretaryship of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican party, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote: "There is 
not another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my rai^id would be so completely at 


i >- >■ ;♦' ♦" V *" '-» '* '♦" !<► '*' *■ '♦' * ♦ '<■' *" * 


rest for the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be r> candi- 
date. ]1;n term in Coii;:;tc?s expired, 
and he returned frmn New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpeiier. 

In ijc)-\ Mr. Madis'in married a youna; 
widow of remarkable jiawers of fascination 


widow ol remarkable jiawers 01 lascuiauon . nei nubu.ui^ c'^'^v— — j 

— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- j ing his (MTicc for two terms, this re 

othcc durin- the eight years of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's administration. 

.-\s Mr. leffcrson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 


woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mi-. Madis(jn being entirely engrossed by 
the caies of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
belle of the season and was surrounded ' woman in allaying the bitterness of party 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. | rancor became a gre-.t and salutary power 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In I in the nation. 

thy Paine. She was bora in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawver and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 


" — ^- ~ -~ 

Washington she was the li!e of society 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 


During the Stormy administration of John 

Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 1798," adopted by the Virginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of liie '• report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed away ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed. Joim .\dams 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 

drew near its close, party strife was roused 

to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 

a death-grapple between the two great 

! parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 

■ Madison was chosen President by an elec- 

j toral vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 

' .March 4, 1S09, at a critical period, when 

the relations of the United States with Great 

' Britain were becoming embittered, and his 

1 tir-t leim was passed in diplomatic quarrels, 

I au'.;ravatcd by the act of non-intercourse of 

' M.i\-, iSio, and finally resulting in a decla- 

I ration of war. 

j On the iSth of June, 1812, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 

iieaition laws weie iL,|j>-ai^w, j - .----.-, .. ■ r- o ■ 

lost his re-election, and in kSdi Thomas Jef- \ Congress dcclarmg war agamst Great Brit- 
ferson was chosen President. Tlie great re- ! ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
action in public sentiment which seated ' ol the Pederal party to the war, the country 
I-fferson in the presidential cii;iir was l.irge- \ in general approved; and in the autumn 
ivowin- to the writings of Madison, who ■ Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
was coirsequently well entitled to the pou 1 by 12S electoral votes to S9 in favor of 
of Secretary of State. With great ability j George Clinton. ., „ - 

he discharged the duties of this responsible \ .March 4, 1817, Madison yielded the I resi- 

•y.lMfiS MAD/SOA'. 

dcncv to his Secretan- of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at Montpclier, whtrche 
r'assed the evening of his days surrounded 
bv attached friends and enjo3-ing tlic 
merited respect of tlie whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm to participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he alwa3's appeared self-possessed, and 
watched with unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansburv, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

"The next day, as there was a great call 
for It, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering my note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him so that 

his 63-6 fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was 3-oung, ignorant of the world, 
and unconscious of the solecism of v.'hich he 
was about to be guilt3'', when, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probablv' no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead of 
regarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the bo3''s face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank 3'ou, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediateh* in- 
serted it. I saw him the next daj', and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the 3'oung critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpclier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminenth' a statesman, of a well- 
balanced mind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
all3' sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literar3' st3de correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trustful, his integrit3' unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. B3' these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not onlv of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than an3' American statesman in the present 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen 3-ears, and died JUI3" 12, 1S49, in the 
eight3'-second year of her age. She was one 
of tiic most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringl3' remembered in Washington as 
" D0II3' Madison," and it is fitting that her 
mernor3- should descend to posterit3' in 
cornpan3' with thatof the companion of 
her life. 





j>u/^s/D.'i.v7s Or Tii:: ryinu) spates. 






/ ^^J^f ■'^'' AMES MONROE, the fifth 
K '^£i ( ■' =• President of the United 



tip ■^-' 

States, iSi7-'25, wasbom 
in Westmoreland Count}' 
jp- _^ , ^. Virginia, April 28, 1758. 

\^ ■ ^'^] ^^Jr He was a son of Spence 
I\Ionroc, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
ily. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enjoyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then aflord. He was 
early sent to a-fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies of England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himself, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandy wine, Ger- 
mantownand Monmouth. At Gcrmantown 

he stood b}' the side of Lafayette when the 
French Marquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 

Finding no opportunit}- to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the office of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governor of Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfect!}- honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 17S2 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficiency of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
by these views, he introduced a resolution 


v, „ „ . ,,. .„ .J. V. T 4- .« .V. .•«-„•!• .V. :«; ■*, ys .* :<•■ :«: * ■*, :#. :*' >' re*" ♦: '*' < <> *. ♦" '♦' '<; «•: :«' '-»' <»: '*; .*! •»: ■*" '*. Vl 

} . ■ I 




^u^^7-i^-^-y Z"^-^- 




that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost dutv 
of live per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the discussion which 
rose upon it led to tlie convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at Philadelphia, which, 
in 17S7, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this time there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the judges to decide the 
controversy-. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, he married Miss Kortright, 
a young lad}- distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For near!}- 
fifty )'ears this happy union remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affection by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability' of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was ver}- soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member of the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide upon the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deeply as he felt 
the imperfections of the old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 17S9 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents, and with 
honor to himself for four years. 

Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican partv. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
JetTerson and Madison. The great Repub- 
lican party became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutralit}- be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All the despotisms of Europe were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyranny a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremit}'. He vii> 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
verj- James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was directed by Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathv, communicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin dc Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that harmony might ever exist be- 

'■':r:r :;;j: 

.111 ' ;■ I' I 

»V >'>'>''♦'♦''♦">"♦"*" V'*'*V~ »VVVV'*" V V V V * V/-S *'•)? ¥5> ■# y ¥ 



twecn the two nations. The flags of the I there was no hope of any peaceful adjust- 
two republics were intertwined in the hall ment of our difhculties with the cabinet of 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented | St. James. War was consequently declared 
the American colors, and received those of j in June, 1S12. Immediately after the sack 
France in return. The course which he of Washington the Secretary of War re- 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- j signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
land and to the friends of Enirland in request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 

Ihis country that, near the close of Wash- 
ington's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he very ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, abilit}- and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent years he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneration for tlie character of George 

Shortly after his return to this countr)- 
Coloncl Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1S05, and was -Minister to 
England in 1S03. In 1S06 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and children and an ample competence 
from his paternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of domestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. Jefferson's second term of 
office expired, and man}- of the Republican 
party were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majority 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. 
He soon resigned that office to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, oflered him 

ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of England, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most def;lorable condition. 
The treasur}- was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And 3'ct it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of War, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled successful!}- to repel the in- 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacity of Secretary, both 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase the army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absolutely necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
wliich, at the same time, he knew would 

by President Madison. The correspond- j render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
ence which he then canitd on with the j the possibility of his being a successful can- 
British Government demonstrated that \ didate for the Presidency. 


ill, (■. 


,1, '■; 


it- 7 AMES .^fO.VROE. 37 


The happy result of the conference at j 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- | 
crease of the army unnecessary; but it is not ' 
too much to say that James -Monroe i)laced ' 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the ' 
weapon with whicli to beat off tlie foe at j 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace , 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of i 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties j 
of Secretary of State. These he continued | 
to discharge until the close of President ; 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
I\Iarch, 1S17, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1821 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out of 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such formidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous "Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1S23 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 

October 24, Mr. JetTerson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs of nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regarded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

INIarch 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his country had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
i feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
[ public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
' where he died on the 4th of July, 1S31. 
■ The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
, tlian had ever been witnessed there before. 
I Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
! ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
\ name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
j in^ him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
j presidential chair. 

'J I'd i,. 

K • " - ~ -. - -^ * — - 


,^^ ^^'^'''d-^ ^ ^ ^ ^ .^ _ 

> 1 !fvy '*, 



the sixth President of the 
United States, iS25-'9, 
was born in the rural 
home of his honored 
father, John Adams, in 
Q u i n c 3- , Massachusetts, 
July 1 1, 1767. Hismothcr, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. He 
commenced his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 

When eleven years of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The intelligence of John 
Quinr;y attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Adams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quiucy again acccjm- 
panied him. On this voyage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death. He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to study; then acc(jmpanied 

his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
University of Leyden. In 17S1, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and tlicn returned alone to I^Iolland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 17S2 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
1785, when he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. James. In 1786 he entered the jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion, 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished — an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1 790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first year he had 


-* * 



J, ^ . Jday^^ 



no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed awav, still !io clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. Anxiously he awaileti the 
third year. Tlic reward now came. Cli- 
ents began lo enter his ofCice, and bclorc 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 

some articles, urging entire neutrality on ; land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
thepartof the United States. The view | ing our flag. There was no man in America 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as | more familiar with the arrogance of the 
France had helped us, we were bound to ^ British court upon these points, and no 
help France. But President Washington i one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
comcided with Mr. Adams, and issued his ance. This course, so trulv patriotic, and 

In July, 1799, having fullilled all the pur- 
poses of his mi.ssion, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1S02 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March 4, 1S04. I lis reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 

proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so high a reputation, that in June, 

1794, he was appointed by Washington ! jected him to censu 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In I 
July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
ington at this time wrote to his father, John 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 

which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 

In 1S05 Mr. Adams was chosen pi-ofessor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In 1809 'le was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioners 
that negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 1814, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 1815. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. r^Ionroc's cabinet 

no doubt in my mind that he will prove the \ in which position he remained eitdit years, 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." { Few will now contradict the asse'rtion that 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival , the duties of that office were never more 
m London, he met with dispatches direct- | ably discharged. Probablv the most im- 
mg him to the court of Berlin, but request- | portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ing him to remain in London until he should ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
receive instructions. While waiting he : Spain for $5,000,000. 

was married to Miss Louisa Catherine John- j The campaign of 1S24 was an exciting 
son, to whom he had been previously en- one. Four candidates were in the field', 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
-Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul Andrew Jackson received ninetv-nine; John 

in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accornplislimeiits 
which fitted her to move in the elevated 
sphere for which she was destined. 

Qiiincy Adams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Clay, 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice by 
the people, the question went to the Hniue 





p/!/;s/J)r;.v7S OF the uxited states. 

of Representatives. Mr. Clav i^ave tlic 
vc'te of Kentucky to Mr. A<ianis, and lie 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. Tlicrc is iiotliini;' more dis- 
i^racefid in the jiast history of our country 
than the abuse \vhich was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this hiuh- 

brini,' in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I hope God iviH forgive vie, for I shall 
never forgive myself." 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidenc-\' a.nd was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 

minded, upright, patriotic man. There was question now began to assume pretentious 
never an administration more pure in prin- magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 

ciples, more conscientiously devoted to the 
best interests of tiie country, than that of 
John Ouincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulously assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but onl}' to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from of- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faith- 
ful ofificer that was enougii. Bitter must 
have been his tlisajipointment to find that the 
Nation could not a]:)preciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in his public manners, was 
cold and; though with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriousl}' de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial record of his administra- 

Quincy, and pursued liis studies with una- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1S30, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterda}- to act as 
Corporal to-dav, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Ouincv Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretar}' of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Represent n- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and which can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen years, until his death, lie 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 

tion without admitting that a more noble ! title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 

example of uncompromising dignit-\- can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that JSIr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels \v'hich stan/i at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of tlic active par- 
.ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Some years after, 
Warren R. Uavis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of Representatives, said: 

" \\'ell do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached the admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 

taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he should hold himself bound to no 
party. He was usually the first in his 
place in the morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escajjc his scrutiny. The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery partv in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting petitions lor 
the abolition of slaveiv, he was threatened 
with indictment bv the Grand Jury, with 
expulsion from the HouL.e, with assassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate him. 

and vehemence with which we labored to i and his final triumph was complete. 

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On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, sii^ned by several women, aijainst 
tlie annexation of Texas for the purpose of 
cutting- it np into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not onh* themselves, but their 
section of the country, b}' turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are v.-onion," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no 0])inions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare ? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history, — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eye or ear? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
tr}^? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
witli thy shield, or upon thy shield ? ' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 

Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics? " 

In this glowing strain Mr. .Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842. Mr. Adams fuesenled 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfuU}- worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showin.g the reason why 
the prayer ought not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of Januar}-. The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and of 

panions, v.-ho swam across the river unc^er meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 

a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
theCrracchi? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato ? 

" To come to later pcricjds, what says the 
histor}- of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? 
To say nothing of Boadicea. the British 
heroine in the time of the Ca:sars, what 

punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
w(juld substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall hurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pro-slav- 
ery part}- against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 

name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 1 every eye being fi.xed upon him, that bold 
beth ? Or, if he will go to the continent, ' old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
will he nr)t find the namesof Maria Theresa | ened b)- sevent3--five years, casting a wither- 
of Hungarv, of tlie two Catherines of ' ing glance in the direction of his assailants. 



in a clear, slirill tone, trc-niulous witli sun- 
pressed cmoti(/n, s.iid: 

" In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
charge of high treason. I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragra])h of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it I Read it I and 
see wiiat that savs of tlie rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and tii dissolve tiieir 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, with flash- 
ing eye and flushed check, and whose ver\' 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as the}- were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 

foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upcMi the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again!" It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense \\\ terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rail}-. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken by paralysis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
ments are instituted among men, deriving j to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
their just powers from the consent of the consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
governed; and that whenever any form of calml}' around and said, " This is the end of 
government becomes destructive of those earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or i added, " I am content." These were his last 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 1 words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
laying its foundations on such principles 1 apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
and organizing its powers in such form 1 — the theater of his labors and his triumphs, 
as shall seem most likely to effect their ' In the language of hymnology, he " died at 
safety and happiness." ! his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 

That one sentence routed and baffled the live." 


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A.vDh'E ir y.i ch'sox. 


7^^ 'Andrew jackson, 

I ^ the seventh President 
'' of the United States, 
iS2Ch-'37, was born at 
the Waxhaw Settle, 
ment, Union Coun- 
% 'if^ ty, North Carolina, 
Much i6, 1767. His parents 
\\cic Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Canickfergus, who came to 
\meiica in 1765, and settled 
on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utaM of the Catawba. His 
fither, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his m.other removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tall, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous to the younger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 

1 V? 

he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 17S0, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 

vA on 





soon entered a sadillcr's shop, and labored traversed the almost pathless forest between 

diligently for six months. But gradually, 
as health rctnrned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy. He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He coidd 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as lie was a ver)- bold bo)-, 
it is possible he miglit have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to stud)' 
law. With a ver}' slender purse, and on 
the back of a very fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law ofHce of Mr. McCa}'. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbur}', which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow that ever lived in Salisbury. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twent}-, 
a tall j'oung man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkab!}' grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimity. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it: was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and w hen not. 

In 17S6 he was admitted to the bar, and 

Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constantly on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldly, alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. . . 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington; United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Vii'ginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remedy the irregularity as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. Flowevcr rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
alwavs gentle and tender at liome; and 

*• two years later removed to Nashville, \ through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 

■J; in what was then the western district of ; treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 

^; North Carolina, with the appointment of so- i ric attention. 

*t licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 1 Under the circumstances it was not un- 

;Jj fice of little honor, small cnKjlunicnt and 1 natuial that the facts in the case of. this 

ti great peril. Few men could be found to ! marriage were so misrepresented by oppo- 

t; accept it. | nents in the political campaigns a quarter 

♦; And now Andrew Jackson commenced | or a century later as to become the basis 

>i vigorously to practice law. It was an im- of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 

♦; portant part of his business to collect debts, i ity wliich, however, have been satisfactorily 

♦; It required nerve. During the lirst seven ; attested by abundant evidence. 

.♦: years of his residence in those wilds he : Jackson was untiring in his duties as 


:< >: 













United States Attorney, which denmndcd 
frequent journe\s through the wild^'mess 
and exposed hiin to Indian hostilities. He 
acquired considerable property in land, and 
obtained such influence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 

"A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat, General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress -and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrar}- to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator by the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
S600. This office he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generallv right. He 

did not enjoy his scat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1S04. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it. the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could_ be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1S04 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and " affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a tim.e this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If hesubsequentlv felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to anyone. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war W'ith Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celebrated 



combinntiuns whicli led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a pnblic ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Early in 1S07, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President JeiTerson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
it)' did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probabl}- because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in Januar\", 181 3, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took the field, in the Creek 
war, and in conjunction with his former 
partner. Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In Ma}', 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a jNIajor-Generalof the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Pensacola, November 6, and immediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
the famous victory of January 8, 181 5, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In iSi7-'i8 Jackson conducted the war 

against the Scminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Pensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated b}' the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Ouincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largest popu- 
lar vote ainong the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite part}' — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturally be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; by the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, cstablisiiing a 
protective tariff. 

In the Presidential campaign of 1S32 


. i ' 1 1 

-.11 ., 



Axn/^Eir y-ACASox. 

Jackson received 219 out of 2S8 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson i'cmovcd the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, which was, however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office the Chcrokees, Choctawsand 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and ^fissis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained consideiable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pccimiary 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were introduced into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant clement of national life before the 
close of his second term. For man)- rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in eSecting the election of 

his friend Van Brircu as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidenc_v March 4, 1S37, 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June S, 
i i'?45- ... 

} Dui'ing his closing .\-ears he was a pro- 
j fessed Christian and a member ot the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
j century has been the subject of such oppo- 
I site judgments. He was loved and hated 
■ with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
' career, while opinions still vary as to the 
I merits of his public acts, few of his countr}-- 
men will question that he was a warm- 
I hearted, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page pf American his- 
tory — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. Tfie 
majority of his countr3"men accepted and 
honored him, in spite of all that calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, with the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state of 
society which has nearly- passed away. 


* * 

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ru£S/nE.v'JS or the v sited states. 

^^ .^fQAi^miN Uan Bai^BN^j|g|g5» 




fel^i^YT^m' ARTIN VAN BU- 

^C^^lt'-' '-■ (\ t P^ •i"C^ President of the 
"%'lV JV'^-'/'^f " United States, 1837- 
. ^>'; '■ I4 ' M^' '41 > ^vas born at Kin- 
>;>'.':^^:k: dcrhook.iScw \ ork, 
December 5, 17S2. 
His ancestors were of Dutch 
oric^in, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
tavern-keeper, as well as a 
farmer, and a very decided 
^ Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twenty. In 1S03 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully established, that "to the 
victor belong 'the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to which Mr. Van Buren gave his ad- 

herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : "I prefer an otSce 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am I certain of 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probability, he expected something 

In 1S12 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 1815 he was appointed 
Atiornev-General,andin T8i6tothe Senate 
a second time. In 1S18 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren took the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
ihe Albany Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1S21 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, should 
have freehold property to the amount of 
§350. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1S27, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following year, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1S29, he was appointed Secretary of 

V l*' ■ 



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■•: *.♦. 

♦ ♦: 



State by President Jackson, but resigned 
in April, 183 1, and durinij the recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he proceeded in September, 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratif}- the appointment. 

In May, 1S32, Mr. Van Burcn was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1S36, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scared}- had he taken his seat in the 
Preaidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to tlie war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearl}' every bank in the countrj- was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded ail our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works weie brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of disma}-. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but finally became a law near 
the close of his administration. 

Another importan measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in the purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech by Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House of Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhett, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it expedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should' be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 

In the Presidential election of 1S40 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majorit}-, however, was not 
large, the elections in man}- of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon the politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 184S Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, iipon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Frec-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kindcrhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1S62, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors of Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 

I ,: . '. .1. -i; 




it/ >v o 



^ HARRISON, the 






ninth President of 
the United States, 
I 84 I, was born 
February 9, 1773, 
in Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father. Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering tiic med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to l-!iladelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
of the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our North- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, cither 
lured by the love of adventure, or moved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon piomoted to the 

rank of Lieutenant, and joined the army 
which Washington had placed inider the 
command of General Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
ci)mmendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and vi-as promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincinnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the ISLaumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Tcrritor}-. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much, of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory w:is then entitled 
to one delegate in Congress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1800 he was appointed Governor 



.■,-;■ 1 
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- V: 








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-^ .■•.:; -f-v- -' 

,-_~.J. ' 



^ A^ /9(x^i^ 

n-jLL/AM j//:\/n y/.hwwso.y. 

ol Indiana Tt-rritorv r.nd soon after of 
Upper Louisiann. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did lie 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississippi. 

In 1812 he was made Major-Gencral of 
Kentuck}' militia and Brigadier-General 
in the arm}', with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 1S13 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813. In 
1S14 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian afiairs by the Government. 

In 1816 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1819 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled by General Jackson 
immediately after the inauguration of the 
latter. I 

Upon his return to the United States, ' 
General Harrison retired to his farm at ' 

North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve year.s he was clerk of the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
tlic sunounding population, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 

In 1S36 General Harrison was brought 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opfiosite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without any general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and ^Ir. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefl}- for the 
then e.xtraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes. Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider " were effectually used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a popular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized b}- a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death wasuniversall}- 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce witii love and reverence the 
name of William Henry Harrison. 

;:!,)■.', )|-: 

► ■♦*+■♦■■♦'>':♦">"*'♦■■«•' v^ >>>" V'*' vv- *•«♦■>-■*•>"«."♦"♦■ >" 




.^; ;^'^OHN TYLER, the tenth 
/y--:.. President of the United 

States, was born in 
Charles Cit)- County, 
Virginia, March 29, 1790. 
His father, Judge John 
Tyler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his 
da}', filling the offices of 
' Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of th- State. 
^ At the ^arly age of twelve 
young John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a scat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over 

State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tyler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
scat joined the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects of inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nuUifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party. Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostilit}- to Jackson caused Mr. 

Tyler's retirement from the Senate, after 

his election to a second term. He soon 

j after removed to Williamsburg for the 

i better education of his children, and again 

I took liis Scat in the Legislature. 

mi ' 



J'. ^ ;f "7c.'- 



In 1S39 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Clay. 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for ^'icc-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1S41. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
.ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Secretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and the}' 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off all political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majoritv in the House ; the 
Whigs in tlie Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessar)- to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 12, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
through Mr. Calhoun, a treat)' for the an- 

nexation ol Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing davs of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March 1 


He was nominated for the Presidency by 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of human nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in the wisest 
manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue any course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denunciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 26, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New- 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
"peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1S62, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memoiy the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that history records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 

_} la 





-*> ^1- r\..;._c> -i- 





JAMES 31, FOIK,^ Mi^ 




•i^' •^^^^_ -I -^ -^^ E S KNOX POLK, 
'^'■';^,iif::{^'^ the eleventh President of 
F'"^ " -\=.M': f?S5» the United Stales, 1S45- 
'49, was born in Meck- 
lenburg Countv, North 
Carolina, November 2, 
1795. He \vas the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daiightei's, and was 
a grand-nephew f»f Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
depci dence. 

In 1S06 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with iiis fam- 
il3' two or three hundred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common scliools James rapidlv be- 
came proficient in all theconuDon branches 
of an English education. In 181 j he was 
sent to Murfrcesboro Academy, and in tlie 
autumn of 1815 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in iS]8. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law otTice of Felix 
Grundy. As soon as he had liis linished 

legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maury Comity, and opened an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of his father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1S23 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a " strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gei^ 
eral Government to carr}' on a system of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it important that it should have 
that p)Ower, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub- 
sequently, however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Government become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slavery. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen the State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1S24, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mary Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of the United Slates, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Cont^TCss, and was continu- 



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oiislv re-clcctcil until 1S39. He thou with- State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
drew, onl^- tiiat he might accept the I traveling in the most friendly manner to- 

gubernatorial ciiair of his native State. 
lie was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Qiiincy -Vdams. Tiiis 
latter gentleman had just taken his seat in 
the Presidential chair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united liimself with the 

gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3,000 maioritv. 

And no\\- the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our country agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 

opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon ; of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 

regarded as the leader of the Jackson part}- 
ill the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 

party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 

tration passed away, and General Jackson augurated March 4, 1S45 
took tne Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, ana was chairman of its most 
important committee — that of Ways and 
]Means. Eloquenth- he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's admiiiistration passed away, and the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which those 
distinguished mer upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr.- 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William L. Marcy, George Ban- 
croft, Cave Johnson and John Y. Mason. 
The Oregon boundar}- question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff of 1846 was can-ied, the 
financial system of the Governmcut was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
equal, to four times the empire of France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1849, when he was succeeded by General 
Zachary Tayl(jr. He retired to Nashville, 

in 1S41, but was defeated. In the mean- | and died there June 19, 1849, in the fifty- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept | fourth year of his age. His funeral was at- 
over the country. W. H. Harrison,the Whig tended the following day, in Nashville, with 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden-,, every dernon.stration of respect. Pie left 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whi<r ticket no children. Without being possessed of 

had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 

extraordinary talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
cess was hopeless. Still he canvassed the \ proachable in private life. 

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LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
i849-'5o, was born 
in Orange County, 
Virginia, Septeni- 
1784. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionary war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 1785 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an' influentia] cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville under 
President Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until iSoS, in which year (May 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in tiie 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment at New Orleans, he 

was attacked with yellow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 1810, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 181 2 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brevetted Major, 
and in 1S14 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Taylor 
was actively employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 1S15 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, 1816, howe%'er, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1S19, and in 1S32 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of -which he had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1821. On different 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of i!ic Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agent over large tracts of Western 


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country. He served t!irou:j:h the IJlack 
Hawk war ill 1832, and in 1S37 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1S46 he was transferred to the com- 
mand ol the Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
had been built under his direction in 1S22. 

May 28, 1 84:5, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information b)' the President 
"that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend and protect her 
from "foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Chnsti, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was bre vetted 2\Iajor-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1S46, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinforcement, he advanced 
in September on INIontere}-, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by- 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scutt in 
command, was n(jw determined upori by 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the army of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequentl}' 
reinforced b)' raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victorv. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy for a long 
time, Santa Anna directed his entire army 

against Tavlor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Buena \'ista was fought February 22 and 
23, 1S47. Taylor received the thanks of 
Congress and a gold medal, and '" Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobiiquet given 
him in the arm}-, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande ^'alley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia,June 7, 1S48, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate of 
the Whig party for President, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, and a popular vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 for Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1S49. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
in number, tlie struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the summer of 1S49 
California adopted in convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Ta3dor advocated the immediate admission 
of California witli her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven- 
tions and decide for tiiemselves whether 
slavery should e.xist within their borders. 
This policy ultimatel}* prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henr}" Clay; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenl}- ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1S50. One of his daughters 
married Colonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Chief of StafT in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary during 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefierson Davis. 

^ '^ '^ '*' * *^'A' '*: ^' '^ 'A' 4.' A' *' A '^y<^' '^^^-^/fi'l^j <^ !^^S\J». ' 


rTmniiTrrrr^c/ ^^ O 

jM^-|i'--9& ^^ORE, the thir- 
«^Lri ;^ ti '.r y;^^ teenlh President 
iCi^ |r:vW of the United 



of the United 
Stales, iS5o-'3, was 
biijii in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
County, New York, Janu- 
aiy 7, iSoo. He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
his educational advantages 
were limited. He early 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent all his leisure time 
in study. At nineteen 3'ears 
^' of age he was induced by 
Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence the study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he took him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened witli debt, yoimg Fillmore taught 
school during the winter months and in 
various other ways helped iiini^elf along. 
At the age of twenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common l^lca>, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village of Aurora, situated on the 

eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he man'ied Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1S25 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie County, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his s)-ra- 
pathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, abilit)- and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1S32 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years miorc he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Weary with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private affairs, 
.Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate for re- 
election. Notwithstanding this communi- 

^'C<y.i^C? <y ^^ii^ 1,1 .c^cn/J 



calion his friends met in convention and 
renominated him b_v acclamation. Though 
gratified by tliis proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adiiered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1S47 ^J'"- Fillmore was elected to t'r.e 
important oiTice of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this 3'ear, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the raH3-ing cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1S49, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slaver}' had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1850, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, A''ice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of oiTice 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States 
was bound to do its utmost to capture him 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the iniluence of his 
exalted station against the atrocious enter- 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 

contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
tiiing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that section 
felt the inadcquency of all measures of tran- 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon piass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1S53, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long ,tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
by the "Know-Nothing" party. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that his sympathy was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 

F * • J « i5— ''''''^*^' ■''''*~*-^'* ''*'*''*"'*'^^^ 


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5|-; ,';" '• !,p the fourteenth Presi- 
<:yi, ■ \ :"' '51^-- dent of the United 
^'(1 .-■■ t,l_ Stales, was born in 

y' > :-■-"'.';■; Millsborough, New- 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
father, Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man (A 
rigid integrity; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin wris the sixth of eiglit children. 
As a boy he listened eagerl}- to tlie argu- 
ments of his father, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1S20 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1S24, 
and commenced the stud)- of law in the 
office of Judge Woodburv, a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1S27 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 

in the State Legislature four 3-ears, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House b}' a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1S34 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
ever}- station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office, President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic partv. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
intiD the army. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport. Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1S47. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
braverv, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiasticall}- received by 

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the advocates i)f the war, and coldly by its 
Opponents. He resumed the practice of his 
profession, frequently taking an active part 
in political questions, and giving his sup- 
port to the pro-slavcrv wing of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

June 12, 185:", the Democratic convention 
met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency-. For four da3-s they 
continued in session, and in thirt3--tive bal- 
lotings no one had received the requisite 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote had been 
thrown thus far for General Pierce. Then 
the Virginia delegation brouglit forward 
his name. There were fourteen more bal- 
lotings, during which General Pierce 
gained strength, until, at the fort3--ninth 
ballot, he received 2S3 votes, and all other 
candidates eleven. General Winfield Scott 
was the Whig candidate. General Pierce 
was elected with great unanimit}-. Onh' 
four States — Vermont, jNIassachusetts, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee — cast their electoral 
votes against him. March 4, 1S53, he was 
inaugurated President of the United States, 
and William R. King, Vice-President. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted of 
William S. Marcy, James Guthrie, Jefferson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, Robert McClel- 
land, James Campbell and Caleb Cushing. 

At the demand of slavery the Missouri 
Compromise was repealed, and all the Ter- 
ritories of the Union were thrown open to 
slaver}-. The Territory of Kansas, west of 
Missouri, was settled by emigrants mainly 
from the North. According to law, they 
were about to meet and decide whether 
slaver)- or freedom should be the law of 
that realm. Slavery in Missouri and 
other Southern States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them into Kansas, took 
possession of the polls, dro\-e awav the 
citizens, deposited their own votes by 
handfuls, went through the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was estab- 

lished in Kansas. These facts nobody 
denied, and yet President Pierce's adminis- 
tration felt bound to respect the decision 
obtained b\- sucii votes. The citizens of 
Kansas, the majoritv of whont were free- 
State men, met in convention and adopted 
the following resolve : 

'^Resolved, That the body of men who, 
for the past two months, have been passing 
laws for the people of owr Territory, 
moved, counseled and dictated to b}- the 
demagogues of other States, are to us a 
foreign body, representing only the lawless 
invaders who elected them, and not the 
people of this Territory ; that we repudiate 
their action as the monstrous consummation 
of an act of violence, usurpation and fraud 
unparalleled in the history of the Union." 

The free-State people of Kansas also sent 
a petition to the General Government, im- 
ploring its protection. Ii; reply the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation, declaring that 
Legislature thus created must be recog- 
nized as the legitimate Legislature of Kan- 
sas, and that its laws were binding upon 
the people, and that, if necessary-, the whole 
force of the Governmental arm would be 
put forth to inforce those laws. 

James Buchanan succeeded him in the 
Presidency, and, March 4, 1S57, President 
Pierce retired to his home in Concord, 
New Hampshire. When the Rebellion 
burst forth Mr. Pierce remained steadfast 
to the principles he had always cherished, 
and gave his svmpathies to the pro-slavery 
party, with which he had ever been allied. 
He declined to do anything, either by 
voice or pen, to strengthen the hands of 
the National Government. He resided in 
Concord until his death, which occurred in 
October, 1869. He was one of the most 
genial and social of men, generous to 
a fault, and contributed liberally of his 
moderate means for the alleviation of suf- 
fering and want. He was an honored 
communicant of tlie Episcopal church. 

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graceful- and in vigorous health, fond of 
athletic sfiorts, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediately commenced the 
County, Pennsylvania, j study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
April 23, 1791. The j was admitted to the bar in 1S12. He rose 


fifteentii President of the 

United States, 1857-6!, 

was born in Franklin 

place where his father's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
"*" 1783, with very little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

Janics remained in his secluded home for 

very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but twenty-six 
years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment. At 
the age of thirty it was generally admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 
In 1S12, just after Mr. Buchanan had 

eight years enjoying very few social or 1 entered upon the practice of the law, our 

second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloquently urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlis'ing as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 

intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industricjus, frugal, prosjjerous and intelli- 
gent. In 179J his fatlicr removed to Mcr- 
ccrsburg, where James was placed in 
school aiK.l commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in iSoi lie entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 

able to master the most abstruse subjects Jefferson truly said, " We are all Fedcral- 
with facility. In 1S09 he graduated with I ists; we are all Republicans." 
the highest honors in his class. j The opposition of the Federalists to the 

He was tlien eighteen years of age, tall, i war with England, and the alien and sedi- 

fr''-'^m^ . 

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-rZ-T/i^^ c2y^?^_z>:^^£^yi^.e^^^7^ 

jA.v/:s BrcN.iXA.v. 


tion laws of Joliii Adams, brouglitti'.e jiarty rights, bieaking from the Union, thus 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist , crumbling our llepublic into ruins; while 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost ■ the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
immediately upon entering Congress began , despair, dcclarir.g that the National Consti- 

to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1S24, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Quiticy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused llie cause of Gen- 
eral JacksLMi and unrelentingly opposed tlie 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidenc}-, 
Genera! Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister t<j Russia. Upon his return in 1S33 
he was elected to a scat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Cla_v, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed b\' Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Cla)-. In the discussion 
of the question respecting the admission of 
Michigan and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position b}' sa3-ing: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 

M. de Tocquevillc, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in America," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignt}- as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. Me was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength v.'hich was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 

tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dency, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

jNIr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidenc}'. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A.V.Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic part}', 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed b}- the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, i860, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage oi a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined b}- the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 

werc assuming powers which threatened ' ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 

the perpetuity of the Union. Mr. Buchanan nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 

rcxcived the book in the Senate and de- \ Mr. Buchanan remained in AVashington 

clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be , long enough to see his successor installed 

groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the ' and then retired to his home in Wheatland. 

I'rcsidential chair and see State after State, i He died June i, 1S68, aged seventy-seven 

in accordance with his own views of State ] years. 



_Fl5_»J._e?» ^. t^ - b_^ -til 


-'- iji "■""iaSrvi^;'20is; -I- ""p -1- V -1- tis -I- v-'-iri'S 

^.v-;-^W^'^BRAHAM LIN- 
■-;]»/u~- COLN, the sixteenth 

President of the 
United States, i86i-'5, 
was born February 
s.- -^ 12, 1809, in Lariic 
'^^ (then Hardin) County, 
Kentucky, in a cabin on Nolan 
'%tnJ'S. Creek, three miles west of 
-*:l;t^' Hudgensville. His parents 
were Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
given in his own language : " My 
parents were both born in Virginia, of un- 
distinguished families — second families, per- 
haps I should say. My mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon County, 
Illinois. My paterna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were 
Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to iden- 

tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, So.omon, Abraham and the like. 
My father, at the death of his, \vas 
but six 3'ears of age, and he grew i:p, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals stili in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever required of a 
teacher beyond ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, hapjiencd to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. 1 have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
necessity. I was raised to farm-work, v.-hich 

:♦ + 




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An h' A HAM Z/\COLX. 


I continued till I was twenty-two. At 
twentj'-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to Xew Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

"Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than any 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1832) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress ; was not a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 to 1854, 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gcntryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 1818, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to stud}'. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer ; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gcntryville ; and became famous 
throughout that region for his athletic 

powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1S2S he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
"bow-hand" on a flatboat; removed to 
Illinois in 1S30; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for a 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 185 1 he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a flatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat "stuck" on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans v^'as 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this vo3'age he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk v\'ar, and 
became known as an effective "stumj)- 
spcaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1S32J a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1S34 as a 

oi<-:o ■■ ■' ' . h- 

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, 1 iTi-.r 

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/■/.'/•AV/J/; \ 75 OF THE UXITLD STATES. 

" Hcnr\- Cla\- Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springheld, where 
the State capital was located in 1S39, 
largely through his influence; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts ; married in 1842 a lad}- be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentuck}-; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1S44 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clay tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in the District of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso ; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several years there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an culog}' on Henry 
Clay (1S52) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from^his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then popu- 
larly designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springfield in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his polic}' in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strength with 

Douglas in tlie Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springlicld Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordinglv 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1S55, 
and led to several ballots; but Trumbull 
was ultimatel}- chosen. 

The second conllict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1S56, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slaver^' in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June 17, after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Yice-Presidenc\-, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L. 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1S58 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the L'nited States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself" on the 
slaver}' question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. Tiie great debate car- 
ried on at all the principal towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter ; but being widely cir- 
culated as a campaign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 

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former, as tlic clearest a;id most convinc- 
ing^ exponent of Ref)ublican doctrine. 

Early in 1S59 he began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, 1S60, followed by similar speeches 
at New liavcn, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. B3' the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimous!}' endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty j-ears before, were brought into tlie 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidenc}-, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slaverj- platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the " American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
publican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
rality, comprehending nearl}- all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate result, followed 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly 
escaping assassination by avoiding Balti- 


more on his way to the capital, he reached 
AVashington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1S61. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. ' Perpetuity is implied if not ex- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my abilit}- 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-country- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. You 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the fii st 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19: called an extra 









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session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400.000 men and 
$400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of ^Var, Jan- 
uary 14, 1S62, and September 22, 1S62, 
issued a proclaination declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January i, 1S63. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act b)- which 
he will be chiefly known through all future 
time — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1S63, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemeterj-, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1S64; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the army before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lee's army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the^ evening of Good Fri- 
day, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre, Washington, byJohnWilkes 
Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired early 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneously a murderous attack 
was made upon William IL Seward, Secre- 
tar}- of State. 

At noon on the 15th of April Andrew 

Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President I^incoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnity and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
held in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springfield to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration "that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederacy expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing the death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Lincoln 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best type of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 




^ i' 

V ' 


-' ^ 


















■ ' -'c!»)~~^ ^'^^ seventeenth Presi- 
dent of the United 
States, i865-'9, was 
born at Raleigh, 



■^'iJ -■>'*:'--' rV^ born at Kaleigt 
^;;}/:-i::^;^1^5^^ North Carolina, D 
'"^'■"W^O^p-^ cember 29, 1808. 
His father died when 
he was four years old, and in 
his eleventh 3-ear he was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor. He nev- 
er attended school, and did 
^; .^^ not learn to read until late in 
"^^P^ his apprenticeship, when he 
"^i^ii suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaining knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

After working two years as a journey- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, he removed, in 1S26, to Green- 
ville, Tennessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made rapid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as to be 
elected as '■ workingmen's candidate " al- 
derman, in 1S28, and ma3-or in 1S30, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cultivated his tal- 
ents as a public speaker bv taking part in a 

debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1839, ^e was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a Democrat. 
In 1 841 he was elected State Senator, and 
in 1S43, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1853, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially the annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was re-elected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States Senate, where he was conspicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
Homestead bill, and as an opponent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was supported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Democratic 
convention in 1S60 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his influence to the 
Brcckenridge ^ving of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the lirst attempt at secession 
in December, i860, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Union, and 
in May, 1861, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 


:••>: ■ 

















?■• ">; 
■4;:* ■>>; 


popular violence for his loyally to the " old 
flag." He was the leader of the Loyalists' | 
convention of East Tennessee, and during | 
the following winter was very active in or- j 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 

By his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, iS62,he was appointed 
by President Lincoln military Governor of 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularity by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1S64, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platform and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not only to protect, 
but to punish. In our peaceful historv 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: " In re- 
gard to my future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 

These States accordingh" claimed represen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that body. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majoritv to reject the policy of Presi. 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
sults of the war in regard to slavery; and, sec- 
ond, the sullen attitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the policy 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized b}- the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new party on the basisof the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia, 
New York and Albau}-, in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own polic}', and violently denouncing 
the action of Congress. 

August 12, 1867, President Johnson re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-ofiice act which had been passed the 
i preceding March. The President then is- 
I sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 


tion at an end. and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility anil ci\il authority existC'l in and 
throughout tiic I'nitcd States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnest}- 
was published September 7, relieving- nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1S68, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense latel)' committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1S66, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing by counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 

one of the two-thirds vote required for 
con\ iction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of office was passed without anj- such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic party, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
Jul}- 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1S70 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. _ ~ 

President Johnson's administration was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican mpjority in Congress was 
certainl)' a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 



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GRANT, tlie eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, iS6g-'77, 
wasborn April 27, 1S22, 
at Point Pleasant, 
■(5 Clermont County, 
Ohio. Hisfathcr was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academy at 
West Point, and four 3cars later 
graduated twentj'-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
Lieutenant. He was assigned 
* to the Fourth Infantr}' and re- 

mained in the arm}- eleven 3'ears. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena Vista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 1S48 Mr. Grant married Julia, daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a prominent merchant of 
St. Louis, and in 1S54, having reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. For several 3ears he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfull)' ; and in 1S60 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine year? of age, but en- 
tirely unknown to public men and without 


an}- personal acquaintance with great afTairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
Grant was drilling a companj- of volunteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no reply. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, emplo\"ed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather surprised 
iiis superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, aijd they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
recommended bv tiic Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of whom had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
lie was occupied in watching the move- 
ments of partisan forces in Missouri. 

September i he was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th. with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of th.e Tennessee River, and commanding 
the naviiration both of that stream and of 

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the Ohio. This stroke 'secured Kentucky 
to tlic Union ; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing the 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artillery and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1S62, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive daj-s Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender" (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty-five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first impcjrtant success won b)- the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not I 


[ to attack. His forces, now numbering 3S,- 
j 000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
1 loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
j arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
I but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
1 Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
j violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
, Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
beyond supporting distance, so that he was 
I largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
I river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The ne.xt day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army. Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, v.-here, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Ne.\t, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1S63, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 

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Major-General in the rcg^ular armv, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division oi the Mississippi. 
The same niontii he went to Chattanooga 
and saved the Armv of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the countr\-. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the Alleghanics and opened the wav for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and according! v, in February, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of '\''irginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fouglit his 
own wa}- from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costl}' but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any piarticular point. In June, 1S64, the 
siege of Richmond was begim. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting dailv 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of A'irginia, and was superseded bv 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Nn- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force whicti he placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
in a succession of battles, through the valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confcderac}- in that way ; but he 

never wavercil. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By Seiitember Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
whicii the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the enemy at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to afford him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valley, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
; Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
' Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
i I^ichmond. 

At the beginning of the final campaign 
I Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
I the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
1 militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
I to 3,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
i Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
' Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on the 
! 3d, and Lee fled in the direction of Lynch- 
i burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 








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energy, only stopping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
craled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the 9th of April, 1S65, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open field, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended the war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomatto.x, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompan}- the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made Andrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic lovalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 

dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, ever}-body thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1S6S "by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a nmch larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. Ilis first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large reduction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difBculties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government Si 5,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. " Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had. General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of " politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. B}' this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1S85. Thus passed away from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 

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^^-'^ ARD HAYES, the nine- 
teenth President of 
the United States, 
^;/^(7,|!;,,tAm^- iS77-'8i, was born in 
^^fT^^^^^Mc 4s Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
^tJ.. Ji^ ^Ml-^i^ tobcr 4, 1S22. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford \vere two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, William Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobilit}-, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coat of-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, " Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Windsor and remained there during his 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsbury, Con- 

necticut. Ezekicl, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of scj'thes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekicl and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. Pie ini.migrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Playes, was born. In September, 1S13, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the I^cvolutionary war. 

The father of F^'rcsident Hayes was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He ^\■as jirosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
ti-iCtown. After the close of the war of 1812 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 

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farm, Mr. Hayes concluded to enter into 
business in the village. He purch.ascd an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured him the 
highest social position in the communit3-. 
He died July 22, 1S22, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
destined to fill the ofliceof President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not e.Kpected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weakerand weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time " if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would really come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him President of the 
United Statesyet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1825, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 
He was seven years old before he was 
placed in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no doubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate 
consideration for the feelings of others 
which are marked traits of his character. 
"At school he was ardently devoted to his 
studies, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
ful to avoid the quarrels in which man}- of 
his schoolmates were involved. He was 

always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their ailection for each other excited ■ 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1S3S young Ha3'es entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1S42. He then 
began the study of law in the office of 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. His health 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where foi' 
two 3ears he pursued his studies with great 

In 1S45 he was admitted to the bar at 
Marietta, Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
into practice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious ot 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealthy banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
may have made Mr. Playes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but lie was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1S49 hs removed to Cincinnati where 
his ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at this period had a pow- 
erful influence upon his subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literary 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General John 
Pope and Governor Edward F. No3-es. 
The marriage was a fortunate one as every- 
body knows. Not one of all the wives of 

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our Presidents was more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than slie 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 

In 1856 jMr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept the nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of Cit}- Solicitor. 

In 1S61, when the Rehellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his countr}'. His militar}' life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1S61, he 
was appointed Major of the Twenty-third 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment, 
and in August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1S62, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 15. . 

December 23, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brevetted Major-General for distinguished 

services in 1S64. He was wounded four 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1SG4 
he was elected to Congress from the Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1S67 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1S69. In 1S74 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 

In.iS/G he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. '^'S 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
many as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1S81 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in strik- 
ing contrast with most others of the world's 

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7'.(.1//::.S .1. GARFIELD. 



twentieth President of 
the United States, iSSr, 
was born November 19, 
1 83 1, in tlie wild woods 
o f Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and EHza (Ballon) 
Garfield, who were of New 
England ancestrj-. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid improvements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetable, Thomas, 
Mary and James A. In May, 1833, the 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon yoimg 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjoyed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental a'ld 
jjhysical labor. He worked upon the farm. 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
any other odd job that would aid in suj>port 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 

most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finally consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the city. After making many ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1859 '^X ^'^^ 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pay his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at times 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1S56, 
taking one of the highest honors of his class. 

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Afterward he returued to Hiram as Presi- I court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous i John Porter, aiuJ then ordered to report to 

piet)-, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong- moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to tlie bar in 1S59. 
November 11, 1S5S, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still liviui:. 

It was in 1S59 ^^'^^ Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this year, taking his seat in January, 1S60. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Forty-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was immediately thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentuck}-. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success, President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January 11, 1S62; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the aimy. 
He was with General Buell's army at Shi- 
loh, also in its ojierations around Corinth 
and its march through Alabam.a. Next, he 

was detailed as a member of the general ! inaugurated by his predecessor. 


General Rosecrans, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of StafT. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. ' 

In the fall of 1S62, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for sixty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. Again, he was the 
youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in iSSo. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than any other member. 
June S, 18S0, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant; and although many of the Re- 
publican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation. General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was duly in- 
augurated, but on July 2 following, before 
he had fairly got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After very painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, iSSi, la- 
mented by all the American peojjle. Never 
before in the history of this countr)- had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was duly tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded by 
the Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 


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', the twen- 
iel Execu- 
tive of this growing 
M'.i-:?--- ■ - -.K<iii>:/ republic, i88i-'5, was 
<?-?! v' . "-'J- -^ ^^5'> born in Franklin 
C o u n t y , V ermont, 
October 5, 1S30, the eldest of a 
family of two sons and five 
daughters. His father, Rev. 
Dr. William Arthur, a Baptist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1S75, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution. Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
t\vo years in iiis native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with $500 in his purse, went to the 
cit}- of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with his intimate 

friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar- 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Western 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 

At this stage of his career Mr. iVrthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded to take a wife, and ac- 
cordingl}' he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, of the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost his 
life. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-Presi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free b}' the vSuperior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the " Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the United States Presi- 
dency, was retained by Jonathan G. Lem- 

1 1 ffi'*''^^''*"'''^'*"-''^^'^*'^^ 


mon, of Virj^iuia. to recover the negroes, 
but he lost tlic suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by William M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1S56, a respectable colored 
woman was ejected from a street car in 
New York Cit}-. Mr. Arthur sued the car 
company in her behalf and recovered S500 
damages. Iniincdiatel}' afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as -his practice as a law^'er, raised him to 
prominence in the party of freedom ; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second Brigade of the 
State of New York, and then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor Morgan's staff. In 1S61, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which ofBccs he rendered 
great service to the Government. After 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able lawyers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York b)' President Grant, and lie held the 
office until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in General 
Arthur's career was his nomination to the 
Vice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1S80, when James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were nois}- and exciting. The 
friends of Grant, constituting nearly half 

; the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
I ent, and were sorel}' disappouited over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a ver}- strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected b}- a respectable plurality of the 
popular vote. The 4th of INIarch following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1S81, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained by many in this event, as 
^Nlr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican party; but President Arthur 
had both the ability and the good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could only satisfy the people with as good 
an administration. 

But the da}' of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against " third-tcrmism" had en- 
croached so far even upon " second-term" 
service, that the Republican party saw fit 
! in 1S84 to nominate another man for Presi- 
j dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
I ington. Since his retirement from the 
j Presidency in March, 1SS5, our good ex- 
I President has continued in the practice of 
1 his chosen profession at New York City. 








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(7A'(9 VER Cr.E VELA ND. 



... .., W ROVER C L E V E- 
^;{^0-^V>W^j^ LAND, the twenty- 
^' '■-■|^L-"i';lv*^;>f L second President of the 
*^i\4^'^'^P/ ^ United States, 1 8S5—, 
<f;^7)SJc{^'tt:'^^' '^ was born in Caldwell, 


Essex County, New 
Jersey, March iS, 
1S37. The house in which he 
was born, a small two-stor)- 
wooden building, is still stand- 
ing. It was the parsonage of 
the Presbyterian church, of 
which his father, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 

^ pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aaron Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's great-great-grandfather, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequentl}- moved to 
IMiiladelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
I'Tce that fought the British at Bunker 
!IilI. He served with gallantry through- 
out the Revolution and was honorabl}- 
liischargcd at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
V. iliiam Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 

Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Grover Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry some property and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, where 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthy 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own wa}' in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 
moved to Portsmouth, Virginia, where he 
preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moved to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the village and 


•* *< 


was lor a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at $50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 

Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinity. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had sperit all his 
salary of $1,000 per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of his father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (i853-'4) he 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the I51ind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many years the patron. In the winter 
of 1854 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that place, 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing $25, he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 

stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He conmiunicatcd his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finally induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1S55, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pay, was paid $4 a 
week — an amount barely sufficient to meet 
the necessary expenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and study. Usuall}' he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his employers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacity for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1S59) ^^ stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three years more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attorney, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 185S 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
he was chosen Governor he always made 
it his duty, rain or shine, to stand at the 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first year of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired especially to carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The old Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican- ordinarily by 250 
majority, but at the urgent request of the 


•jil/'. r^'. ^ "■' ■ i J., J- J 


party Gnover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
and came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel & Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1869 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and ex-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these )'ears he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
County, iS70-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bisseil. 

The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1S79, and the firm became Cleveland & 
Bisscll. In 1881 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 18S1 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority of 
over 3,500— the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor — and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majorit)- for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention met 
at Syracuse, September 22, 1882, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majority. In the fall of 
1884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingl)' 
inauguiated the 4th of March following. 

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^;l#fl^'^^MHE race or races who 
occupied this beau- 
tiful prairie country 
before the advent of 
the whites from Eu- 
rope had no litera- 
ture, and therefore 
have left us no histor}' of 
themselves. Not even tra- 
ditions, to any extent, have 
been handed down to us. 
Hence, about all we know 
of the Indians, previous to 
explorations by the whites, 
is derived from mounds 
and a few simple relics. 
The mounds were erected 
by a [)Coplc generall}' denominated Mound 
Builders, but whether thcv were a distinct 
race from the Indians is an unsettled ques- 
tion. Prof. Alex. Winchell,of the Michigan 
State University, as well as a number of 
other iin-cstig-ators, is of the opinion that 
those who built mounds, mined copper and 
iron, made elaborate implements of war, 
agriculture and domestic economy, and 
built houses and substantial villages, etc., 
were no other than the ancestors of the 
present Indians, who, like the ancient 
Greeks and Romans, were more skilled in 

the arts of life than their successors during 
the middle ages. Most people have their 
periods of decline, as well as those of prog- 
ress. The Persians, Hindoos and Chinese, 
although so long in existence as distinct 
nations, have been forages in a state of de- 
cay. Spain and Italy do not improve, 
while Germany, Russia and the United 
States have now their turn in enjoying a 
rapid rise. Similarh-, the Indians have long 
been on the decline in the practical arts ^)f 
life. Even since the recent days of Feni- 
more Cooper, the " noble " red men have 
degenerated into savages, despite the close 
contact of the highest order of civilization. 

Nearly all modern authorities unite in 
the opinion that the American continent 
was first peopled from Eastern Asia, either 
by immigration across Behring's Strait or 
by shipwrecks of sailors from the Kamt- 
schatkan and Japanese coast. If mankind 
originated at the north pole, and subse- 
quently occupied an Atlantic continent, 
now submerged, it is possible that the 
American Indians are relics of polar or 
Atlantic races. 

The ancient race which built the towns 
and cities of Mexico and the Western 
United States is called the Aztec, and even 
of them is scarcely anything known save 


what can be k-anicd from their buried 
structures. The few inscriptions tliat are 
found seem tobi' meaningless. 

Indian mounds are found throughout 
the United States east of the Rock}- 
Mountains, but are far more abundant in 
some places than others. In this State 
they abound near the principal rivers. 
They vary in size from a few to himdreds 
of feet in diameter, and from three to fifteen 
or more feet in height. They are generally 
round, or nearly so, but in a few notable 
exceptions they bear a rude resemblance in 
their outline to the figure of some animal. 
Their contents are limited, both in quantity 
and variety, and consist mainly of human 
bones, stone implements, tobacco pipes, 
beads, etc. The stone implements are axes, 
skinning knives, pestles and mortars, arrow 
points, etc. The human bones are often 
found in a mass as if a number of corpses had 
been buried together, and indicate that their 
possessors were interred in a sitting posture. 
Judge Samuel Murdock, of Elkader, this 
State, who has made this subject a special 
study for many years, is of the opinion that 
these remains are not of subjects who were 
inhumed as corpses, but of persons who, 
under the influence of a savage religion, 
voluntarily sacrificed themselves by under- 
going a burial when alive. 

^ ' ^ ■ CAUC.\.SIAN. ■ '' V 

The first member of this race to discover 
the Mississippi River was Ferdinand De 
Soto, a Spaniard, who explored the region 
of the Lower Mississippi in I54i,butcame 
no farther north than the 35th parallel. 
He founded no settlements, nor was he ever 
followed by others of his country to make 
settlements, and hence Spain lost her title 
to the country which she had earned by 
discover}' through her subject, De Soto. 
At a subsequent period a Frenchman re- 
discovered the realm, took possession of it 
in the name of France, and his fellow 

countrymen soon followed and effected 
actual settlements. Accordingly, in 16S2, 
France claimed the country, and, accord- 
ing to the usage of European nations, 
earned a proper title to the same. The re- 
sult was a collision between those two na- 
tions, success finalh' crowning the efforts of 

In a grand council of Indians, on tlie 
shore of Lake Superior, they told the 
Frenchmen glowing stories of the " Father 
of Waters " and of the adjacent country, 
and in 1669 Jacques Marquette, a zealous 
and shrewd Jesuit missionary, became in- 
spired with the idea of visiting this re- 
gion, in the interests of civilization. After 
studying the language and customs of 
the Illinois Indians until 1673, he made prep- 
arations for the journe)', in which he was 
to be accompanied by Louis Joliet, an agent 
of the French Government. The Indians, 
who had gathered in large numbers to wit- 
ness his departure, endeavored to dissuade 
him from the undertaking, representing that 
the Indians of the Mississippi Valley were 
cruel and bloodthirsty. The great river 
itself, they said, was the abode of terrible 
monsters which could swallow men, canoes 
and all. But the shrewd missionar)-, already 
aware of Indian extravagance in descrip- 
tion, set out upon the contemplated jour- 
ney May 13. With the aid of two Miami 
guides he proceeded to the Wisconsin 
River, and down that stream to the Mis- 
sissippi. Floating down the latter he dis- 
covered, on the 25th of June, traces of 
Indians on the west bank, and landed. 
This was at a point a little above the mouth 
of the Dcs Moines River, and thus a Euro- 
pean first trod the soil of Iowa. After re- 
maining a short time and becoming ac- 
quainted with the red man as he then and 
there exhibited himself, he proceeded down 
to the mouth of the Illinois, thence up 
that river and by Lake Michigan to the 
French settlements. 


■1 '. 'I ID 



Nine years later, in 16S2, Rene Robert 
Cavclicr La Salle descended the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and in the name 
of the King of France took formal posses- 
sion of all the Mississippi Valley, naming it 
Louisiana, in honor of his king, Louis XIV. 
The river itself he named Colbert, in honor 
of the French minister. Soon afterward 
the Government of France began to en- 
courage the establishment of a line of trad- 
ing posts and missionary stations through- 
out the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained with par- 
tial success for about seventy-five 3'ears. 
Christian zeal animated both France and 
England in missionary enterprise, the 
former in the interests of Catholicism and 
thelatter infavor of Protestantism. Flence 
their haste to pre-occupy the land and prose- 
13'te the aborigines; but this ugly rivalry dis- 
gusted the Indians and the}' refused to be 
converted to either branch of Christianity. 
The traders also persisted in importing 
whisky, which canceled nearly every civ- 
ilizing influence that could be brought to 
bear upon the savages. Another character- 
istic of Indian nature was to listen atten- 
tively to all that the missionar}^ said, pre- 
tending to believe all he preached, and then 
offer in turn his theory of the world, of re- 
ligion, etc.; and, not being listened to with 
the same degree of attention and pretense 
of belief, would depart from the white 
man's presence in disgust. This was his 
idea of the golden rule. 

Comparatively few Indians were perma- 
nently located within the present bounds 
of the State of Iowa. Favorite hunting 
grounds were resorted to by certain bands 
fur a time, and afterward by others, subject 
to the varying fortunes of their little wars. 
The tribes were principally the Illinois, 
lowas, Dakotas, Siou.x, Pottawatomies and 
finally the Sacs and Foxes. 

In 1765 the Miami confederacy' was com- 
posed of four tribes, whose total number 

of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about :;;o were Twlght wees, 
or Miarais proper; 300 Weas, or Oiiiate- 
nons; 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; 
but their headquarters were along the 
Maumce River, in Indiana and Ohio. 

From 1688 to 1697 the wars in which 
France and England were engaged re- 
tarded the growth of their American colo- 
nies. The efforts made by France to 
connect Canada and the Gulf of Mexico by 
a chain of trading posts and colonies nat- 
urall}' excited the jealousy of England and 
gradually laid the foundation for a struggle 
at arms. The crisis came and the contest 
obtained the name of the French and Indian 
war, the French and Indians combining 
against the English. The war was termi- 
nated in 1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which 
France ceded to Great Britain all of North 
America east of the Mississippi, except the 
island on which New Orleans is situated. 
The preceding autumn France ceded to 
Spain all the country west of that river. 

In 1765 the total number of French fami- 
lies within the limits of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory did not probabh' exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along 
the river Wabash and the neighborhood of 
Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. The 
colonial policy of the British Government 
opposed any measures which might 
strengthen settlements in the interior of 
this coimtry, lest they should become self- 
supporting and consequently independent 
of the mother country. Hence the settle- 
ment of the Northwest was still further 
retarded. That short-sighted policy con- 
sisted mainly in holding the lands in the 
possession of the Government, and not 
allowing it to be subdivided and sold to 
those who would become settlers. After 
the establishment of American indepen- 
dence, and especially under the administra- 
tion of Thomas Jefferson, both as Governor 
of Vir<rinia and President of the United 

I -.ll 



/l/STORV OF /Oil- A. 

States, subdivision of land r.nd giving it to 
actual settlers rapid!)- jieopled this portion 
of the Union, so that the Northwest Terri- 
tory was formed and even subdivided into 
other Territories and States before the 
)-car 1S20. 

For more than kx) jears after Marquette 
and Joliet trod the virgin soil of Iowa and 
admired its fertile plains, not a single settle- 
ment was made or attempted ; not even a 
trading-post was established. During this 
time the Illmois Indians, once a powerful 
tribe, gave up the entire possession of this 
" Beautiful Land," as Iowa was then called, 
to the Sacs and Foxes. In 1S03, when 
Louisiana was purchased b}- tlie United 
States, the Sacs, Foxes and lowas pos- 
sessed this entire State, and the two for- 
mer tribes occupied also most of the State 
of Illinois. The four most important towns 
of the Sacs were along the Mississippi, two 
on the east side, one near the mouth of the 
Upper Iowa and one at the head of the 
Des Moines Rapids, near the present site 
of Montrose. Those of the Foxes were — 
one on the west side of the Mississippi just 
above Davenport, one about twelve miles 
from the river back of the Dubuque lead 
mines and one on Turkey River. The 
principal village of the lowas was on the 
Des Moines River, in Van Buren County, 
where lowaville now stands. Here the last 
great battle between the Sacs and Foxes 
and the lowas was fought, in which Black 
Hawk, then a young man, commanded the 
attacking forces. 

The Sioux had the northern portion of 
this State and Southern Minnesota. They 
were a fierce and war-like nation, who often 
disputed possessions v^-ith their rivals in 
savage and bloody warfare ; but finally a 
boundary line was established between 
them by the Government of the United 
States, in a treaty held at Prairie du Chien 
in 1S23. This, however, became the occa- 
sion of an increased number of quarrels be- 

tween the tribes, as each trespassed, or was 
thought to trespass, upon the other's side of 
the line. In 1S30, therefore, the Govern- 
ment created a fortv-mile neutral strip of 
land between thcni. which policy proved to 
be more successful in the interests of peace. 

Soon after the acquisition of Louisiana b}- 
our Govenmient, the latter adopted meas- 
ures for the exploration of the new ten"i- 
torv, having in view the conciliation of the 
numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was 
possessed, and also the selection of proper 
sites for militar}' posts and trading stations. 

The Arm)- of the West, General Wilkin- 
son commanding, had its headquarters at 
St. Louis. From this post Captains Lewis 
and Clarke, in 1S05, were detailed with a 
sufficient force to explore the Missouri 
reiver to its source, and Lieutenant Zebulon 
M. Pike to ascend to the head of the Missis- 
sippi. August 20 the latter arrived within 
the present limits of Iowa, at the foot of the 
Des Moines Rapids, where he met William 
Ewing, who had just been appointed Indian 
Agent at this point, a French interpreter, 
four chiefs and fifteen Sac and Fox war- 
riors. At the head of the rapids, Where 
Montrose now is, Pike held a council with 
the Indians, merely for the purpose of stat- 
ing to them that the President of the United 
States wished to inquire into the needs of 
the red man, with a view of suggesting 

On the 23d he reached what is supposed 
from his description to be the site of Bur- 
lington, which place he designated for a 
post ; but the station, probably by some 
mistake, was afterward placed at Fort Madi- 
son. After accidentally separating from his 
men and losing his way, suffering at one 
time for six days for want of food, and after 
man)' other mishaps Lieutenant Pike over- 
took the remainder of the party at the point 
now occupied by Dubuque, who had gone 
on up the river hoping to overtake him. At 
that point Pike was cordially received by 

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Julicn Dubuque, a Frenchman who held a 
mining claim under a grant from Spain, but 
was not disposed to publish the wealth of 
his possessions. Having an old field-piece 
with him, however, he fired a salute in 
honor of the first visit of an agent from the 
United States to that part of the country, 
and Pike pursued his way up the river. 

At what was afterward Fort Snelling, 
Minnesota, Lieutenant Pike held a council 
with the Sioux September 23, and obtained 
from them a grant of 100,000 acres of land. 
January 8 following (1806) he arrived at a 
trading post on Lake De Sable, belonging 
to the Northwestern Fur Company, whose 
field of operations at that time included this 
State. Pike returned to St. Louis the fol- 
lowing spring, after making a successful 

Before this country could be opened for 
settlement by the whites, it was necessary 
that Indian title should be extinguished and 
the aboriginal owners removed. When the 
Government assumed control of the country 
by virtue of the Louisiana purchase, nearly 
the whole State was in possession of the 
Sacs and Foxes, at whose head stood the 
rising Black Hawk. November 3, 1S04, a 
treatv was concluded with these tribes by 
which they ceded to the United States the 
Illinois side of the great river, in consider- 
ation of $2,234 worth of goods then de- 
livered, and an annuity of $1,000 to be paid 
in goods at cost ; but Black Hawk always 
maintained that the chiefs who entered into 
that compact acted without authority, and 
that therefore the treaty was not binding. 

The first fort erected on Iowa soil was at 
Fort Madison. A short time previously a 
military post was fixed at what is now 
Warsaw, Illinois, and named Fort Edwards. 
These enterprises caused mistrust among 
the Indians. Indeed, Fort Madison was 
located in violation of the treaty of 1804. 
The Indians sent delegations to the whites 
at these forts to learn what thev were do- 

ing, and what they intended. On being 
"informed" that those structures were 
merely trading-posts, they were incredu- 
lous and became more and more suspicious. 
Black Hawk therefore led a party to the 
vicinitv of Fort Madison and attempted its 
destruction, but a premature attack by him 
caused his failure. 

In 18 12, when war was declared between 
this country and Great Britain, Black Hawk 
and his band allied themselves to the British, 
partly because thev were dazzled by their 
specious promises, but mostly, perhaps, be- 
cause they had been deceived by the Amer- 
icans. Black Hawk said plainly that the 
latter fact was the cause. A portion of the 
Sacs and Foxes, however, headed by Keo- 
kuk ("watchful fox"), could not be per- 
suaded into hostilities against the United 
States, being disposed to abide by the 
treaty of 1804. The Indians were there- 
fore divided into the "war" and the 
" peace " parties. Black Hawk says he 
was informed, after he had gone to the war, 
that his people, left on the west side of the 
river, would be defenseless against the 
United States forces in case they were at- 
tacked; and, having all the old men, the 
women and the children on their hands to 
provide for, a council was held, and it was 
determined to have the latter go to St. 
Louis and place themselves under the 
" American" chief stationed there. Ac- 
cordingly they went down, and were re- 
ceived as the " friendly band " of Sacs and 
Foxes, and were provided for and sent up 
the Missouri River. 

On Black Hawk's return from the British 
army, he says that Keokuk was introduced 
to him as the war chief of the braves then 
in the village. On inquiry as to how he 
became chief, there were given him the 
particulars of his having killed a Sioux in 
battle, which fact placed him among the 
warriors, and of his having headed an ex- 
pedition in defense of their village at Peoria. 

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h'rsTonr OF IOWA. 

In pc; "in Keokuk \vas tall and of portly 
beariti;^ and in speech he was an orator. 
He did not master the English language, 
however, and his interpreters were never 
able to do him justice. He was a friend of 
our Government, and always endeavored 
to persuade the Indians that it was useless 
to attack a nation so powerful as that of 
the United States. 

The treat}' of 1S04 was renewed in 1816, 
which Black Hawk himself signed; but he 
afterward held that he was deceived, and 
that that treaty was not even yet binding. 
But there was no further serious trouble 
with the Indians until the noted " Black 
Hawk war" of 1832, all of which took place 
in Illinois and Wisconsin, with the expected 
result — the defeat and capture of the great 
cliief, and the final, effectual and permanent 
repulsion of all hostile Indians to the west 
of the great Mississippi. Black Hawk died 
October 3, 1838, at his home in this State, 
and was buried there ; but his remains were 
afterward placed in the museum of the His- 
torical Society, where they were accident- 
ally destroyed by fire. 

More or less affecting the territor}' now 
included within the State of Iowa, fifteen 
treaties with the Indians have been made, 
an outline of which is here given. In 1804, 
when the whites agreed not to settle west 
of the Mississippi on Indian lands. In 1S15, 
with the Sioux, ratifying peace with Great 
Britain and the United States; with the 
Sacs, a treaty of a similar nature, and also 
ratifying that of 1&04, the Indians agreeing 
not to join their brethren who, under Black 
Hawk, had aided the British ; with the 
Foxes, ratifying the treaty of 1804, the In- 
dians agreeing to deliver up all their 
prisoners ; and with tlie lowas, a treaty of 
friendship. In 1816, with the Sacs of Rock 
River, ratif^-ing the treaty bf 1S04. In 1824, 
with the Sacs and Foxes, the latter relin- 
quishing all their lands in iMissouri ; and 
that portion of the southeast corner of 


j Iowa knou n as the "half-breed tract" was 
set off to the half-breeds. In 1825, placing 
a boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes 
on the south and the Sioux on the north. 
In 1 8 so, when that line was widened to 
I fort}- miles. Also, hi the same year, with 
i several tribes, who ceded a large portion of 
j their possessions in the western part of the 
I State. In 1832, with the Winnebagoes, ex- 
changing lands with them and providing a 
j school, farm, etc., for them. Also, in the 
same year, the "Black Hawk purchase" 
was made, of about 6,000,000 acres, along 
the west side of the Mississippi from the 
southern line of the State to the mouth of 
the Iowa River. In 1S36, with the Sacs and 
Foxes, ceding Keokuk's reserve to the 
United States. In 1837, with the same, 
when another slice of territory, comprising 
1,250000 acres, joining west of the forego- 
ing tract, was obtained. Also, in the same 
year, when these Indians gave up all their 
lands allowed them under former treaties; 
and finally, in 1842, when they relinquished 
their title to all their lands west of the 

Before the whole of Iowa fell into the 
hands of the United States Government 
sundry- white settlers had, under the Spanish 
and French Governments, obtained and oc- 
cupied several important claims within our 
' boundaries, which it may be well to notice 
in brief. September 22, 17SS, Julien Du- 
buque, before mentioned, obtained a lease 
I of lands from the Fox Indians, at the point 
' now occupied by the city nam.ed after him. 
This tract contained valuable lead ore, and 
I Dubuque followed mining. His claims, 
j however, as well as those to whom he after- 
j ward conveyed title, were litigated for 
many years, with the final result of dis- 
I appointing the purchasers. In 1799 Louis 
! I lonori obtained a tract of land about three 
I miles square where Montrose is now sit- 
i uated, and his title, standing through all 
I the treaties and being finally confirmed by 



the S irenio Court of the United States, is 
the o ;st lci,Ml title iielcl by a white man 
in the State of Iowa. A tract of 5,860 acres 
in Clayton Count}- was granted by the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Louisiana 
in 1/95 to Basil Girard, whose title was 
made valid some time after the preceding 
case was settled. 

Other earl}' settlers were : Mr. Johnson, 
an agent of the American Fur Conipan)-, 
who had a trading-post below Burlington. 
Le Moliere, a French trader, had, in 1S20, 
a station at what is now Sandusky, in Lee 
County, six miles above Keokuk. During 
the same year Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a sur- 
geon of the United States army, built a 
cabin where the city of Keokuk now stands. 
His marriage and subsequent life were so 
romantic that we give the following bnet 
sketch : 

While stationed at a military post on the 
Upper Mississippi, the post was visited by 
a beautiful Indian maiden — whose native 
name unfortunately has not been preserved 
-—who, in her dreams, had seen a white 
brave unmoor his canoe, paddle it across 
the river and come directly to her lodge. 
She felt assured, according to the super- 
stitious belief of her race, that in her dreams 
she had seen her future husband, and had 
come to the fort to find him. Meeting Dr. 
Muir she instantly recognized him as the 
hero of her dream, which, with childlike 
innocence and simplicity, she related to 
him. Her dream was, indeed, prophetic. 
Charmed with Sophia's beauty, innocence 
and devotion, the Doctor honorably mar- 
ried her, but after a while the sneers and 
gibes of his brother officers — less honorable 
than he, perhaps — made him feel ashamed 
of his dark-skinned wife, and when his regi- 
ment was ordered down the river to Bclle- 
fontaine, it is said that he embraced the 
opportunity to rid himself of her, and left 
her, never expecting to see her again, and 
little dreaming that she would have the 

courage to follow him. But, with her in- 
fant child, this intrepid wife and mother 
started alone in her canoe, and after many 
days of weary labor and a lonclv journevof 
900 miles, she at last reached him. She 
afterward remarked, when speaking of this 
toilsome journey down the river in search 
of her husband, " When I got there I was 
all perished away — so thin!" The Doctor, 
touched by such unexampled devotion, 
took her to his heart, and ever after until 
his death treated her with marked respect. 
She always presided at his table with grace 
and dignit}', but never abandoned her na- 
tive style of dress. In iSi9-'20 he was 
stationed at Fort Edward, now Warsaw, 
but the senseless ridicule of some of his 
brother officers on account of his Indian 
wife induced him to resign his commission. 
He then built a cabin as above stated, 
where Keokuk is now situated, and made 
a claim to some land. This claim he leased 
to Otis Re3-nolds and John Culver, of St. 
Louis, and went to La Pointe (afterward 
Galena), where he practiced his profession 
for ten years, when he returned to Keokuk. 
His Indian wife bore to him four children — 
Louise, James, Mary and Sophia. Dr. 
Muir died suddenly of cholera in 1S32, but 
left his property in such a condition that it 
was soon wasted in vexatious litigation, and 
his brave and faithful wife, left friendless 
and penniless, became discouraged, and, 
with' her two younger children, disap- 
peared. It is said she returned to her peo- 
ple on the Upper Missouri. 

The gentleman who liad leased Dr. 
Muir's claim at Keokuk subsequently em- 
ployed as their agent Moses Stillwell, who 
:.rrived with his family in 1S2S, and took 
possession. 1 1 is brothers-in-law, Amos and 
Valencourt \'an Ansdal, came with him 
and settled near, Mr. StilhveU's daughter 
Margaret (afterward Mrs. Ford) was born 
in 1831, at the foot of the rapids, called by 
the Indians Puckashetuck. She was prob- 


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/J/STOR}' OF 70ir.i. 

abl the first white American child born in again ruthlessly interfered with by the 

Government, on the ground that the treaty 
with the Indians would not go into force 
until June i, 1S33, although thc}^ had with- 
drawn from the vicinity of the settlement. 
Colonel Tavior was again ordered by the 

Io\ . 

In 1829 Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a settle- 
ment on the Lower Rapids, at what is now 
Nashville. The same vear James S. Lang- 
worthv, who had been entrasfcd in lead- 

mining at Galena since 1S24. commenced War Department to remove the miners, 

lead-mining in the vicinity of Dubuque. A and in January, 1833, troops were again 

few others afterward came to that point as '. sent from Pi-airie du Chien to Dubuque for 

miners, and they soon found it necessary to , that purpose. This was a serious and per- 

-hold a council and adopt some regulations haps unnecessary hardship imposed upon 

. for their government and protection. The3- j the miners. They were compelled to aban- 

: met in 1S30 on the bank of the river, by the don their cabins and homes in: mid-winter. 

- side of an old cottonwood drift log, at what r This, too, was only out of respect for forms ; 

is now the Jones Street Levee in Dubuque, for the purchase had been made, and the 

_and elected a committee, consisting of J. L. 

J..angworthy, H. F. Lander, James Mc- 

■ Phetres, Samuel Scales and E. ^L "Wren, 

who drafted a set of rules, which v.-ere 

Indians had retired. . After the. lapse of 
fifty years, no very satisfactory: reason, for 
this ngorous action of the Government can 
be given. But the orders had been given, 

adopted by this, the first "Legislature" of 1 and there was no alternative but to obey. 

Iowa. They elected Dr. Jarote as their Many of the settlers re-crossed the river, 

officer to choose arbitrators for the settle- ! and did not return ; a few, however, re- 
;raent of difficulties that might arise. These ! moved to an island near the east bank of 
-settlers, however, were intruders upon In- [ the river,, built rude cabins of poles, in 

dian territory, and were driven off in 1832 ; which to store their lead until spring, when 

by our Government, Colonel Zachary.Tay- 
lor commanding the troops. The Indians 
returned and were encouraged to operate 
the rich mmes opened by the late white 

But in June of the same year the troops 
were ordered to the east side of the Missis- 
sippi to assist in the annihilation of the 

they could float the fruits of their labor to 
St. J^ouis for sale, and where they could re- 
main until the treaty went into force, when 
they could return. Among these were the 
Langworthy brothers, who had on hand 
about 300,000 pounds of lead. 

No sooner had the miners left than Lieu- 
tenant Covington, who had been placed in 

very Indians whose rights they had been | command at Dubuque by Colonel Taylor, 
protecting on the west side ! | ordered some of the cabins of the settlers to 

Immediately after the close of the Black ■ be torn down, and wagons and other prop 

Hawk war and the negotiations of the treaty 
in September, 1S32, by which the Sacs and 
Foxes ceded the tract known as the " Black 
Hawk Purchase," the settlers, supposmg 
that now they had a right to re-enter the 
territory, returned and took possession of 
their claims, built cabins, erected furnaces 
and prepared large quantities of lead for 
market. But the prospects of the hardy 
and enterprising settlers rmd miners \vere 

erty to be destroyed. This wanton and 
inexcusable action ou the part of a subordi- 
nate, clothed with a little brief authority, 
^vas sternly rebuked by Colonel Taylor, and 
Covington was superseded by Lieutenant 
George Wilson, who pursued a just and 
friendly course with the pioneers, that were 
only waiting for the time when they could 
repossess tlicir claims. 

The treaty went formally into effect June, 


i( ..I ■ i;;. 

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IflSTORT OF /Oil 'A. 

1S33, tlic troops were withdrawn, and the 
Lan^^vorthy brothers and a [cw others at 
once returned and resumed possession of 
their homes and claims. From this time 
must date the first permanent settlement of 
this portion of Iowa. Jolm P. Slieldon was 
appointed superintendent of the mines b}- 
the Government, and a system of permits 
to miners and licenses to smelters was 
adopted, similar to that, which had been 
in operation at Galena since 1S25, under 
Lieutenant Martin Thomas and Captain 
Tiionias C. Legate. Substantially the primi- 
tive law enacted by the miners assembled 
around that old cottonwood drift log in 
1S30, was adopted and enforced by the 
United States Government, except that 
miners were required to sell their mineral 
to licensed smelters, and the smelter was 
required to give bonds for the payment of 
6 per cent, of all lead manufactured to the 

About 500 people arrived in the mining 
district in 1S33, after the Indian title was 
fully extinguished, of whom 150 were from 
Galena. In the same year Mr. Langworthy 
assisted in building the first school-house in 
Iowa, and thus was formed the nucleus of 
the populous and thriving city of Dubuque. 
Mr. Langworthy lived to see the naked 
prairie on which he first settled become the 
site of a city of 15,000 inhabitants, the small 
school-house which he aided in construct- 
ing replaced by three substantial edifices, 
wherein 2,000 children were being trained, 
churches erected in every part of the cit}-, 
and railroads connecting the wilderness 
which he first explored with all the eastern 
world. He died suddenly on the 13th of 
March, 1S65, while on a trip over the Du- 
buque iS: Southern Railroad, at Monticello, 
and the evening train brought the news of 
his death and his remains. 

Lucius H. Langworthy, his brother, was 
one of the most worthy, gifted and influ- 
ential of the old settlers of this section of 

Iowa. He died greatly lamented by many 
friends, in June, 1S65. 

The name Dubuque was given to the 
settlement by the miners, at a meeting held 
in 1S34. 

Soon after the close of the Black Hawk 
war in 1S32, Zachariah Hawkins, Benjamin 
Jennings, xVaron White, Augustine Horton, 
Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson and Peter 
Williams made claims at Fort Madison. In 
1833 General John H. Knapp and Colonel 
Nathaniel Knapp purchased these claims, 
and in the summer of 1S35 they laid out the 
town of " Fort Madison." Lots were ex- 
posed for sale early in 1S36. The town was 
subsequently re-surveyed and platted by 
the United States Government. The popu- 
lation rapidly increased, and in less than 
two years the beautiful location was cov- 
ered by a flourishing town, containing 
nearly 600 inhabitants, with a large pro- 
portion of enterprising merchants, mechan- 
ics and manufacturers. 

In the fall of 1832 Simpson S. White 
erected a cabin on the site of Burlington, 
sevent)'-nine miles below Rock Island. 
During the war parties had looked long- 
ingl}^ upon the " Flint Hills" from the op- 
posite side of the river, and White was 
soon followed by others. David Tothers 
made a claim on the prairie about three 
miles back from the river, at a place since 
known as the farm of Judge ]Morgan. The 
following winter the settlers were driven 
off by the military from Rock Island, as 
intruders upon the rights of the Indians. 
White's cabin was burned b}' the soldiers. 
He returned to Illinois, where he remained 
during the winter, and in the following 
summer, as soon as the Indian title was ex- 
tinguished, returned and rebuilt his cabin. 
White was joined by his brother-in-law, 
Doolittlc, and they laid out the town of 
Burlington in 1S34, on a beautiful area ot 
sloping eminences and gentle declivities, 
enclosed within a natural amphitheater 











•n .'t 

j! 'i".'. .- ' ''l ' 

IIJSTORi- OF /on- A. 

funned by t!ie surroundiiii; hills, which 
were crowned with luxuriant forests and 
presented the most picturesque scenery. 
The same autumn witnessed the openmg of 
the first dry-:^oods stores by Dr. W. R. Ross 
and Major Jeremiah Smitli, each well sup- 
plied with Western merchandise. Such 
was the beginning of Burlingtpn, which in 
less than four years became the seat of 
government for the Territory of Wisconsin, 
and in three years more contained a popu- 
lation of 1,400 persons. 

Immediately after the treaty with the 
Sacs and Fo.xes, in September, 1S32, Colonel 
George Davenport made the first claim on 
the site of the present thriving city of 
Davenport. As early as 1827, Colonel 
Davenport had established a flat-boat ferry, 

As early as 1S24 a French trader named 
Hart had established a trading-post, and 
built a cabin on the bluffs above tiie large 
spring now known as " Mynster Spring," 
within the limits of the present cit}- of 
Council Bluffs, and had probably been there 
some time, as the post was known to the 
employes of the American Fur Company 
as " La Cote de Hart," or " Hart's Bluff." 
In 1S27 an agent of the American Fur 
Compan}-, Francis Guittar, with others, 
encamped in the timber at the foot of the 
bluffs, about on the present location of 
Broadway, and afterward settled there. In 
1839 ^ block house was built on the bluff in 
the east part of the city. The Pottawat- 
omie Indians occupied this part of the 
State until iS46-'7, when they relinquished 

which ran between the island and the main the territory and removed to Kansas. Billy 

shore of Iowa, by which he carried on a 
trade with the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi. In 1833 Captain Benjamin W. Clark 
moved from Illinois, and laid the founda- 
tion of the town of Buffalo, in Scott County, 
which was the first actual settlement within 
the limits of that county. 

The first settlers of Davenport were An- 
toine Le Claire, Colonel George Davenport, 
Major Thomas Smith, Major William Gor- 
don, Philip Hambough, Alexander W. Mc- 
Gregor, Levi S. Colton, Captain James Ma}' 
and others. 

A settlement was made in Clayton County 
in the spring of 1832, on Turkey River, by 
Robert Hatfield and William W. Wayman, 
No further settlement was made in this part 
of the State until 1836. 

The first settlers of Muscatine County 
were Benjamin Nye, John V'anater and G. 
W. Kasey, all of whom came in 1834. E. 
E. Fay, William St. John. N. FuUington, 
H. Reece, Jonas Pettibone, R. P. Lowe, 
Stephen Whicher, Abijah Whitney, J. E. 
Fletcher, W. D. Abernethy and Alexis 
Smith were also early settlers of Musca- 

Caldwell was then principal chief. There 
were no white settlers in that part of the 
State except Indian traders, until the arri- 
val of the Mormons under the lead of Brig- 
ham Young. These people on their way 
westward halted for the winter of i846-'7, 
on the west bank of the Missouri River, 
about five miles above Omaha, at a place 
now called Florence. Some of them had 
reached the eastern bank of the river the 
spring before in season to plant a crop. ' In 
the spring of 1847 Brigham Young and a 
portion of the colony pursued their journey 
to Salt Lake, but a large portion of them 
returned to the Iowa side and settled mainly 
within the present limits of Pottawatomie 
County. The principal settlement of this 
strange community was at a place first 
called " Miller's Hollow," on Indian Creek, 
and afterward named Kanesville, in honor 
of Colonel Thomas L. Kane, of Pennsyl- 
vania, who visited them soon afterward. 
The Mormon settlement extended over 
the county and into neighboring counties, 
wherever limber and water furnished de- 
sirable locations. Orson Hyde, priest, kuv- 
yer and editor, was installed as president 

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I of the Ouoruin of Twelve, and nil that p-irt 

' of the State remained under Mormon con- 

► trol for several years. In 1847 they raised 

►: a battalion numhcrini; 500 men for the 

K Mexican war. In 1848 Hyde started a 

►: paper called the Frontier Guardian, at 

►: Kanesville. In 1S49, after many of the 

►■ faithful had left to join Brigham Young at 

►i Salt Lake, the Mormons in this section of 

|i Iowa numbered 6,552, and in 1850, 7,828; 

Ji but they were not all within the limits of 

|: Pottawatomie County. This county was 

>: organized in 1848, all the first officials be- 

\ ing Mormons. In 1852 the order was pro- 

\ mulgated that all the true believers should 

\ gather together at Salt Lake. Gentiles 

\ flocked in, and in a few years nearly all 

>: the first settlers were gone. 

►: Ma)' 9, 1843, Captain James Allen, with 

i a small detachment of troops on board the 

►: steamer lone, arrived at the site of the 

►; present capital of the State, Des Moines. 

i This was the first steamer to ascend the Des 

>: . . 

*: Moines River to this point. The troops 

j; and stores were landed at what is now the 

|: foot of Court avenue, and the Captain re- 

\ turned in the steamer to Fort Sanford to 

\ "arrange for bringing up more soldiers and 

\ supplies. In due time they too arrived, 

\ and a fort was built near the mouth of Rac- 

►; coon Fork, at its confluence with the Des 

>: Moines, and named " Fort Des Moines." 

»: Soon after the arrival of the troops, a trad- 

K ing-post was established on the east side of 

i the river by two noted Indian traders 

►; named Ewing, from Ohio. Among the 

►: first settlers in this part of Iowa were Ben- 

►: jamin Bryant, J. B. Scott, James Drake 

|: (gunsmith), John Sturtevant, Robert Kin- 

►; zie, Alexander Turner, Peter Newcomer 

►; and others. 


►: Most of the early settlers of Iowa came 

►; from older States, as Pennsylvania, New 

»: York and Ohio, where their prospects for 

even a competency were very poor. Thcv 
found those States good — to emigrate from. 
Their entire stock of furniture, implements 
and family necessities were easily stored 
in one wagon, and sometimes a cart was 
their onlv vehicle. 

After arriving and selecting a suitable 
location, the next thing to do was to build 
a log cabin, a description of which may be 
interesting to many of our younger readers, 
as in some sections these old-time struct- 
ures are no more to be seen. Trees of 
uniform size were chosen and cut into logs 
of the desired length, generally twelve to 
fifteen feet, and hauled to the spot selected 
for the future dwelling. On an appointed 
day the few neighbors who were available 
would assemble and have a " house-raising." 
Each end of every log was saddled and 
notched so that they would lie as close down 
as possible; the next day the proprietor, 
would proceed to "chink" and "daub" 
the cabin, to keep out the rain, wind and 
cold. The house had to be re-daubed ev- 
ery fall, as the rains of the intervening time 
would wash out a great part of the mortar. 
The usual height of the house was seven or 
eight feet. The gables were formed by 
shortening the logs gradually at each end 
of the building near the top. The roof was 
made by laying very straight small logs or 
stout poles suitable distances apart, and on 
these were laid the clapboards, somewhat 
like shingling, generall}' about two and a 
half feet to the weather. These clapboards 
were fastened to their place by " weight- 
poles" corresponding m place with the 
joists just described, and these again were 
held in their place by " runs " or " knees " 
which were chunks of wood about eighteen 
or twenty inches long fitted between them 
near the ends. Clapboards were made 
from the nicest oaks in the vicinity, by 
chopping or sawing them into four-foot 
blocks and riving these with a frow, which 
was a simple blade fixed at right angles to 


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its handles. This was driven into the 
blocks of wood by a mallet. As the frow 
was wrenched down through the wood, 
the latter was turned alternately over from 
side to side, one end being held by a forked 
piece of timber. 

The chinmey to the Western pioneer's 
cabin was made b}- leaving in the original 
building a large open place in one wall, or 
by cutting one after the structure was up, 
and by building on the outside, from the 
ground up, a stone column, or a column of 
sticks and mud, the sticks being laid up 
cob house fashion. The fire-place thus made 
was often Irage enough to receive fire-wood 
six to eight feet long. Sometimes this 
wood, especially the " back-log," would be 
nearly as large as a saw-log. The more 
rapidly the pioneer could burn up the wood 
in his vicinity the sooner he had his little 
farm cleared and ready for cultivation. 
For a window, a piece about two feet long 
was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the 
hole closed, sometimes by glass but gener- 
ally with greased paper. Even greased deer- 
hide was sometimes used. A doorway was 
cut through one of the walls if a saw was to 
be had; otherwise the door would be left 
by shortened logs in the original building. 
The door was rriade by piiming clapboards 
to two or three wood bars, and was hung 
upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, 
with catch, then finished the door, and the 
latch was raised by any one on the outside 
by pulling a leather string. For security 
at night this latch-string was drawn in, but 
for friends and neighbors, and even stran- 
gers, the " latch-string was always hanging 
out," as a welcome. In the interior over 
the fire-place would be a shelf called " tlie 
mantel," on which stood a candlestick or 
lamp, some cooking and table ware, j)ossi- 
bly an old clock, and other articles; in the 
fire-place would be the crane, sometimes of 
iron, sometimes of wood; on it the pots were 
hung for cooking; over the door, in forked 

cleats, hung the cvcr-tiiistful rifle and pow- 
der-horn; in one corner stood the larger bed 
for the " old folks," and under it the 
trundle-bed for the children; in another 
stood the old-fashioned spinning-wheel, 
with a smaller one by its side; in another the 
heavy table, the only table, of course, there 
was in the house; in the remaining was a 
rude cupboard holding the tableware, 
which consisted of a few cups and saucers, 
and blue-edged plates, standing singly on 
their edges against the back, to make the 
display of table-furniture more conspicu- 
ous; while around the room were scattered 
a few splint-bottom or Windsor chairs, and 
two or three stools. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a 
kind and true-hearted people. They were 
strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler 
seeking lodging for the night, or desirous 
of spending a few days in the community, 
if willing to accept the rude offering, was 
alwa)-s welcome, although how they were 
disposed of at night the reader might not 
easily imagine; for, as described, a single 
room was made to answer for kitchen, 
dining-room, sitting-room, bed-room and 
parlor, and man}- families consisted of six 
or eight members. 

The bed was very often made by fixing a 
post in the floor about six feet from one 
wall and four feet from the adjoining wall, 
and fastening a stick to this post about 
two feet above the floor, on each of two 
sides, so that the other end of each of the 
two sticks could be fastened in the oppo- 
site wall; clapboards were laid across these, 
and thus the bed was made complete. 
Guests were given this bed, while the fam- 
ily disposed of themselves in another cor- 
ner of the room or in the loft. When 
several guests were on hand at once they 
were sometimes kept over night in the fol- 
lowing manner: When bedtime came ihe 
men were requested to step out of doors 
while the women spread out a broad bed 

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upon the mid fioor, and put themselves 
to bed in the center; the signal was given, 
and the men came in and each husband took 
his place in bed next his own wife, and 
single men outside beyond them again. 
They were generally so crowded that they 
had to lie "spoon " fashion, and ^vhenever 
anyone wished to turn over he would say 
"spoon," and the whole company of sleep- 
ers would turn over at once. This was the 
onl)' wa}- the}- could all keep in bed. 

To witness the various processes of cook- 
ing in those days would alike surprise and 
amuse those who have grown up since 
cooking stoves and ranges came into use. 
Kettles were hung over the large fire, sus- 
pended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, 
on the crane, or on poles, one end of which 
would rest upon a chain. The long-hand- 
led fr)ing pan was used for cooking meat. 
It was either held over the blaze by hand 
or set down upon coals drawn out upon 
the hearth. This pan was also used for 
baking pancakes, also call flapjacks, batter- 
cakes, etc. A better article for this, how- 
ever, was the cast-iron spider, or Dutch 
skillet. The best thing for baking bread 
in those days, and possibly even in these 
latter days, was the flat-bottomed bake 
kettle, of greater depth, with closely fitting 
cast-iron cover, and commonl)" known as the 
Dutch oven. With coals over and under it, 
bread and biscuits would be quickly and 
nicely baked. Turkey and spare-ribs were 
sometimes roasted before the fire, sus- 
pended by a string, a dish being placed 
underneath to catch the drippings. 

Ilomin}" and samp were very much used. 
The homin}-, however, was generally hulled 
corn — boiled corn from which the hull or 
bran had been taken b}' hot lye, hence 
sometimes called lye hominy. True hom- 
iny and samp were made of pounded corn. 
A popular method of making this, as well 
as real meal for bread, was to cut out or 
burn a large hole in the top of a huge 

stump, in the shape of a mortar, and pound- 
ing the corn in this by a maul or beetle 
suspended by a swing pole like a weil- 
sweep. This and the wellsweep consisted 
of a pole twenty to thirty feet long fixed in 
an upright fork so that it could be worked 
" teeter " fashion. It was a rapid and sim- 
ple way of drawing water. When the samp 
was sufficiently pounded it was taken 
out, the bran floated off, and the delicious 
grain boiled like rice. 

The chief articles of diet in an earl}- day 
were corn bread, hominy or samp, venison, 
pork, honey, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for 
more than half the year), turkey, prairie 
chicken, squirrel and some other game, 
with a few additional vegetables a portion 
of the year. Wheat bread, tea, coffee and 
fruit were luxuries not to be indulged in 
except on special occasions, as when visit- 
ors were present. 

Besides cooking in the manner described, 
the women had many other arduous duties 
to perform, one of the chief of which was 
spinning. The big wheel was used for 
spinning yarn and the little wheel for spin- 
ning flax. These stringed instruments fur- 
nished the principal music for the family, 
and were operated by our mothers and 
grandmothers with great skill, attained 
without pecuniary expense, and with far 
less practice than is necessary for the girls 
of our period to acquire a skillful use of 
their costly and elegant instruments. But 
those wheels, indispensable a few years ago, 
are all now superseded by the mighty fac- 
tories which overspread the country, fur- 
nishing cloth of all kinds at an expense ten 
times less than would be incurred now by 
the old system. 

The traveler always found a welcome at 
the pioneer's cabin. It was never full. 
Although there might be already a guest 
for every puncheon, there was still " room 
for one more," and a wider circle would be 
made for the new-comer at the bijr fire. If 

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\ the stranger waj in search of land, he was 
; doubly welcome, and hi? host would vol- 
; untecr to show him all the " first rate claims 
■ in this neck of the woods," going with him 
; for da\-s, showing the corners and advan- 
; tages of every "Congress tract '" within a 
: dozen miles of his own cabin. 
I To his neighbors the pioneer was eqitallv 

; liberal. If a deer was killed, the choicest 
: bits were sent to his nearest neighbor, a 
I half-dozen miles away perhaps. When a 
; pig was butcliered, the same custom pre- 
• vailed. If a new-comer came in too late 
': for " cropping," the neighbors would sup- 
ply his table with just the same luxuries 
: they themselves enjoyed, and in as liberal 
quantity, until a crop could be raised. 
; When a new-comer had located his claim, 
the neighbors for miles around would 
assemble at the site of the proposed cabin 
and aid himin "giltm" it up. One party 
with a.ves would cut down the trees and 
hew the logs; another with teams would 
haul the logs to the ground; another party 
would "raise" the cabin; while several 
of the old men would rive the clap-boards 
for the roof. By night the little forest 
domicile would be up and read)" for a 
" house-warming," which was the dedica- 
tory occupation of the house, when music 
and dancing and festivity would be enioved 
at full height. The next day the new-comer 
would be as well situated as his neighbors. 
An instance of pjrimitive hospitable man- 
ners will be in place here. A traxeling 
Methodist preacher arrived in a distant 
neighborhood to fill an aj'pointmcnt. The 
hcjuse where services were to be held didnf)t 
belong to a church member, but no matter 
for that. Boards were collected from all 
quarters with which to make temporary 
seats, one of the neighbors volunteering to 
lead off in the work, while the man of the 
house, with the faithful rifle on his shoulder, 
sallied forth in quest of meat, for this truly 
was a "ground hog" case, the preacher 

coming and no meat in the house. The 
host ceased not to chase until he found the 
meat, in the shape of a deer; returning he 
sent a boy out after it, with directions on 
what " pint " to find it. After services, 
which had been listened to with rapt atten- 
tion b)- all the audience, mine host said to 
his wife, "Old woman, Lreckon this 'ere 
preacher is pretty hungr}- and 3'ou must 
git him a bite to eat." " What shall I get 
him?" asked the wife, who had not seen 
the deer, " thar's nuthcn in the house to 
eat." " Wh}-, look thar," returned he, 
" thar's a deer, and thar's plenty of corn in 
the field; you git some corn and grate it 
while I skin the deer, and we'll have a 
good supper for him." It is needless to add 
that venison and corn bread made a sup- 
per fit for any pioneer preacher, and was 
thankfuU}' eaten. 

Fires set out by Indians or settlers some- 
times purposely and sometimes permitted 
through carelessness, would visit the prai- 
rie every autumn, and sometimes the for- 
ests, either in autumn or spring, and settlers 
could not always succeed in defending 
themselves against the destroying element. 
Many interesting incidents are related. 
Often a fire was started to bewilder game, 
or to bare a piece of ground for the early 
grazing of stock the ensuing spring, and it 
would get away under a wind and soon 
be beyond control. Violent winds would 
often arise and drive the flames with such 
rapidity that riders on the fleetest steeds 
could scarcely escape. On the approach 
of a prairie fire the farmer would immedi- 
ately set about " cutting off supplies " for 
the devouring enemy by a "back fire." 
Thus bv starting a small fire near the bare 
ground about his premises, and keeping it 
under control ne.-ct his property, he \vould 
burn off a strip around him and prevent the 
attack of the on-coming flames. A few 
furrows or a ditch around the farm were 
in some degrees a protection. 

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An original pirairie of tall and exuberant 
grass on fire, especially at night, was a mag- 
nificent spectacle, ctijoyed only by the 
pioneer. Here is an instance where the 
frontiersman, proverbially deprived of the 
sights and pleasures of an old community, 
is privileged far be^^ond the people of the 
present day in this country. One could 
scarcely" tire of beholding the scene, as its 
awe-inspiring features seemed constantly to 
increase, and the whole panorama unceas- 
ingly changed like the dissolving views of 
a magic lantern, or like the aurora borealis. 
Language cannot convey, words cannot 
express, the faintest idea of the splendor 
and grandeur of such a conflagration at 
night. It was as if the pale queen of night, 
disdaining to take her accustomed place in 
the heavens, had dispatched myriads upon 
myriads of messengers to light their torches 
at the altar of the setting sun until all had 
flashed into one long and continuous blaze. 
One instance has been described as follows': 

" Soon the fires began to kindle wider 
and rise higher from the lung grass; the 
gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, 
and soon formed the small, flickering blaze 
into fierce torrent flames, which curled up 
and leaped along in resistless splendor; and 
like quickly raising the dark curtain from 
the luminous stage, the scenes before me 
were suddenl}- changed, as if by a magi- 
cian's wand, into one boundless amphithea- 
ter, blazing from earth to heaven and 
sweeping the horizon round. — columns of 
lurid flames sportivelv mounting up to the 
zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke 
curling away and aloft till they nearlv ob- 
scured stars and moon, while the rushing, 
crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts, 
mingled with distant thunders, were almost 
deafening; danger, death, glared all around; 
it screamed for victims; yet, notwithstand- 
ing the imminent peril of prairie fires, one 
is loth, irresolute, almost unable to with- 
draw or seek refuge. 


As before mentioned, although De Soto, 
a Spaniard, first took possession of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley for his Government. Spain 
did not establish her title to it by following 
up the proclamation with immediate settle- 
ments, and the country fell into the hands 
of France, by whose agent it was named 
" Louisiana." 

Bv the treaty of Utrecht, France ceded 
to England her possessions in Hudson's 
Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, but 
retained Canada and Louisiana. In 171 1 
this province was placed in the hands of a 
governor-general, with headquarters at 
Mobile, for the purpose of applying a new 
policy for the settlement and development 
of the country. The very next year ano- 
ther change was made, placing all this ter- 
ritorj- in the hands of Anthony Crozat, a 
wealthv merchant of Paris, but this scheme 
also failed, as Spain continued to obstruct 
the efforts of any Frenchman lo establish 
trade, by closing the ports against him. In 
1 71 7 John Law appeared on the scene with 
his famous " Mississippi Company," as the 
Louisiana branch of the Bank of France ; 
and as his roseate scheme promised to do 
much in raising crippled France upon a 
surer footing, extended powers and privi- 
leges were granted him. He was to be 
practically a viceroy, and the life of his 
charter was fi.xed at twenty-five years. But 
in 1720, when the '"Mississippi bubble" was 
at the height of its splendor, it suddenly 
collapsed, leaving the mother couatr}" in a 
far worse condition than before. 

Heretofore Louisiana had been a sub- 
ordinate dependence, under the jurisdiction 
of the Governor-General of Canada. Early 
in 1723 the province of Louisiana was 
erected into an independent Government, 
and it was divided into nine districts, for 
civil and military purposes. 

Characteristic of himian nature, the peo- 
ple were more excited with prospects of 

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finding enormous wealth ready at hand, if 
they should continue to scour the countr}-, 
which they did in places as far west as the 
Rockv Mountains, to the neglect of their 
agricultural and domestic interests. A habit 
' of roaming became fixed. At the same time 
their exposed condition was a constant 
temptation to Indian rapine, and the Nat- 
chez tribe in 1723 made a general assault 
upon the whites. At first thc}- were re- 
pulsed, but about five years afterward, 
aided by the Chickasaws and others, they 
fell upon the French village of St. Catha- 
rine and massacred the whole male popu- 
lation. Two soldiers, who happened to be 
in the woods, alone escaped to New Or- 
leans, to bear the news. The colonies on 
the Yazoo and the Washita suffered the 
same fate. Maddened by these outrages, 
the whites turned upon the Natchez and in 
the course of three years exterminated 
them. The}' were probably the most in- 
telligent tribe of Indians north of Mexico. 

During the fifteen years from 1717 to 
1732 the province increased in population 
from 700 to 5,000, and in prosperity to a 
wonderful degree. It remained under royal 
governors until 1764, the end of the French 
dominion. Most of this time the Indians 
were troublesome, and in 1754 began the 
long "French and Indian war" with Eng- 
land, which resulted in favor of the latter, 
that Government obtaining all of New 
France, Canada, and the eastern half of 
Louisiana. This province did not sufler 
by being the scene of battle, but did suffer 
a great deal from a Hood of irredeemable 
paper money. In the meantime the western 
portion, or residue, of this province was 
secretly promised to Spain ; but before 
either of the foreign powers had opportu- 
nitj' to rejoice long in their western posses- 
sions, a new power on earth, the United 
States, took independent possession of all 
the country except Louisiana and Florida, 
which it has maintained ever since. Durinof 

the seventv N'cars of French control the 
province of Louisiana increased in j)opula- 
tion from a few destitute fishermen to a 
flourishing colony of 13,540. 

St. Louis, Missouri, was started in 1764. 

Don O'Reilly, the new Governor of Loui- 
siana in 1764, ruled with a despotic hand, 
3-et for the general advantage of the peo- 
ple. His successor, Don Antonio Maria 
Bucarell}-, was mild, and he was succeeded 
January i, 1777, by Don Bernard de Gal- 
vez, who was the last Governor. He svm- 
pathized with American independence. The 
British, with 140 troops and 1,400 Indians, 
invaded Upper Louisiana from the north 
by way of the Straits of Mackinaw, and in- 
vested St. Louis, Missouri, in 1780, but 
were driven off. When the Indians saw 
that they were led to fight " Americans" as 
well as Spaniards, they found that they had 
been deceived, and withdrew from the 
British army, and thus General George R. 
Clark, in behalf of the Americans, easil}- 
defended St. Louis, and also all the new 
settlements in this western country. 

After the Revolutionarj- war the country 
began again to prosper. Governor Galvez, 
by a census, ascertained that Louisiana had 
in 1785 a population of about 33,000, exclu- 
sive of Indians. 

In the summer of the latter year Don 
Estavan Miro became Governor /w teni. of 
the Spanish possessions in this country, and 
was afterward confirmed as such by the 
king. During his administration a vain 
attempt was made h\ the Catholics to 
establish the inquisition at New Orleans. 
He was succeeded in 1792 by Baron de 
Carondelet, and during his term the Spanish 
colonies grew so rapidly that their Govern- 
ment became jealous of the United States 
and sought to exclude all interference from 
them in domestic affairs ; but all efforts in 
this direction vrere ended in 1795 by the 
treaty of Madrid, which, after some delay 
and trouble, was fully carried out in 179S. 

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fi/STonr OF fowA. 

Under Ihe leadership of Liviiigstoii and 
Monroe, the United States Government, 
after various propositions had been dis- 
cussed by the respective powers, succeeded 
in effecting, in 1S03, a purchase of the whole 
of Louisiana from France for $11,250,000, 
and all this countrv west of tlie great river 
consisted of the "Territory of Orleans" 
(now the State of Louisiana) and the " Dis- 
trict of Louisiana" (now the States of Ar- 
kansas, Missouri and Iowa, and westward 
indefinitely). The latter was annexed to the 
Territory of Indiana for one year, and in 
1805 it was erected into a separate Terrl- 
torv, of the second class, the legislative 
power being vested in the Governor and 
judges. Before the close of the year it was 
made a Territory of the first class, under 
the name of the " Territory of Louisiana," 
the Government being adminisicrcd by the 
Governor and judges. The first Governor 
was James Wilkinson, and he was succeeded 
near the close of 1S06 by Colonel Meri- 
weather Lewis, the seat of Government be- 
ing at St. Louis; and during his adminis- 
tration the Territor}' was divided into six 
judicial districts or large counties — St. 
Charles, St. Louis, St. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau, New Madrid and Arkansas. In 
1 8 10 the population of Louisiana Territory 
was 21,000, five-sevenths of whom were in 

In 1812 the State of Louisiana was ad- 
mitted into the Union, and then it was 
deemed expedient to change the name of 
the Territorv. It was accordingly given 
the name of " Missouri Territory," which it 
retained until the admission of the State of 
Missouri in 1S21. 


Although the " Northwestern Territory" 
— carved out of Virginia and now divided 
into the States of Oliio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin — never included 
Iowa, this State was in 1S34 incorporated 

into the "Territory of Michigan," and thus 
became subject to the ordinance of 17S7; 
and two years later it was made a part of 
" Wisconsin Territory," and two years still 
later, in 1S3S, the "Territory of Iowa" 
was formed independently, with sixteen 
counties and a population of 23,0130. 

In 1S33, ^t- Dubuque, a postoffice was 
established, and some time prior to 1834 
one or two justices of the peace had been 
appointed. In 1834 the Territorial Legis- 
lature of Michigan created two counties 
west of the Mississippi — Dubuque and Des 
Moines — separated by a line drawn west- 
ward from the foot of Rock Island. These 
counties were partially organized. John 
King was appointed " Chief Justice" of Du- 
buque County, and Isaac Leffler, of Bur- 
lington, of Des Moines County. Two 
associate justices in each county were ap- 
pointed by the Governor. In October, 
1S3;, General George W. Jones, of Du- 
buque, was elected a delegate to Congress. 
April 20, 1836, through the efforts of Gen- 
eral Jones, Congress passed a bill creating 
the Territory of Wisconsin, which went 
into operation July 4, that year. Iowa was 
then included in that Territory, of which 
General Henry Dodge was appointed Gov- 
ernor. The census of 1836 showed a popu- 
lation in Iowa of 10,531, of which 6,257 
were in Des Moines County and 4,274 in 
Dubuque County. 

Ths first Legislature assembled at Bel- 
mont, Wisconsin, October 25, 1S36; the 
second at Burlington, Iowa, November 9, 
1837; and tlie third, also at the latter place, 
June I, 1S3S. 

As early as 1S37 the people of Iowa be- 
gan to petition Congress for a separate 
Territorial organization, which was granted 
June 12 following. Ex-Governor Lucas, of 
Ohio, was appointed by President Van Bu- 
ren to be the first Governor of the new 
Territory. Immediately upon his arrival 
he issued a proclamation for the election of 

1,: '...: <;-; >ii! 

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j.;JO c":n),.liv.-o: 


H/STO/n' OF loirA. 

members of the first Territorial Legislature, 
to take place September lo. The following- 
were elected : 

Council. — -Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E. 
A. M. Swazcy, Arthur Ingram, Robert 
Ralston, George Hepner, Jesse j. Pavne, 
D. B. Hughes, James M. Clark, Charles 
Whittlesey, Jonathan W. Parker, Warner 
Lewis, Stephen Hempstead. 

House— \^xn. Patterson, Hawkins Tay- 
lor, Calvin J. Price, James Brierlv, James 
Hall, Gideon S. Bailey, Samuel Parker, 
James W. Grimes, George Temple, Van B. 
Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, George IL 
Beeler, Wm, G. Coop, \Vm. H. Wallace, 
Asbury B. Porter, John Frierson, Wm. L. 
Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, 
Robert G. Roberts, Laurel Summers, 
Jabez A. Burchard, Jr., Chauncey Swan, 
Andrew Bankson, Thomas Co.k and Har- 
din Nowlin. 

At the session of the above Legislature 
Wm. W. Chapman was elected delegate 
to Congress. As the latter body had given 
the Governor unlimited veto power, and 
as Governor Lucas was disposed to exer- 
cise it arbitrarily, the independent " Hawk- 
eyes " grew impatient under his administra- 
tion, and, after having a stormy session for 
a time, they had Congress to limit the veto 
power. Great excitement also prevailed, 
both in the Legislature and among the 
people, concerning the question of the loca- 
tion of the seat of Government for the 
State. As they knew nothing concerning 
the great future development and extent of 
the State, they had no correct idea where 
the geographical center would or should 
be. The Black Hawk purchase, which was 
that strip o( land next the Mississippi, in 
the southeastern part of the State, was the 
- full extent and horizon of their idea of the 
new commonwealth. Hence they thought 
first only of Burlington or Mount Pleasant 
as the capital. Indeed, at that time, the 
Indians had possession of the rest of Iowa. 

But a few of the more shrewd foresaw 
that a more central location would soon be 
further to the north at least, if not west, 
and a point in Johnson Count\' was ulti- 
mately decided uiion. 

Commissioners, appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, selected the exact site, laid out a sec- 
tion of land into a town, sold lots and 
proceeded to erect the public buildings. 
The capitol was commenced in 1840 and 
Iowa' City became thenceforward the capi- 
tal of the State. The fourth Legislative 
Assembl)- met at this place December 6, 
1S41, but not in the new capitol building, 
as it was not vet ready. Being somewhat 
difficult to raise the necessar}' funds, the 
building was not completed for several 
vears. The early Territorial Legislatures 
of Iowa laid the foundation for a very just 
and liberal Government, far in advance of 
what had ever been done before by any 

About this time a conflict arose between 
this Territor}' and Missouri concerning the 
boundary line between them. There was 
a difference of a strip eight or ten miles 
wide, extending from the Mississippi to the 
Missouri rivers, which each claimed. Mis- 
souri officers, attempting to collect taxes 
within the disputed territor}-, were arrested 
and confined in jail by Iowa sheriffs, and 
the respective Governors called out the 
militia, preparing for bloodshed. About 
1,200 Iowa men enlisted, and 500 were act- 
iialh- armed and encamped in Van Buren 
County, ready to defend their Territory, 
when three prominent and able men were 
sent to Missouri as envoys plenipotentiary, 
to effect, if possible, a peaceable adjustment 
of the difficult}". Upon their arrival, they 
found that the count}' commissicjncrs of 
Clark Countv, Missouri, had rescinded their 
order for the collection of the taxes, and that 
Governor Boggs had dispatched messen- 
gers to the Governor of Iowa proposing to 
submit an agreed case to the Supreme 




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was instructed to transact a certified copy 
of the proposed Constitution to the Dele- 
gate in Congress, to be submitted by him 
to that body at the earhcst practicable day. 
It also provided that it should be submitted, 
together with any conditions or changes 
that might be made by Congress, to the 
people of the Territory, for their approval 
or rejection, at the township election in 
April, 1S45. 

The Constitution, as thus prepared, fixed 
the boundaries of the State very differently 
from what were finally agreed upon. 

Ma}' 4, 1S46, a second convention met at 
Iowa City, and on the iSth of the same 
month another Constitution, prescribing the 
boundaries as they now are, was adopted. 
This was accepted by the people, August 
3, by a vote of 9,492 to 9.036. The new 
Constitution was approved by Congress, 
and Iowa was admitted as a sovereign 
State in the American Union, December 
28, 1846. The people of the State, antici- 
pating favorable action by Congress, held 
an election for State officers October 26 
which resulted in Ansel Briggs being de- 
clared Governor; Elisha Cutler, Jr., Secre- 
tary of State; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor; 
Morgan Reno, Treasurer; and members of 
the Senate and House of Representatives. 

The act of Congress which admitted 
Iowa gave her the 16th section of every 
township of land in the State, or its equiv- 
alent, for the support of schools; also 
seventy-two sections of land for the pur- 
pose of a university; also five sections of 
land for the completion of her public build- 
ings; also the salt springs within her limits, 
not exceeding twelve in number, with sec- 
tions of land adjoining each; also, in con- 
sideration that her public lands should be 
exempt from taxation by the State, she 
gave to the State five per cent, of the net 
proceeds of the sale of public lands within 
the State. Thus provided for as a bride 
with her marriage portion, Iowa com- 

Court of the United States for the settle- , 
merit of the boundary question. This pro}.)- | 
osition was declined: but afterward, upon , 
petition of Iowa and Missouri, Congress 
authorized a suit to settle the controversy. 
The suit was duly instituted, and resulted 
in the decision that Iowa had only asserted 
" the truth of history," and she knew where 
the rapids of the Des Moines River were 
located. Thus ended the Missouri war. 
" There was much good sense," says Hon. 
C, C. Nourse, "in the basis upon which 
peace was secured, to-wit: ' If Mis.sourians 
did not know where the rapids of the river 
Des Moines were located, that was no suffi- 
cient reason for killing them off with powder 
and lead; and if we did know a little more of 
history and geography than they did we 
ought not to be shot for our learning. We 
commend our mutual forbearance to older 
and greater people.' " Under an order 
from the Supreme Court of the United 
States commissioners surveyed and estab- 
lished the boundary. The expenses of the 
war, on the part of Iowa, were never paid, 
either by the United States or the Territo- 
rial Government. 

The population having become, by the 
year 1844, sufficient to justify the formation 
of a State Government, the Territorial Leg- 
islature of Iowa passed an act, approved 
February 12, that year, submitting to the 
people the question of the formation of a 
State Constitution and providing for the 
election of delegates to a convention to be 
called together for that purpose. The 
people voted upon this at their township 
elections in the following April, giving the 
measure a large majority. The elected 
delegates assembled in convention at Iowa 
City, October 7, 1844, and completed their 
work by November i. Hon. Shepherd 
Lefiler, the President of this convention, 

.1 M ; 

i^/STONr OF ion- A. 

nicnced '" housekeeping " upon her own 

A majority- of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1S46 were of the Democratic part_v; 
and the instrument contains some of the 
peculiar tenets of the party at that day. 
All banks of issue were proiiibited within 
the State. The State was prohibited from 
becoming a stockholder in any corporation 
for pecuniar)- profit, and the General As- 
sembly could onl}- provide for private cor- 
porations by general statutes. The Consti- 
tution also limited the State's indebtedness 
to $100,000. It required the General As- 
sembly to provide public schools through- 
out the State for at least three months in 
the 3'ear. Six months' previous residence 
of any white male citizen of the United 
States constituted him an elector. 

At the time of organization as a State, 
Iowa had a population of 1 16,65 1, as appears 
by the census of 1847. There were twenty- 
seven organized counties in the State, and 
the settlements were rapidl}- pushing to- 
ward the Missouri River. 

The first General Assembly was com- 
posed of nineteen Senators and forty Rep- 
resentatives. It assembled at Iowa City, 

• November 30,1846, about a montii 'oefore. 
the State was admitted into tlie Union. 

The most impoitant business transacted 
was the passage of a bill authorizing a loan 
of $50,000 for means to run the State Gov- 
ernment and pay the expenses of the Con- 
stitutional conventions. The great excite- 
ment of the session, however, was the 
attempt to choose United States Senators. 
The Whigs had a majority of two in tiie 
House, and the Democrats a majorit} of 
one in the Senate. After repeated attempts 
to control these majorities for caucus nom- 
inees and frequent sessions of a joint con- 
vention for purposes of an election, the 

- attempt was abandoned. A school law was 
passed at this session for the organization 
of public schools in the State. 

At the first session also arose the ques- 
tion of the re-location of the capital. The 
western boundary of the State, as now 
determined, left Iowa City too far toward 
the eastern and southern boundary of the 
State; this was conceded. Congress had 
appropriated five sections of land for the 
erection of public buildings, and toward the 
close of the session a bill was introduced 
providing for the re-location of the seat of 
Government, involving to some extent the 
location of the State University, which had 
already been discussed. This bill gave rise 
to much discussion and parliamentary ma- 
neuvering, almost purel}- sectional in its 
character. It provided for the appointment 
of three commissioners, who were author- 
ized to make a location as near the geo- 
graphical center of the State as a healthy 
and eligible site could be obtained; to select 
the five sections of land donated by Con- 
gress; to survey and plat into town lots not 
exceeding one section of the land so se- 
lected, etc. Soon after, by " An act to 
locate and establish a State University," 
approved February 25, 1S47, the unfinished 
public buildings at Iowa City, together 
with ten acres of land on which they were 
situated, were- granted for the use of the 
Universit}', reserving their use, however, 
by the General Assembly and the State 
i officers, until other provisions were made 
j by law. 

I When the report of the commissioners, 
j showing their financial operations, had 
been read in the House of Representa- 
; tives, at the next session, and while it was 
\ under consideration, an indignant member, 
\ afterward known as the eccentric Judge 
I McFarland, moved to refer the report to a 
i select committee of five, with instructions 
I to report " how much of said city of Mon- 
j roe was under water, and how much was 
j burned." The report was referred with- 
1 out the instructions, but Monroe City never 
I became the seat of Government. By an 



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If IS TO HV OF /OirA. 

act approved January 15, 1S49, the law bv 
which the locntion had been made \^as re- 
pealed and the new town was vacated, the 
money paid by purchasers of lots being re- 
funded to thcni. This, of course, retained 
the seat of Government at Iowa Citv, and 
precluded for the time the occupation of 
the building and grounds by the Universit}-. 

After the adjournment of the first Gen- 
eral Assembly, the Governor appointed 
Joseph Williams, Chief Justice, and George 
Green and John F. Kinney, Judges of the 
Supreme Court. They were afterward 
elected by the second General Assembly, 
and constituted the Supreme Court until 
1S55, with the exception that Kinne}- re- 
signed in January, 1S54, and J. C. Hall, of 
Burlington, was appointed in his place. 

At this session Charles Mason, William 
G. Woodward and Stephen Hempstead 
were appointed commissioners to prepare a 
code of laws for the State. Their work 
was finished in 1850 and was adopted by 
the General Assembly. This "code" con- 
tained among other provisions a code of 
civil practice, superseding the old common- 
law forms of actions and writs, and it was 
admirable for its simplicity and method. It 
remained in force until 1S63, when it was 
superseded by the more complicated and 
metaph3'sical system of the revision of that 

The first Representatives in Congress 
were S. Clinton Hastings, of Muscatine, 
and Shepherd LefRer, of Des Moines 
County. The second General Assembly 
elected to the United States Senate Au- 
gustus Cassar Dodge and George W.Jones. 
The State government, after the first ses- 
sion, was under the control of Democratic 
administrations till 1S55. The electoral vote 
of the State was cast for Lewis Cass in 1S4S, 
and for Franklin Pierce in 1852. The popu- 
lar vote shows that the Free-Soil element 
of the State during this period very nearly 
held the balance of power, and that up to 

1S54 it acted in the State elections to some 
extent with the Democratic party. In 1S5S 
Lewis Cass received 12,093 votes, Zachary 
Tavlor 11,034, and Martin Van Buren, the 
Free-Soil candidate, 1,226 votes, being 167 
less than a majorit}- for Cass. In 1S52 
Pierce received 17,762 votes, Scott 15,855, 
and Hale, Free-Soil, 1,606, being for Pierce 
301 votes more than a majority. 

The question of the permanent location 
of the seat of government was not settled, 
and in 1851 bills were introduced for the 
removal of the capital to Pella and to Fort 
Des Moines. The latter appeared to have 
the support of the majority, but was finallv 
lost in the House on the question of order- 
ing it to its third reading. 

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was 
introduced in the Senate for the removal of 
the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, 
and on first vote was just barel}' defeated. 
At tlie next session, however, the eflort was 
more successful, and January 15, 1855, a 
bill re-locating the capital within two miles 
of the Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, 
and for the appointment of commissioners, 
was approved by Governor Grimes. The 
site was selected in 1856, in accordance 
with the provisions of this act, the land 
being donated to the State by citizens and - 
property-holders of Des Moines. An asso- 
ciation of citizens erected a building for a 
teraporar)' capitol, and leased it to the State 
at a nominal rent. 

The passage by Congress of the act or- 
ganizing the Territories of Kansas and Ne- 
braska, and the provision it contained abro- 
gating that portion of the Missouri bill that 
prohibited slavery and involuntary servi- 
tude north of 36" 30' was the beginning of 
a political revolution in the Northern States, 
and in none was it more marked than in the 
State of Iowa. Iowa was the " first free 
child born of the Missouri Compromise," 
and has alwa3-s resented the destruction of 
her foster parent. 

:■■(■; ' 

/i/s.'onr OF /0]rA. 

The year 1S56 marked a new era in the his- 
tory of Iowa. In 1S54 the Chicago & Rock 
Island Railroad had been completed to the 
east bank of the Mississippi River, opposite 
Davenport. In tlie same }ear the corner- 
stone of a railroad bridge that was to be the 
first to span the " Father of Waters," was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies at this 
point. St. Louis had resolved that the 
enterprise was unconstitutional, and by 
writs of injunction made an unsuccessful 
effort to prevent its comjjletion. Twenty 
years later in her history, St. Louis re- 
pented her folly, and made atonement for 
her sin by imitating Iowa's example. Jan- 
uary.!, 1856, this railroad was completed to 
Iowa City. In the meantime, two other 
railroads had reached the east bank of the 
Mississippi --one opposite Burlington, and 
one opposite Dubuque — and these were be- 
ing extended into the interior of the State. 
Indeed, four other lines of railroads had 
been projected across the State from the 
Mississippi to the Missouri, having eastern 

May 15, 1S56, Congress passed an act 
granting to the State, to aid in the con- 
struction of railroads, the public lands in 
alternate sections, six miles on either side 
of the proposed lines. An extra session of 
the General Assembl}' was called in Jul}' of 
this year, that disposed of the grant to the 
several companies that proposed to com- 
plete these enterprises. The population of 
Iowa was now 500,000. Public attention 
had been called to the necessity of a rail- 
road across the continent. The position of 
Iowa, in the ver}' heart and center of the 
republic, on the route of this great high- 
way of the continent, began to attract atten- 
tion. Cities and towns sprang up through 
the State as if by magic. Capital began to 
pour into the State, and had it been em- 
ployed in developing the vast coa! measures 
and establishing manufactories, or if it had 
been expended in improving the lands, and 

in building houses and barns, it would have 
been well. But all were in haste to get 
rich, and the spirit of speculation ruled the 

In the meantime, every effort was made 
to help the speedy completion of the rail- 
roads. Nearly every count}- and city on 
the Mississippi, and many in the interior, 
voted large corporate subscriptions to the 
stock of the railroad companies, and issued 
their negotiable bonds for the amount. 
Thus enormous county and city debts were 
incurred, the payment of which these mu- 
nicipalities tried to avoid, upon the plea 
that they had exceeded the constitutional 
limitation of their powers. The Supreme 
Court of the United States held these bonds 
to be valid, and the courts by mandamus 
compelled the city and county authorities 
to levy taxes to pay the judgments re- 
covered upon them. These debts are not 
all paid, even to this day ; but the worst is 
ovei", and the incubus is in the course of 
' ultimate extinction. The mos't valuable 
lessons are those learned in the school of 
experience, and accordingly the corpora- 
tions of Iowa have ever since been noted 
for economy. 

In 1856 the popular vote was as follows: 
Fremont, 43,954; Buchanan, 36,170, and 
Fillmore, 9,180. This was 1,296 less .than a 
majority for Fremont. The following year 
an election was held, after an exciting cam- 
paign, for State ofihcers, resulting in a ma- 
jority of 1,406 for Ralph P. Lowe, the Re- 
publican nominee. The Legislature was 
largely Republican in both branches. 

One of the most injurious results to the 
State, arising from the spirit of speculation 
prevalent in 1S56, was the purchase and 
entry of great bodies of Government land 
within the State by non-residents. This 
land was held for speculation and placed 
be}-ond the reach of actual settlers for many 
years. From no other one cause has Iowa 
suffered so much as from the short-sighted 







> ♦; 













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/ns-roRV OF /oii-.i. 

policy (A the Federal (Tovcrnment in selling 
lands wilhin her borders. The money 
thus obtained b}' the Federal Government 
has been comparatively inconsiderable. 
The value of liiis magnificent public do- 
main to the United States was not in the 
few thousands of dollars she might exact 
from the hardy settlers, or that she might 
obtain from the speculator who hoped to 
profit by the settlers' labors in improving 
.the country. Statesmen should have taken 
a broader and more comprehensive view of 
national economy, and a view more in har- 
mony with the divine economy that had 
prepared these vast fertile plains of the 
West for the " homes of men and the seats 
of empire." It was here that new States 
were to be builded up, that should be the 
future strength of the nation against foreign 
invasion or home revolt. A single regi- 
ment of Iowa soldiers during the dark days 
of the Rebellion was worth more to the 
nation than all the money she ever exacted 
from the toil and sweat of Iowa's earlj' 
settlers. Could the statesmen of forty 
years ago have looked forward to this day, 
when Iowa pays her $1,000,000 annually 
into the treasury of the nation for the ex- 
tinction of the national debt, the}- would 
have realized that the founding of new 
States was a greater enterprise than the re- 
tailing of public lands. 

In January, 1S57, another Constitutional 
Convention assembled at Iowa City, which 
framed the present State Constitution. One 
of the most pressing demands for this con- 
vention grew out of the prohibition of 
banks under the old Constitution. The 
practical result of this prohibition was to 
flood the State with every species of " wild- I 
cat" currency. 

The new Constitution made ample pro- 
visions for home banks under the super- j 
vision of our own laws. The limitation of ! 
the State debt was enlarged to $250,000, ' 
and the corjioralc indebtedness of the cities , 

and counties was also limited to 5 percent. 
' upon the valuation of their taxable property. 
j The judges of the Supreme Court were to 
I be elected by the popular vote. The jier- 
! mancnt seat of government was fixed at 
Des Moines, and the State University lo- 
I catcd at Iowa City. The qualifications of 
! electors remained the same as under the old 
I Constitution, but the schedule provided for 
I a vote of the people upon a separate propo- 
sition to strike the word " white" out of the 
suffrage clause, which, had it prevailed, 
would have resulted in conferring the right 
of suffrage without distinction of color. 
Since the early organization of Iowa there 
had been upon the statute book a law pro- 
viding that no negro, mulatto nor Indian 
should be a competent witness in any suit 
or proceeding to which a white man u-as a 
party. The General Assembly of iSsG-'/ 
repealed this law, and the new Constitution 
contained a clause forbidding such disquali- 
fication in the future. It also provided for 
the education of "all youth of the State" 
through a system of common schools. This 
Constitution was adopted at the ensuing 
election by a vote of 40,311 to 38,681. 

October 19, 1S57, Governor Grimes issued 
a proclamation declaring the cit}' of Des 
Moines to be the capital of the State of Iowa. 
The removal of the archives and offices was 
commencedat once and continued through 
the fall. It was an undertaking of no 
small magnitude; there was not a mile of 
railroad to facilitate the work, and the 
season was unusually disagreeable. Rain, 
snow and other accompaniments increased 
the difficulties; and it was not until Decem- 
ber that the last of the effects,— the safe of 
the State Treasurer, loaded on two large 
" bob sleds " drawn by ten yokes of oxen, 
— was deposited in the new capitol. It is 
not imprudent now to remark that during 
this passage over hills and prairies, across 
rivers, through bottom lands and timber, 
the sales belonging to the several depart- 


I . !.' .,1: ;>.,c ,>v y 

i:: / 


i/isrojir OF /on- A. 

mcnts contained large sums of money, 
mostly indiyidiial funds, howeycr. Thus 
Iowa City ceased to be the capital of the 
State, after four Territorial Legislatures, 
six State Legislatures and three Constitu. 
tional Conyentions had held their sessions 
there. B}- the exchange, the old capitol at 
lowaCit}- became the seat of the uniyersity, 
and, except the rooms occupied by the 
United States Di^trict Court, passed under 
the immediate and direct control of the 
trustees of that institution. Des Moines 
was no\y the permanent seat of goyern- 
ment, made so by the fundamental !a\y of 
the State, and January 11, 185S, the Sev- 
enth General Assembly conyened at the 
new capitol. The citizens' association, 
which built this temporary building, bor- 
rowed the money of James D. Eads, Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, and leased 
it to the State. In 1864 the State pur- 
chased the building. At the session of the 
General Assembl)- in 1S58, James W. 
Grimes was elected United States Senator 
as successor to George W. Jones. 

During the years i858-'6o, the Sioux 
Indians became troublesome in the north- 
western part of the State. They made fre- 
quent raids for the purpose of plunder, and 
on several occasions murdered whole fami- 
lies of settlers. In 1861 several companies 
of militia were ordered to that portion of 
the State, to hunt down and expel the 
thieves. No battles were fought. The 
Indians fled as soon as they ascertained 
that systematic measures had been adopted 
for their punishment. 


The Presidential campaign of 1S60 was 
tiie most remarkable and exciting of all in 
the history of Iowa. The fact that civil 
war might be inaugurated and was threat- 
ened, in case Mr. Lincoln was elected, was 
well understood and duly considered. The 
people of Icswa indulged in no feeling of 

hatred or ill-will toward the people of any 
State or section of the Union. There was, 
however, on tiie part of tiie majority, a 
cool determination to consider and decide 
upon our national relations to this institu- 
tion of slaverx', uninfluenced bv any threat 
of violence or civil war. The popular vote 
of Iowa gave Mr. Lincoln 70.409; .Stephen 
A. Douglas, 55,011; Breckenridgc, 1,048. 

The General Assembly of the State 01 
Iowa, as early as 1S51, had by joint resolu- 
tion declared that the State of Iowa was 
" bound to maintain the union of these 
Stales b}- all the means in her power." The 
same year the State furnished a block of 
marble for the Washington monument at the 
national capital, and by order of the Gen- 
eral Assembly there was inscribed upon its 
enduring surface the following: "Iowa: 
Her affections, like the rivers of her borders, 
flow to an inseparable Union." The time 
was now approaching in her history when 
these declarations of attachment and fidelity 
to the nation were to be put to a practical 

The declaration of Mr. Buchanan's last 
annual message, that the nation possessed 
no constitutional power to coerce a seced- 
ing State, was received by a great majority 
of our citizens with humiliation and dis- 
trust. Anxiously they awaited the expiring 
hours of his administration, and looked to 
the incoming President as to an expected 
deliverer that should rescue the nation 
from the hands of traitors, and the control 
of those whose non-resistance invited her 
destruction. The tiring upon the national 
flag at Sumter aroused a burning indigna- 
tion throughout the loyal States of the re- 
public, and nowhere was it more intense 
than in bjwa; and when the proclamation 
of the President was published, April 15, 
1S61, calling for 75,000 citizen soldiers to 
"maintain the honor, the integrity, and 
the existence of our national Union, and 
the perpetuity of popular government," 


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ni^rORT OF JOiVA. 

tiic good people of Iowa were more 
tlian willing to respond to tiie call. Party 
lines gave wav, and for a while, at least, 
pari}- spirit' was hushed, and the cause of 
our common country was supreme in the 
affections of the people. Peculiarly fort- 

the House of Representatives. During tlic 
first year of the war, Iowa furnished sixteen 
regiments of infantry, six of cavalry and 
three batteries, — in all, 22,000 soldieis. 
Iowa had no refuse population to enlist as 
" food foi' jiowder," Her cities contained 

unatc were the citizens of Iowa at this none of that element found about the pur 

crisis, in having a truly representative 
man, Samuel J. Kirkwood, as executive 
of the State. 

Within thirty days after the date of the 
President's call for troops, the first Iowa 
regiment was mustered into the seryice of 
the United States, a second regiment was 
in camp ready for the service, and the 
General Assembly of the State was con- 
vened in special session, and had by joint 
resolution solemnly pledged every resource 
of men and money to the national cause. 

The Constitution of Iowa limited the 
State debt to $250,000, except debts con- 
tracted to " repel invasion, suppress insur- 
rection, or defend the State in war." The 
General Assembly authorized a loan of 
$800,000 for a war and defense fund, to be 
expended in organizing, arming, equipping 
and subsisting the militia of the State to 
meet the present and future requisitions of 
the President. Those in power looked to 
the spirit rather than to the letter of the 
Constitution, and acted upon the theory 
that to preserve the nation was to pre- 
serve the State, and that to prevent in- 
vasion was the most effectual means of 
repelling it. A few, however, in both 
branches of the General Assembly were 
more careful of the letter of the Constitu- 
tion. Three votes in the Senate and sev- 
enteen in the House were cast against 
the loan bill. These bonds were at 7 per 
cent, interest. Only $300,000 were ever 
issued, and they were purchased and held 
chiefly by our own citizens. At this crisis 
James W. Grimes and James Harlan were 
in the United States Senate, and General 
Samuel R. Curtis and General \'andcverin 

lieus of vice in the great centers of popu- 
lation. Her contribution to the armies of 
the republic was a genuine offering of 
manhood and patriotism. From her fields, 
her workshops, her counting-houses, her 
offices, and the halls of her schools and 
colleges, she contributed the best muscle, 
sinew and brain of an industrious, enter- 
prising and educated people. The first 
regiment of Iowa soldiers fought the bat- 
tle of Wilson's Creek after their term of 
enlistment had expired, and after they were 
entitled to a discharge. They were citi- 
zen soldiers, each of whom had a personal 
interest in the struggle. It was to them no 
question of enlistment, of bounty or of pay. 
When the gallant General Lyon placed 
himself at their head, and told them that 
the honor of Iowa and of the nation was in 
their hands, he addressed men who knew 
what the appeal meant, and to whom such 
an appeal was never made in vain. 

At the fall election of 1S61, party spirit 
had revived; and the contest for the control 
of the State administration was warm and 
earnest. Dissensions arose in both parties 
but the election resulted in a majority of 
16,600 votes for Kirkwood, who was thus 
retained as Governor of Iowa. In 1863 
the Republicans elected their candidate 
for Governor, William M. Stone, by a ma- 
jority of 29,000. 

Meanwhile the General Assembl}' had 
passed a law authorizing the " soldiers' 
vote," that is, citizens of the State in the 
volunteer military service of the United 
States, whether within or without the limits 
of the State, were authorized to open a poll 
on the day of the election, and to make rc- 

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turn of their votes to the jiroper civil au- 
thorities. In the Presidcntal contest of 

1S64 the popular vote at home was as 
follows: Lincoln, 72,122; McClcllan, 47,- 
703. The soldier vote returned was: Lin- 
coln, 16,844; McClcllan, 1,883. 

The General Assenibl}- did all in its 
power to encourage enlistment and to pro- 
tect the soldiers in the field and their faini- 
lies at home. Statutes were enacted sus- 
pending all suits against soldiers in the 
service, and all writs of execution or attach- 
ment against their property; and county 
boards of supervisois were authorized to 
vote bounties for enlistments, and pecuni- 
ar}' aid to the families of those in the serv- 
ice. The spirits of our people rose and 
fell, according to the success of the Union 
armies. One daj- the bells rung out with 
joy for the surrender of \''icksburg, and 
again the air seemed full of lieaviness be- 
cause of our defeats on the Peninsula; but 
through all these dark and trying days, the 
faith of the great majority never wavered. 
The Emancipation Proclamation of the 
President was to them an inspiration of a 
new hope. 

. In the Adjutant's department at Des 
Moines are preserved the shot-riddled col- 
ors and standards of Iowa's regiments. 
Upon them, by special authority, were 
inscribed from time to time during the war 
the names of the battle-fields upon which 
these regiments gained distinction. These 
names constitute the geographical ncjmen- 
clature of two-tliirds of the territory lately 
in rebellion. From the Des Moines River 
to the Gulf, from the Mississippi to the 
Atlantic, in the Mountains of West Virginia 
and in tl^e valley of the Sheiiandoaii, the 
Iowa soldier made his presence known and 
felt, and maintained the honor of the State, 
and the cause of the nation. Tiiey were 
with Lyon at Wilson's Creek; with Tuttle 
at Donelson. They fought with Sigel and 
with Curtis at Pea Ridge; with Crocker 

at Cliampion Ilills; with Reid at Shiloh. 
They were with Grant at the surrender of 
\'icksburg. They fought above the clouds 
with ITooker at Lookout Mountain. They 
were with Sherman in his march to the sea, 
and were ready for battle when Johnston 
surrendered. They were with Sheridan in 
the valley of the Shenandoah, and were in 
the veteran ranks of the nation's deliverers 
that stacked their arms in the national cap- 
itol at the close of the war. 

The State furnished to the armies of the 
republic, during the war, over 70,000 men, 
and 20,000 of these perished in battle or 
from diseases contracted in the service. 

We append here a brief notice of each 
regiment : 

The First Regiment was organized under 
the President's first call for three-months 
volunteers, with John Francis Bates, of Du- 
buque, as Colonel. It comprised various 
independent military compar.ies that had 
been organized before the war, who ten- 
dered their services even before the break- 
ing out of hostilities. They were mustered 
in May 14, and first saw service under 
General Lyon in Missouri. 

Second Infantr}- ; Samuel R. Curtis, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. This was the first three- 
years regiment, and made a most distin- 
guished record throughout the South, go- 
ing with Sherman to the sea, returning 
through the Carolinas, etc. After- the 
battle at Fort Donelson, the unenthusiastic 
General Hallcck pronounced this regiment 
" the bravest of the bra\-c." 

Third Infantry ; Nelson G. Williams, of 
Dubuque Count}", Colonel. Veteranized 
in 1S64, but before the new officers received 
their commissions the regiment fought itself 
out of existence at the battle of Atlanta I 

Fourth Infantry ; G. M. Dodge, of Coun- 
cil Bluffs, Colonel. Engaged in the prin- 
cipal battles of the South. 

Fifth Infantry ; William II. Worthington, 
of Keokuk, Colonel; 180 veteranized in 

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1S64 and were transferred to the Fifth 
Cavah V- 

Sixth Infantry; John A. McDowell, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. Engaged faithfully in 
many of the prominent battles. 

Seventh Infantry ; J. G. Lauinan, of Bur- 
lington, Colonel. It lost 227 at the single 
battle of Belmont. 

Eighth Infantry ; Frederick Steele, of the 
regular army, Colonel. Most of this com- 
mand suffered in rebel prisons for eight 
months. Was on duty in Alabama nearly 
a year after the collapse of the Rebellion. 

Ninth Infantry ; William Vandever, of 
Dubuque, Colonel. Was in almost every 
Southern State, traveling altogether 10,000 
miles ; marched more than 4,000 miles ! 

Tenth Infantry ; Nicholas Persczel, of 
Davenport, Colonel. Fought mainly in 
Mississippi ; losing half its number at the 
battle of Champion Hills alone ! 

Eleventh Infantry ; A. M. Hare, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served mainly in the in- 
terior of the South, doing as valiant service 
as any other regiment. 

Twelfth Infantry ; J. J. Wood, of Maquo- 
keta, Colonel. In rebel prisons eight 
months. Veteranized January 4, 1S64, a 
larger proportion of the men re-enlisting 
than from any other Iowa regiment. Served 
for several months after the close of the 

Thirteenth Infantry, M. M. Crocker, of 
Dcs Moines, Colonel. Fought in the South- 
ern interior and made the famous round 
with Sherman to the sea, being the first to 
enter Columbia, South Carolina, where se- 
cession had its rise. 

Fourteenth Infantry; William T. Shaw, 
of Anamosa, Colonel. Nearly all captured 
at Shiloh, but were released after a few 
months. Engaged in some of the severest 

Fifteenth Infantry; Hugh T. Rcid, of 
Keokuk, Colonel. Served three and a half 
years in the heart of the Rebellion, 

Sixteenth Infantry; Alex. Chambers, of 
the regular army, Colonel. Bravel\' served 
throughout the South. 

Seventeenth Infantry; John W. Rankin, 
of Keokuk, CoUmcl. Served in the in- 
terior of the South. 

Eighteenth Infantry; John Edwards, of 
Chariton, Colonel. Much of its time was 
spent in garrison duty. 

Nineteenth Infantry ; Benjamin Crabb, 
of Washington, Colonel. Served mainly in 
Mississippi. Were prisoners of war about 
ten months. 

Twentieth Infantry, comprismg five com- 
panies each from Scott and Linn counties, 
who vied with each other in patriotism; 
William M. Dye, of Marion, Colonel. En- 
gaged mainly on the Gulf coast. 

Twenty-first Infantry ; ex-Governor Sam- 
uel Merrill, Colonel. Distinguished in val- 
iant service throughout the South. See 
Twenty-third Regiment. 

Twenty-second Infantry ; William M. 
Stone, of Knoxville, since Governor of the 
State, was Colonel. Did excellent service, 
all the way from Mississippi to old Virginia. 

Twenty-third Infantry ; William Dewey, 
of Fremont County, Colonel. Its services 
were mainl}- in Mississippi. At Black River 
but a few minutes were required in carry- 
ing the rebel works, but those few minutes 
were fought with fearful loss to the troops. 
The Twenty-first also participated in this 
daring assault, and immediately after the 
victory was gained General Lawler passed 
down the line and joyfully seized every man 
by the hand, so great was his emotion. 

Twenty-fourth Infantry ; the " Iowa 
Temperance Regiment," was raised by 
Eber C. Byam, of Linn County. Engaged 
mainly in the Lower Mississippi Valley. 

Twent\--fifth Infantry ; George A. Stone, 
of Mt. Pleasant, Colonel. " To the sea." 

Twenty-sixth Infantr}- ; Milo Smith, of 
Clinton, Colonel. Took part in many great 

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7//STO.^r OF IOWA. 

Twciity-scvciilh IiifaiUiy ; James I. Gil- 
bert, of l-ansing. Colonel. On dut\- all the 
way from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Twenty-eighth Infantr}- ; William E. 
Miller, of Iowa City, Colonel. Service, in 
the region of the Lower Mississippi. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry ; Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Jr., of Council Bluffs, Colonel. Sta- 
tioned in Arkansas. 

Thirtieth Infantry ; Charles B. Abbott, 
of Louisa Count)-, Colonel. In the thickest 
of the war, coming home loaded with 

Thirt3--f]rst Infantry ; William Smyth, of 
Marion, Colonel. Returned froni its many 
hard-fought battles in the interior of the 
South with only 370 men out of 1,000 en- 

Thiit3--second Infantr}- ; John Scott, of 
Nevada, Colonel. Engaged in a number of 

Thirty-tliird Infantry ; Samuel A. Rice, 
a popular politician of Central Iowa, Colo- 
nel. Served from Arkansas to Alabama. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry; George W.Clark, 
of Indianola, Colonel. Traveled 15,000 
miles in its service ! 

Thirty-fifth Infantry ; S. G. Hill, of Mus- 
catine, Colonel. Served bravely in a dozen 
battles, and traveled 10,000 miles. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry ; Charles W. Kitt- 
redge, of Ottumwa, Colonel. Suffered a 
great deal from sickness— small-pox, measles, 
malaria, etc. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, the "Gray- 
Beard Regiment," being composed of men 
over forty-five years of ago, and was the 
only one of its kind in the war. Garrison 
and posi duty. 

Thirty-eightli Infantry; D. II. Hughes, 
of Decorah, Colonel. Most unfortunate of 
all in respect of sickness, 300 dying during 
the first two years. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry; H. J. B. Cum- 
mings, of Winterset, Colonel. One of the 
most distinarnished ref^iments in the field. 

Fortieth Infantry ; John A. Garrett, of 
Ne\vton, Colonel. 

Forty-first Infantry was not completed, 
and the three companies raised for it were 
attached to the Seventh Cavalry. 

There were no regiments numbered 
Fortv-second or Forty-third. 

Forty-fourth Infantry for 100 days; 
Stephen 11. Henderson, Colonel. Garrison 
duty in Tennessee. 

Forty -fifth Infantry, lor 100 days; A. H. 
Bereman, of Mt. Pleasant, Colonel. Garri- 
son dut}- in Tennessee. 

Forty-sixth Infantry, for 100 days j D. B. 
Henderson, of Clermont, Colonel. Garri- 
son duty in Tennessee. 

Fortj'-seventh Infantry, foY 100 days; 
James P. Sanford, of Oskaloosa, Colonel. 
Stationed at the sickl}- place of Helena, 

Forty-eighth Infantr}' (battalion), for 100 
da3-s ; O. II. P. Scott, of Farmington, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. Guarded prisoners on Rock 

First Cavalr)- ; Fitz Henry Warren, of 
Burlington, Colonel. Served for three 
years, mainly along the Lower Mississippi. 

Second Cavalry ; W. L. Elliott, a Cap- 
tain in the Third Cavalr}- of the regular 
army, Colonel. Fought faithfully in many 
important battles in Tennessee and Missis- 

Third Cavalry ; Cyrus Bussey, of Broom- 
field, Colonel. Distinguished in war. 

Fourth Cavalry ; A. B. Porter, of Mt. 
Pleasant, Col(Juel. Participated with zeal 
and judgment in the hottest of battles in 
Tennessee and Mississippi. 

Fifth Cavulrv, only in part an Iowa regi- 
ment ; William W. Lowe, of the regular 
arm}-. Colonel. Distinguished in the hotly 
contested battles of Tennessee and vicinity. 

Sixth Cavalry; D. S. Wilson, of Du- 
buqac, Colonel. Served against the In- 

Seventh Cavalr}- ; S. W. Summers, of 


! ) 

n/sroRT OF IOWA. 


Ottuniwa, Colonel. Served against the 

Eighth Cavalry ; Joseph B. Dorr, of Du- 
buque, Colonel. Served faithfully in guard- 
ing Sherman's communications, etc. 

Ninth Cavalry ; M. M. Trumbull, of 
Cedar Falls, Colonel. Scouting, guard and 
garrison duties in Arkansas. 

First Battery of Light Artillery; C. H. 
Fletcher, of Burlington, Captain. Served 
in Arkansas and Tennessee. 

Second Batter}- ; Nelson I. Spoor, of 
Council Bluffs, Captain. Engaged at Farm- 
ington, Corinth and other places. 

Third Battery; M. M. Hayden, of Du- 
buque, Captain. Engaged at Pea Ridge, 
and in other important battles. 

Fourth Battery ; on duty most of the 
time in Louisiana. 

Iowa Regiment of Colored Troops ; John 
G. Hudson, of Missouri, Colonel. Garrison 
duty at St. Louis and elsewhere. 

Northern Border Brigade ; James A. 
Saw3-er, of Sioux City, Colonel. Protected 
the Northwestern frontier. 

Southern Border Brigade ; protected the 
southern border of the State. 

The following promotions were made by 
the United States Government from Iowa 
regiments : To the rank of Major-General 
— Sarnuel R.Curtis, Frederick Steele, Frank 
J. Herron and Grenville M. Dodge ; to that 
of Brigadier-General — Jacob G. Lauman, 
James M. Tutlle, W. L. Elliott, Fitz Menry 
Warren, Charles L. Matthies, William Van- 
dever, M. M. Crocker, Hugh T. Reid, 
Samuel A. Rice, John M. Corse, Cvrus 
Bussey, Edward Hatch, Elliott \V. Rice, 
William W. Belknap, John Edwards, James 
A. Williamson, James I. GilbL-il and Thcjinas 
J. McKean ; Corse, Hatch, Belknap, Elliott 
and Vandever were brevettcd Major- 
Generals ; brevetted Brigadier-Generals — 
William T. Clark, Edward F. Winslow, S. 
G. Hill, Thomas H. Benton, S. S. Glasgow, 
Clark R. Weaver, Francis M. Drake, 

George A. Stone, Datus E. Coon, George 
W.Clark, Herman H. Heath, J. M. Hed- 
rick and W. W. Lowe. 


The two principal events of political in- 
terest in this State since the war have been 
the popular contests concerning woman 
suffrage and the liquor traflic. In the 
popular elections the people gave a ma- 
jority against the former measure, but in 
favor of prohibiting the sale or manufact- 
ure of intoxicating liquors. 

A list of State officers to date is given on 
a subsequent page. The last vote for 
Governor, October 9, 18S3, stood as fol- 
lows: For Buren R. Sherman, Republican, 
164,141 ; L. G. Kinnc, Democrat, 140,032, 
and James B. Weaver, National Green- 
back, 23,093. .... 


The present capitol building is a beauti- 
ful specimen of modern architecture. Its 
dimensions are, in general, 246 x 364 feet, 
with a dome and spire extending up to a 
height of 275 feet. In 1870 the General 
Assembly made an appropriation, and pro- 
vided for the appointment of a board of com- 
missioners to commence the work of build- 
ing. They were duly appointed and pro- 
ceeded to work, laying the corner-stone with 
appropriate ceremonies, November 23, 1871. 
The structure is not yet completed. When 
finished it will have cost about $3,500,000. 

The State University, at Iowa City, was 
established therein 1058, immediately after 
the removal of the capiital to Des Moines. 
As had already been planned, it occupied 
the old capitol building. As early as Janu- 
ary, 1S49, two branches of the universitv 
were established — one at Fairfield and one 
at Dubuque. At Fairfield, the board of 
directors organized and erected a building 
at a cost of $2,500. Tins was nearly de- 
sti'oyed by a hurricane the following year, 

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but was rebuilt more substantially by the 
citizens of Fairfield. This branch never 
received any aid from the Stale, and Janu- 
ary 24, 1S53, at the request of the board, 
the General Assemblv terminated its rela- 
tion to the State. The branch at Dubuque 
had only a nominal existence 

By act of ■ Congress, approved July 20, 
1840, two entire townships of land were 
set apart in this State for the support of a 
university. The Legislature of this State 
placed the management of tliis institution 
in the hands of a board of fifteen trustees, 
five to be chosen (b}' the Legislature) every 
two years, the superintendent of public 
instruction to be president of the board. 
This board was also to appoint seven trus- 
tees for each of the three normal schools, to 
be simultaneously established — one each 
at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mt. Pleasant. 
One was never started at the last-named 
place, and after a feeble existence for a 
short time the other two were discontin- 
ued. The university itself was closed dur- 
ing i859-'6o, for want of funds. 

The law department was established in 
June, 186S, and soon afterward the Iowa 
Law School at Des Moines, which had been 
in successful operation for three vears, was 
transferred to Iowa City and merged in the 
department. The medical department was 
established in 1S69; and in 1S74 a chair of 
military instruction wasaddeil. 

Since April 11, 1S70, the government of 
the university has been in the hands of a 
board of regents. The present f:;cultv 
comprises forty-two prtjfessors, and the 
attendance 560 students. 

The State Xonnal School is locate! at 
Cedar Falls, and was opened in 1S76. It 
has now a faculty of nine members, with an 
attendance of 301 pupils. 

The State Agricultural College is located 
at Ames, in Story County, being established 
by the legislative act of March 23, 1858. 
In 1862 Congress granted to Iowa 240,000 

acres of lanfl for the endowment of schools 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The 
main building was completed in 1S6S, and 
the institutit)!! opened the following year. 
Tuition is free to pupils from the State 
over sixteen years of age. The college 
farm comprises S60 acres, of which a major 
portion is in cultivation. Professors, twen- 
ty-two; scholars, 319. 

The Deaf and Dumb Institute was estab- 
lished in iS55,at Iowa City, but was after- 
ward removed to Council Bluffs, to a tract 
of ninety acres of land two miles south of 
that city. In October, 1870, the main build- 
ing and one wing were completed and 
occupied. In February, 1877, fire destroyed 
tlie main building and east wing, and dur- 
ing the summer following a tornado par- 
tially demolished the west wing. It is at 
present (1SS5) manned with fifteen teachers, 
and attended by 292 pupils. 

The College for the Blind has been at Vin- 
ton since 1S62. Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself 
blind, a fine scholar, who had founded the 
Institution for the Blind, at Jacksonville, 
Illinois, commenced as early as 1852 a school 
of instruction at Keokuk. The next year 
the institution was adopted by the State 
and moved to Iowa City, with Prof. Bacon 
as principal. It was moved thence, in 1S62, 
to Vinton. The building was erected and 
the college manned at vast expenditure of 
money. It is said that $282,000 were ex- 
pended upon the building alone, and that it 
required an outlay of $5,000 a year to heat 
it. while it had accommodations for 130 in- 
mates. At present, however, they have 
accommodations for more pupils, with an 
attend.ance of 132. There are eleven teach- 
ers. The annual legislative appropriation 
is $S,f>GO, besides $128 per year for each 

■ The first Iowa Hospital for the Insane 
was established by an act of the Legislature 
approved January 24, 1S55. It is located at 
Mt. Pleasant, where the buildinsr was com- 










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pictcd in 1861, atacostof S^iS^^-.^SS. Witlrn 
the first thrci- months 100 patients were ad- 
mitted, and before the of October, 
1S77, an ag:^-regate of 3,684 been ad- 
mitted. In April, 1S76, a portion of the 
building was destroyed by fire. At this in- 
stitution tiiere are now ninet^'-four superin- 
tendents and assistants, in_charge of 472 

Another Hospital for the Insane, at Inde- 
pendence, was opened May i, 1S73, in a 
building which cost $88,114. The present 
number of inmates is 580, in the care of 1 1 1 
superintendents and employes. 

The Soldiers' Orphans' Home is located at 
Davenport. It was origmatcd by Mrs. Annie 
Wittenmcyer, during the late war, who 
called a convention for the purpose at Mus- 
catine, September 7, 1S63, and uly 13 fol- 
lowing the institution was opened ma brick 
building at Lawrence, Van Buren County. 
It was sustained by voluntary contributions 
until 1S66, when the State took charge of j 
it. The Legislature provided at first for 
three " homes." The one in Cedar Falls 
was organized in 1S65, an old hotel build- 
ing being fitted up for it, and by the follow- 
ing January there were ninety-six inmates. 
In October, 1869, the Home was removed 
to a large brick building about two miles 
west of Cedar Falls, and was very prosper- ' 
ous for several years ; but in 1876 the Leg- j 
islature devoted this building to the Stafe ! 
Normal School, and the buildings and ' 
grounds of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home : 
at Glenwood, Mills County, to an institution ■ 
for the support of feeble-minded children, j 
and also provided for the removal of the ' 
soldiers' orphans at the Glenwood and ', 
Cedar Falls homes to the institution at | 
Davenport. The latter has now in charge 
169 orphans. ^ j 

The Asylum for Feeble-.Minded Children, I 
referred to above, is at Glenwood, estab- } 
lished by the Legislature in March, 1S7G. ' 
The institution was opened September i, \ 

following, with a few pupils; but now tiic 
attendance is 215. in the care of four teach- 
ers. This asylum is managed by three trus- 
tees, one of whom must be a resident of that 
county. Mills. 

The first penitentiary was established in 
1 84 1, near Fort Madison, its present loca- 
tion. The cost of the original building was 
855.934. and its capacity was sufficient for 
1 38 convicts. At present there are at this 
prison 364 convicts, in charge of forty -three 

The penitentiary at Anamosa was estab- 
lished in i872-'3. It now has 239 convicts 
and thirty-four employes. 

The boys' reform school was permanently 

j located at Eldora, Hardin County, in 1872. 

For the three years previous it was kept at 

I the building of the Iowa Manual Labor In- 

I stitute at Salem, Henry County. Only 

j boys between seven and sixteen years of 

age are admitted. Credit of time for good 

conduct is given, so that occasionally one 

is discharged before he is of age. There 

are now (1885) 201 pupils here. 

The "girls' department" is at Mitchell- 
ville, similarly managed. Inmates, eighty- 

The State Historical Society is in part 
supported by the State, the Governor ap- 
pointing nine of the eighteen curators. 
This society was provided for in connection 
with the University, by legislative act of 
January 28, 1857, ^"d it has published a 
scries of valuable collections, and a laro-e 
number of finely engraved portraits of 
prominent and early settlers. 

The State Agricultural Societv is con- 
ducted under the auspices of the State, and 
is one of the greatest promoters oi the 
welfare of the people among all the State 
organizations. It holds an annual fair at 
Des Moines, and its proceedings are also 
published annually, at the expense of the 

The Fish-Hatching House has been snc- 








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/rrsTO/n- of ioma. 

cessfully canying 011 its good work since 
its establishment in 1S74, near Anamosa. 
Three iish commissioners are appointed, 
one for each of the three districts into whicli 
the State is for tlie purpose divided. 

Tlic State Board of Health, established 
in 18S0, has an advisory supervision, and to 
a limited extent also a police supervision, 
over the health of the i)Oople, — especially 
with reference to the abatement of those 
nuisances that are most calculated to pro- 
mulgate dangerous and contagious diseases. 
Their publications, which arc made at the 
expense of the State, should be studied b)' 
ever}' citizen 


The germ of the free public school sys- 
tem of Iowa, which now ranks second to 
none in the United States, was planted by 
the first settlers, and in no other public 
measure have the people ever since taken 
so deep an interest. They have expanded 
and improved their original system until 
now it is justly considered one of the most 
complete, comprehensive and liberal in the 

Nor is this to be wondered at when it is 
remembered that humble log school-houses 
were built almost as soon as the log cabins 
of the earliest settlers were occupied, and 
school-teachers were among the first im- 
migrants to Iowa. Schools, therefore, the 
people have had every where from the start, 
and the school-houses, in their character and 
accommodations, have kept fully abreast 
with the times. 

The first school-house within the limits 
of Iowa was a log cabin at Dubuque, built b}- 
J. L. Langworthy and a few other miners, 
in the autumn of 1833. When it was com- 
pleted George Cabbage was employed as 
teacher during the winter of i833-'4. thirty- 
five pupils attending his school. Barrett 
\^'^hittemore taught the next school term, 
with twenty-five pupils in attendance. Mrs. 
Caroline Dexter commenced teaching in 

Dubuque in March, 1S36. She was the t'lrst 
female teacher there, and probably the first 
in Iowa. In 1S39 Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
afterward for ten years Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, opened an English and 
classical school in Dubuque. T!is first tax 
for the supp<5rt of schools at I^ubuque was 
levied in 1840. 

At Burlington a cominodious log school- 
liouse, built in 1834, was among the first 
buildings erected. A Mr. Johnson taught 
the first school in the winter of i834-'5. 

In Muscatine County, the first school was 
taught by George Bumgardner, in the 
spring of 1837. In 1839 a log school-house 
was erected in Muscatine, which served for 
a long time as school-house, church and 
public hall. 

The first school in Davenport was taught 
in 1S38. In Fairfield, Miss Clarissa Sawyer, 
James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed taught 
school in 1839. 

Johnson County was an entire wilderness 
when Iowa City was located as the capital 
of the Territory of Iowa, in May, 1839. 
The first sale of lots took place August 18, 
1839, ^nd before Januar)' i, 1840, about 
twenty families had settled within the limits 
of the town.- During the same year Jesse 
Berry opened a school in a small frame 
building he had erected on what is now 
College street. 

In Monroe County, the first settlement 
was made in 1843, by Mr. John R. Gray, 
about two miles from the present site of 
Eddyvillc; and in the summer of 1841 a log 
school-house was built by Gray, William 
V. Beedle, C. Renfro, Joseph McMulIen 
and Willoughby Randolph, and the first 
school was opened by Miss Urania Adams. 
The building was occupied for school pur- 
poses for nearly ten years. 

About, a year after the first cabin was 
built at Oskaloosa, a log school-house was 
built, in which school was opened by Sam- 
uel W. Caldwell, in 1S44. 

f r '■ 


I, I /i' 


At Fort Dcs Moines, now the capitiil of 
the State, tlie tirst school was taui^ht bv 
Lewis Whitten, Clerk of the District Court, 
in the winter of iS46-'7, in one of the rooms 
on '• Coon Row," built for barracks. 

The first school in Pottawattamie Count)- 
was opened by George Green, a Mormon, 
at Council Point, prior to 1S49; ^'i<^ until 
about 1S54 nearl}' all the teachers in that 
vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Decorah was taught in 
1 85 5, by Cyrus C. Carpenter, since Gov- 
ernor of the State. In Crawford County the 
first school-house was built in Mason's 
Grove, in 1S56, and Morris McHenry first 
occupied it as teacher. 

During the first twenty years of the his- 
tory- of Iowa, the log school-house pre- 
vailed, and in 1861 there were 893 of these 
primitive structures in use for school pur- 
poses in the State. Since that time they 
have been gradually disappearing. . In 1865 
there were 796 f in 1870, 336; and in 1875, 

In 1S46, the year of Iowa's admission as 
a State, there were 20,000 scholars out of 
100,000 inhabitants. About 400 school dis- 
tricts had been organized. In 1850 there 
were 1,200, and in 1S57 the number had in- 
creased to 3,265. 

In March, 185S, upon the recommenda- 
tion of Hon. M. L. Fisher, then Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the seventh 
General Assembly enacted that" each civil 
township is declared a school district," and 
provided that these should be divided into 
sub-districts. This law went into force 
March 20, 1858, and reduced the number of 
school districts from about 3,500 to less than 
900. This change of school organization 
resulted in a very material reduction of the 
expenditures for the compensation of dis- 
trict secretaries and treasurers. .\n effort 
was made f(jr several years, frcjm I067 to 
1S72, t(3 abolish the sub-district system. 
Mr. Kissel!, Superintendent, rec(jni:Ticuucd 

this in his report of januar\- i, 1S72, and 
Governor Merrill forcibly endorsed his 
views in his annual message. But the 
Legislature of that year provided for the 
formation of independent districts from the 
sub-districts of district townships. 

The S3"stem of graded schools was in- 
augurated in 1849, and new schools, jn 
which more than one teacher is emplo^xd, 
are universally graded. 

Teachers' institutes were organized early 
in the history of the State. The first offi- 
cial mention of them occurs in the annual 
report of Hon. Thomas H, Benton, Jr., 
made December 2, 1850, who said: "An 
institution of this character was organized 
a few years ago, composed of the teachers 
of the mineral regions of Illinois, Wisconsin 
and Iowa. An association of teachers has 
also been formed in the county of Henry, 
and an effort was made in October last to 
organize a regular institute in the county 
of Jones." 

No legislation, however, was held until 
March, 1S58, when an act was passed au- 
thorizing the holding of teachers' institutes 
for periods not less than si.x; working days, 
whenever not less than thirty teachers 
should desire. The superintendent was 
authorized to expend not e.Kceeding $100 
for any one institute, to be paid out by the 
county superintendent, as the institute may 
direct, for teachers and lecturers, and $1,- 
000 was appropriated to defray the expenses 
of these institutes. Mr. Fisher at once 
pushed the matter of holding institutes, and 
December 6, 1S5S, he reported to the Board 
of Education that institutes had been ap- 
pointed in twenty c(junties within the pre- 
ceding si.x months, and more would have 
been held but the appropriation had been 
exhausted. At the first session of the Board 
of Education, commencing December 6, 
1S5S, a code (jf school laws was enacted, 
w'.iicli retained the existing provisions for 
teuciicr^' institutes. In Marcii, U'-'-:^, ihe 

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niSTORr or /oii'.i. 

General .\sscmbh" amciulcd the act of the 
board bv appropriating " a sum not ex- 
ceeding $50 annually for one such institute, 
held as provided by law in each county." 
In 1S65 the superintendent, Mr. Faville, re- 
ported that •■ the provision made by the 
State for the benefit of teachers' institutes 
has never been so fully appreciated, both 
by the people and the teachers, as during- 
the last two years." Under this law an in- 
stitute is held annually in each count)-, 
under the direction of tlic county superin- 

By an act approved March 19, 1S74, nor- 
mal institutes were established in each 
county, to be held annually by the countv 
superintendent. This was regarded as a 
very decided step in advance b}' Mr. Aber- 
neth)', and in 1876 the General Assembly 
established the first permanent State Nor- 
mal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk 
Count}-, appropriating the building and 
property of the Soldiers' Orphans Home 
at that place for that purpose. This school 
is now "in the full tide of successful ex- 

Funds for the support of the public 
schools are derived in several waj's. The 
sixteenth section of every congressional 
township was set apart by the General 
Government for school purposes, being 
one thirty-sixth part of all the lands of the 
State. The minimiun price of these lands 
was fi.xed at $1.25 per acre. Congress also 
made an additional donation to the State of 
500,000 acres, and an appropriation of 5 
per cent, on all the sales of public lands to 
the school fund. The State gives to this 
fund the proceeds of the sales of all lands 
which escheat to it ; the proceeds of all 
fines for the violation of the liquor and 
criminal laws. The money derived from 
these sources constitutes the permanent 
school fund of the State, which cannot be 
diverted to an_v other purpose. The ]>en- 
alties collected bv the courts for fines and 

forfeitures go to the school fund in the 
counties where collected. The proceeds 
of the sale of lands and the 5 per cent, fund 
go into the State Treasury, and the State 
distributes these proceeds to the several 
counties according to their request. 

In 1844 there were in the State 4,339 
school districts, containing 11,244 schools, 
and employing 21,776 teachers. The aver- 
age monthly pay of male teachers was 
$32.50, and of female teachers $27.25. There 
were 594,730 persons of school age, of whom 
431,513 were enrolled in the public schools. 
The average cost of tuition for each pupil 
per month was $1.62. The expenditures 
for all school purposes was $5,129,819.49. 
The permanent school fund is now $3,547,- 
123.82, on which the income for 1S81 was 

Besides the State University, Agricult- 
ural College and Normal School, described 
on preceding pages, ample provision for 
higher education has been made by the 
different religious denominations, assisted 
by local and individual beneficence. There 
are, exclusive of State institutions, twenty- 
three universities and colleges, and one 
hundred and eleven academies and other 
private schools for the higher branches. 
All these are in active operation, and most 
of them stand high. 

Amity College, located at College 
Springs, Page County, has eight instructors 
and two hundred and forty-five students. 

Burlington University, eight instructors 
and forty-three pupils. 

Callanan College, at Des Moines, has 
eighteen in the faculty and one hundred 
and twentv students enrolled. 

Central University, at Pella, Marion 
County, is under the auspices of the Baptist 
church, and has eleven in the faculty and 
one hundred and two students. 

Coe College, at Cedar Rapids, has a 
faculty of ten, and an attendance of one 
hundred and ninctv-nine. 

•■ .r nl 

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U/S70/?}' Of /oir.i. 

Cornell College, Methodist Episcopal, at 
Mt. Vernon, Linn County, has cigiitce;i 
members of the faculty and four hundred 
and seventy-nine scholars. This is a strong 

Drake Univcrsit}-, at Des Moines, has 
thirty instructors and three hundred and 
twenty-five pupils. 

Griswold College, at Davenport, is luider 
the control of the Episcopal church, and 
has seven instructors and seventy-five stu- 

Iowa College, at Grinnell, is permanently 
endowed. Has fourteen instructors and 
three hundred and eighty-four students. 

Iowa Wesleyan University (Methodist 
Episcopal), at Mt. Pleasant, has six mem- 
bers of the faculty and one hundred and 
seventy-five students. 

Luther College, at Decorah, Winneshiek 
County, has a facult}' of ten, and one hun- 
dred and sixty-five pupils. 

Oskaloosa College has a faculty of five, 
and one hundred and thirty -five students. 

Penn College, at Oskaloosa, has a faculty 
of five members, and one hundred and forty 
pupils in attendance. 

Simpson Centenar}- College, at Indianola, 
Warren County (Methodist Episcopal), has 
a faculty of seven and an attendance of two 

Tabor College, at Tabor, Fremont 
County, modeled after the Oberlin (Oliio; 
College, has tv/elve members in the faculty 
and an attendance of two hundred and ten 

U:iiversity of Des Moines has five in- 
structors and fifty pupils. 

Upper Iowa University (Methodist Epis- 
copal), located at Fayette, in Fayette 
County, has eleven instructors and three 
hundred and fifty students. 

Whittier College, at Salem, Ilenrv 
County, is under the auspices of the 
Friends. There are two instructors and 
sixty pupils. .... - 


When Wisconsin Territory was organ- 
ized in iSjO, the entire population of that 
portion of tiio Territory now embraced in 
the State of Iowa was 10,531. The Terri- 
tory then embraced two counties, Dubuque 
and Des Moines, erected by the Territor^- 
of Michigan in 1S34. Since then the 
counties have increased to ninety-nine, and 
the population in iSSo was 1,624,463. The 
following table will show the population at 
different periods since the erection of Iowa 
Territory : 

1S3S. , 

.844 . 


Population I Year I'opiil.ition 

2;,5S9'iS59 638,775 

.... 43,ii5|iS6o 674,913 

.... 75,i;2!iS63 701,73- 

.... 97,5Sii'iS^'5, 750.699 

. 1 16,65111867 902,0^0 

1,040 S19 


1S49 152,9881869.. 

iS^o. 191,9s.'' 1S70. . 

■S51 204,774;iS73 . 

iS;2 230,7131875 ;.. 1366,000 

1854 .326.013 iSSo 1,624463 

JS56 5'9.o;s 

The most populous county is Dubuque — ■ 
42,997. Polk Count}- has 42,395, and Scott, 
41,270. Not only in population, but in 
everything contributing to the growth and 
greatness of a State, has Iowa made rapid 
progress. In a little more than thirty-five 
years its wild but beautiful prairies have 
advanced from the home of the savage to a 
highly civilized commonwealth. 

The first railroad across the State was 
completed to Council Bluffs in January, 
1 87 1. The completion of three others scon 
followed. In 1854 there was not a mile of 
railroad in Iowa. Within the succeeding- 
twenty j-ears, 3,765 miles were built and 
put in successful operation. 

The present value of buildings for our 
State institutions is as follows: 

.Sta e Capitol.. . .$2,5ro,cO'j:In-titui!Oiis for the 

S'.ate Uiiivcrsitv. 400,000! In.sane $1,149,000 

Agricultural Col. Orp.hans' H .me.. 62,g-x) 

and Farm .... 300,000 Penitentiaries. . .. 40S.000 

Inst, fjr the Blind 1 50,000^ Normal School. . 50,000 

Institution for the Reform School. . 90,000 

Deaf and Dumb 225,000 




///s/o/n- OF /OlIA. 

The State has never lc\ied more llian 
two and onc-haK mills on the dolla!' fur 
State tax, and this is at present the consti- 
tutional limit. 

Iowa has no State debt. Whatever obli- 
gations have been incurred in the past have 
been promptly met and full)' paid. Manv 
of the counties are in debt, but only four of 
them to an amount e.\ceeding §100,000 each. 
The bonded debt of the counties amounts 
in the aggregate to $2,592,222, and the float- 
ing debt, $153,456; total, $2,745,678. 

In tlic language of Judge C. C. Xourse, 
we feel compelled to say : " The great ulti- 
mate fact that America would demonstrate 
is, the existence of a people capable of at- 
taining and preserving a superior civiliza- 
tion, with a government self-imposed, self- 
administered and self-perpetuated. Iii this 
age of wonderful progress, America can 
exhibit nothing to the world of mankind 
more wonderful or more glorious than her 
new States — 3-oung empires, born of iier 
own enterprise and tutored at her own 
political hearth-stone. Well ma}- s!ie sav 
to the monarchies of the Old World, who 
look for evidence of her regal grandeur 
and state, 'Behold, these are my jewels!' 
and ma}' she never blush to add, ' This one 
in the center of the diadem is loWA !' " 


Iowa, in the highly figurative and ex- 
pressive language of the aborigines, is said 
to signify " The Beautiful Land," and was 
applied by them to this mpgniticent section 
of the country between tiic two great rivers. 

The general shape of the State is that oi' 
a rectangle, the northeiii atid southern 
boundaries being due east and west lines, 
and its eastern and western boundaries de- 
termined by soullurl}- ilowing ri\crs — the 
Mississippi on the ea>t and the .^Iis■lOllli 
and the Big Sioux on the west. Tiie width 
of the State from north I0 ^outh is ever :od 
miles, being from the parallel of 43^ 30' to 

tliat of 40' 36', or mcrelv three degrees: 
but this does not include the small angle at 
the southeast corner. The length of the 
State from east to west is about 265 miles. 
The area is 55,044 square miles, nearly all 
of which is readily tillable and highly fer- 

The State lies whoUv within, and com- 
prises a part of a vast plain, and there is no 
mountainous or even hillv country within 
its borders, excepting the bluffs of tiic larger 
rivers. The highest point is near Spirit 
Lake, and is but 1,200 feet above the lowest, 
which is in the southeast corner, and is 444 
feet above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. 
The average descent per mile between these 
two points is four feet, and that from Spirit 
Lake to the northeast corner of the State, 
at low-water mark of the Mississippi, is five 
feet five inches. 

It has been estimated that about seven- 
eighths of Iowa was prairie nhen the white 
race fust settled here. It seems to be a set- 
tled point in science that the annual fires of 
the Indians, prevented this western country 
from becoming heavily timbered. 

Geologists divide the soil of Iowa into 
three general divisions, which not only 
possess different physical characters, but 
also differ in the mode of their origin. 
These are drift, bluff and alluvial and be- 
long respectively to the deposits bearing 
the same names. The drift occupies a 
much larger part of the surface of the State 
than both the others. The bluff has the 
next greatest area of surface. 

All soil is disintegrated rock. The drift 
deposit of Iowa was derived to a consider- 
able extent from the rocks of Minnesota ; 
but the greater part was derived from its 
own locks, much of which has been trans- 
ported but a short distance. In Northern 
and Xorthwcstern Iowa tlic drift contains 
more sand and grave! than elsewhere. In 

K.>;.»'>..-ii.<.*-.»..»,,*..*..»..*..»..*. ♦..♦..♦..♦..•..•..♦..♦..♦..♦..♦,.♦..♦..♦..♦..♦..♦..♦..«.,*. ♦,.<;.*,.»..<..».:«,.«..»/^..<'.>..v 

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Southern Iowa the soil is frequently- btifl 
and clayey. The bluff soil is found only in 
the western part of the State, and adjacent 
to Missouri River. Although it contains 
less than i per cent, of cla\' in its com- 
position, it is in no respect inferior to the 
best drift soil. The alluvial soil is that of 
the flood plains of the river valleys, or bot- 
tom lauds. That which is periodically 
flooded by the rivers is of little value for 
agricultural purposes ; but a large part of 
it is entirel}- above the reach of the highest 
flood, and is verj' productive. 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from 
the Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclusive ; but 
the greater portion of the surface of the 
State is occupied by those of the Palaeozoic 
age. The table below will show each of 
these formations in their order: 

'-C 5 '-^ '^^ I '-^ ^'-" 2 ^' ^ ^ ^i 

5 c c i^ 'ji c 

The Sioux quartzitc, in the azoic system, 
is found exposed in natural ledges only 
upon a few acres in the extreme northwest 
corner of the State, upon the banks of the 
Big Sioux River, for which reason the 
specific name of Sioux quartzite has been 
given them. It is an intensely hard rock, 
breaks in splintery fracture, and of a color 
'varying, in different localities, from a light 
to deep red. The process of metamorphism 
has been so complete tliroughout the whole 
formation that the rock is almost every- 
where of uniform texture. The dip is four 
or five degrees to the northward, and the 
trend of the outcrop is eastward and west- 

The Potsdam sandstone formation is ex- 
posed onl}' in a small portion of the north- 
eastern pait of the State. It is only to be 
seen in the bases of the bluffs and steep 
valley sides which border the river there. 
It is nearly valueless for economic purposes. 
No fossils have been discovered in this for- 
mation in Iowa. 

The Lower Magnesian limestone has but 
little greater geographical extent in Iowa 
than the Potsdam sandstone. It lacks a 
uniformity of texture and stratification, ow- 
ing to which it is not generally valuable for 
building purposes. 

The St. Peter's sandstone formation is 
remarkably uniform in thickness through- 
out its known geographical extent, and it 
occupies a large portion of the northern 
half of Allamakee County; immediately be- 
neath the drift. 

With the exception of the Trenton lime- 
stone, all the limestones of both Upper and 
Lower Silurian age in Iowa are magnesian 
limestone. This formation occupies large 
portions of Winneshiek and Allamakee 
counties, and a small part of Clayton. The 
greater part of it is useless for economic 
purposes ; but there are some compact, 
even layers that furnish fine material for 
u'indow caps and sills. 














Tlic Galena limestone is the upper for- 
mation of the Trenton Group. It is 150 
miles long and seldom exceeds twelve miles 
in width. It exhibits its greatest dc\'clop- 
ment in DLibuquc Count}-. It is nearh' a 
puie dolomite with a slight admixture of 
silicious matter ; good blocks for dressing 
arc sometimes found near the top of the 
bed, although it is usually unfit for such a 
purpose. This formation is the source of 
the lead ore of the Dubuque lead mines. 
The lead region proper is confined to an 
area of about fifteen miles square in the 
vicinity of Dubuque. The ore occurs in 
vertical fissures, which traverse the rock at 
regular intervals from east to west ; some 
is found in those which have a north and 
south direction. This ore is mostl}' that 
known as galena, or sulphuret of lead, very 
small quantities only of the carbonate being 
found with it. 

The surface occupied b}- the Maquoketa 
shales is more than 100 miles in length, but 
is singularly long and narrow, seldom reach- 
ing more than a mile or two in width. The 
most northern exposure yet recognized is 
in the western part of Winneshiek Count}^ 
while the most southerl)' is in Jackson 
County, in the bluffs of the Mississippi. 
The formation is largely composed of bluish 
and brownish shales, sometimes slightl}- 
arenaceous, sometimes calcareous, which 
weather into a tenacious cla}- upon the sur- 
face, and the soil derived from it is usually 
stiff and clayey. 

The area occupied by the Niagara lime- 
stone is forty and fiftv miles in width and 
nearly 160 miles long from north to south. 
This formation is entirely a magnesian lime- 
stone, with a considerable portion of sili- 
cious matter, in some places, in the form of 
chert or coarse flint. A large part of it 
probably affords the best and greatest 
amount of quarr)- rock in the State. The 
quarries at Anamosa, Lc Claire and Farley 
arc all opened in this formation. 

The area of surface occupied by the 
Hamilton limestone and shales, is as great 
as those by all the formations of both Upper 
and Lower Silurian age in the State. Its 
length is nearlv 200 mites, and width fjom 
forty to htty. Portions of it are valuable 
for economic purposes ; and, having a large 
geographical extent in the State, is a very 
important formation. Its value for the pro- 
duction of hydraulic lime has been demon- 
strated at Waverly, Bremer County. The 
heavier and more uniform magnesian beds 
furnish material for bridge piers and other 
material requiring strength and durability. 
A coral occurs near Iowa Cit}', known as 
" Iowa City marble" and " bird's-eye mar- 

Of the three groups of formations that 
constitute the carboniferous, viz., the sub- 
carboniferous, coal measures and Permian, 
onl)- the first two are found in Iowa. 

The Subcarboniferoiis group occupies a 
very large area of surface. Its eastern 
border passes from the northeastern part of 
Winnebago County, with considerable di- 
rectness in a southeasterly direction to the 
northern part of Washington County. It 
then makes a broad and direct bend nearly 
eastward, striking the Mississippi at Mus- 
catine. The southern and western bound- 
aries are to a considerable extent the same 
as that which separates it from the real 
field. From the southern part of Poca- 
hontas County it passes southeast to Fort 
Dodge, thence to Webster City, thence to 
a point three or four miles northeast of El- 
dora, in Hardin County, thence southward 
to the middle of the north line of Jasper 
Countv, thence southeastward to Sigour- 
nev, in Keokuk Countv, thence to the north- 
eastern corner of Jefferson County, thence 
sweeping a few miles eastward to the south- 
east corner of Van Burcn County. Its arc 
is about 250 miles long and from twenty to 
fifty miles wide. 

The most southerly exposure of the Kin- 

u/sronr of /owa. 







dcrluiok beds is in Dcs M')ines County, 
near the mouth oi Skunk River. The most 
northerly now known is in tlie eastern part 
of Pocahontas Count}", more than 200 miles 
distant. Tlic piincipal exposures of this 
formation are along the bluffs whicli border 
the Mississippi and Skunk rivers, where 
they form the eastern and northern bound- 
ary of Des Moines County ; along English 
River, in Washington Countv ; along the 
Iowa River, in Tama, Marshall, Hamlin 
and Franklin counties, and along the Des 
Moines River, in Humboldt Count}-. This 
formation has a considerable economic 
value, particularly in the northern portion 
of the region it occupies. In Pocahontas 
and Humboldt counties it is invaluable, as 
no other stone except a few boulders are 
found here. At Iowa Falls the lower 
division is very good for building purposes. 
In ISIarshall County all the limestone to be 
obtained comes from this formation, and 
the quarries near Le Grand are very valu- 
able. At this point some of the layers are 
finely veined with peroxide of iron, and are 
wrought into both useful and ornamental 
objects. In Tama County the oolitic mem- 
ber is well exposed, where it is manufact- 
ured into lime. Upon exposure to atmos- 
phere and frost it crumbles to pieces; 
consequently it is not valuable for building 

The Burlington limestone is carried down 
by the southerly dip of the Iowa rocks, so 
that it is seen for the last time in this State 
in the valley of Skunk River, near the 
southern boundary of Des Moines Countv ; 
it has been recognized in the northern part 
of Washington County, which is the most 
northerly point that it has been found ; but 
it probably exists as far north as Marshall 
County. Much valuable material is afforded 
by this formation for economic puri^oses. 
The upper division furnishes excellent com- 
m.on quarry rock. Geologists are attracted 
by the great abundance and wiriety of its 

fossils — crinoids — n(_iw known to be more 
than 300. 

The Keokuk limestone formation is to be 
seen only in four counties : Lee,^'an Ruren, 
Henry and Des Moines. In some kicalities 
the upper silicious portion is known as tlie 
Geode bed ; it is not recognizable in the 
northern portion of the formation, nor in 
connection witli it where it is exposed, 
about eighty miles below Keokuk. The 
gcodes of the Geode bed are more or less 
masses of silex, usually hollow and lined 
with crystals of quartz; the outer crust is 
rough and unsightly, but the crystals which 
stud the interior are often very beautiful ; 
they vary in size from the size of a walnut 
to a foot in diameter. This formation is of 
great economic value. Large quantities 
of its stone have been used in the finest 
structures in the State, among which are 
the postoflices at Dubuque and Des Moines. 
The principal quarries are along the banks 
of the Mississippi, from Keokuk to Nauvoo. 

-The St. Louis limestone is the uppermost 
of the subcarboniferous group in Iowa. It 
occupies a small superficial area, consisting 
of long, narrow strips, yet its extent is very 
great. It is first seen resting on the Geode 
division of the Keokuk limestone, near Keo- 
kuk ; proceeding northward, it forms a 
narrow border along the edge of the coal 
fields in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jeffer- 
son, Washington, Keokuk and Mahaska 
counties; it is then lost sight of until it 
appears again in the banks of Boone River, 
where it again passes out of view under the 
Coal Measures, until it is next seen in the 
banks of the Des Moines, near Fort Dcjdge. 
As it exists in Iowa, it consists of three 
tolerably distinct sub-divisions : The mag- 
nesian, arenaceous and calcareous. The 
upper division furnishes excellent material 
for quicklime, and when quarries are well 
opened, as in the northwestern j")art of Van 
Buren Comity, huge blocks are obtained. 
The sandstone, or middle di\'ision, is of 

•- ♦ ♦:♦ ■»■"*■ ♦"'♦ ■*■ *" V '♦"> > * « .♦ ♦. > ■♦ ■> 

;« *; 






///STOA'f iJF JOU'A. 

little value. The lower, or magiiesian di- 
vision, furnishes a valuable and durable 
stone, exposures of which are found on Lick 
Creek, in Van Burcn County, and on Long 
Creek, seven miles west of Burlington. 

The Coal Measure group is properly 
divided into three formations, viz.: The 
Lower, Middle and Upper Coal Measures, 
each having a vertical thickness of about 
200 feet. The Lower Coal Measures exist 
eastward and northward of the Des Moines 
River, and also occupy- a large area west- 
ward and southward of that river, but their 
southerly dip passes them below the Middle 
Coal Measures at no great distance from 
the 2"iver. This formation possesses greater 
economic value than any other in the whole 
State. The clav that underlies almost every 
bed of coal furnishes a large amount of ma- 
terial for potter's use. The sandstone of 
these measures is usually soft and unfit, but 
in some places, as in Red Rock in jNLirion 
County, blocks of large dimensions are ob- 
tained, which make good building material, 
samples of which can be seen in the State 
Arsenal, at Des Moines. 

The Upper Coal Measures occupy a 
very large area, comprismg thirteen whole 
counties, in the southwestern part of the 
State. By its northern and eastern bound- 
aries it adjoins the area occupied by the 
Middle Coal Measures. 

The next strata in the geological series 
are of the Cretaceous age. They are found 
in the western half of the State, and do not 
dip, as do all the other [iirniations upon 
wiiich they rest, to the southward and west- 
ward, but have a general dip of their own 
to the north of westward, u liich, however, 
is very slight. Although the actual ex- 
posures of cretaceous rocks are tew in Iowa, 
tiiere is reason to believe th; t nearly all the 
western half of the State was originally 
occupied b}' them ; but they have been 
removed by denudation, wliich has taken 
.. , place at two separate periods. 


The Nishnabolany sandstone has the most 
easterly and southerly extent of the cre- 
tncet)us deptjsits of Iowa, reaching the 
soutlieastern part of Guthrie Count v and 
the southern part <jf Montgonurv County. 
To the northward, it passes beneath the 
Woodbury sandstones and shales, the latter 
passing beneath the chalky beds. This 
sandstone is, with few exceptions, valueless 
for economic purposes. 

The chalky beds rest upon the Wood- 
bury sandstone and shales. Thev have not 
been observed in Iowa except in the blutTs 
which border the Big Sioux River in Wood- 
bury and Plymouth counties. They are 
composed almost entirely of calcareous ma- 
terial, the upper portion of which is exten- 
sively used for lime. No building material 
can be obtained from these beds, and the 
only value they possess, except lime, are 
the marls, which at some time may be use- 
ful on the soil of the adjacent region. 

Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern 
Middle Iowa, which, it is estimated, contain 
the following areas: Cerro Gordo County, 
1,500 acres; Worth, 2,000; Winnebago, 2,- 
000; Hancock, 1,500; Wright, 500; Kos- 
suth, 700; Dickinson, 80. Several other 
counties contain peat beds, but the peat is 
inferior to that in the northern part of the 
State. The beds are of an average depth 
of four feet. It is estimated that each acre 
of these beds will furnish 250 tons of dry 
fuel for each foot in depth. At present 
this peat is not utilized; but owing to its 
great distance from the coal fields and the 
absence of timber, the time is coming when 
its value will be fully realized. 

The only sulphate of the alkaline earths 
of any economic value is gy[)iu:n, and it 
mav be found in the vicinity of Fort Dodge 
in Webster County. The deposit occupies 
a nearly central position in the county, the 
Des Moines River running nearly centrally 
thi-ough it, along tlie valley sides of which 
the gypsum is seen in the form of ordinary 

' :/T 



been detected in the Coal Measures, the St. 
Louis limestone, the Cretaceous strata, and 
also in the dead caves of Dubuque. 

Sulphate of strontia is found at Fort 
Dodtre. . - . .■ ■ ■. 

rock clifT and ledges, and also occurring 
abundantly in similar positions both 
vides of the valleys of the smaller streams 
and of the numerous ravines coming- into 
liic river vallev. The most northerly known 
limit of the deposit is at a point near the 
mouth of Lizard Creek, a tributary of the 
Des Moines River and almost adjoining the 
town of Fort Dodge. The most southerly 
point at wliich it lias been exposed is about 
six miles, by way of the river, from the 
northeily point mentioned. The width of 
the area is unknown, as the gypsum be- 
comes lost beneath the overlying drift, as 
one goes up the ravines and minor valleys. 

On either side of the creeks and ravines 
which come into the valley of tiie Des 
Moines River, the gypsum is seen jutting 
out from beneath the drift in the form of 
ledges and bold quarry fronts, having al- 
most the exact appearance of ordinar)' lime- 
stone exposures, so horizontal and regular 
its lines of stratification, and so similar in 
color is it to some varieties of that rock. 
The principal quarries now opened are on 
Two Mile Creek, a couple of miles below 
Fort Dodge. ■ 

Epsomite, or native Epsom salts, having 
been discovered near Burlington, all the 
sulphates of alkaline earths of natural origin 
have been recognized in Iowa, all except 
the sulphate of lime being in very small 

Sulphate of lime in the various forms of 
fibrous gypsum, selenite and small, amor- 
phous masses, has also been discovered in 
various formations in different parts of the 
State, including the Coal Measure sliales 
near Fort Dodge, where it exists in small 
quantities, quite independently of the great 
gypsum of deposit there. The quantity of 
gypsum in these minor deposits is always 
too small to be of any practical value, 
usually occurring in shales and slial}- clays, 

associated with strata that contain more or j at all by frost, this great resource of the :*:^ 

I • - •'^•- 

less sulohuret (jf iron. Gvnsum has thus i State contniucs intact. ;«:.« 

The greatest objection to the climate of 
this State is the prevalence of wind, which 
is somewhat greater than in the States south 
and cast, but not so great as farther west 
The air is purer than either east or south, 
as indicated by the bluer sky and conse- 
quent deeper green vegetation, and is 
therefore more bracing. By way of con- 
trast. Northern Illinois has a whiter sky 
and a consequent more j-ellowish green 

The prevailing direction of the wind is 
from the west. 

Thunder-storms are somewhat more vio- 
lent here than cast or south, but not so 
furious as toward the Rocky Mountains. 
The greatest rainfall is in the southeastern 
part of the State, and the least in the north- 
western portion. The increase of timber 
growth is increasing the amount of rain, as 
well as distributing it more evenly through- 
out the year. As elsewhere in the North- 
western States, easterl}' winds bring rain 
and snow, while westerly ones clear the sky. 
While the highest temperature occurs here 
in August, the month of July averages the 
hottest, and January- the coldest. The mean 
temperature of April and October nearly 
corresponds to the mean temperature of 
the year, as well as to the seasons of spring 
and fall, while that of summer and winter 
is best represented by August and Decem- 
ber. Indian summer is delightful and well 
prolonged. Untimely frosts sometimes oc- 
cur, but seldom severely enough to do 
great injury. The wheat crop being a 
staple product of this State, and not injured 

) , ■; , 

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. I ■ ■•'. Vl.l '"■• 

'■* ■* .*. 

///sy (//.'?■ (;a /. 'ii.l 





Appai!oo>e . . . 



Black Hawk... 



Buena Vista 




Cass . 


Cerro Gordo. . . 












Des Moines.. . . 




Fa\ ette 



Fremont.. ..... 



Guthrie , 

Hamilton , 









Jack -on 






Ko= ulh 






















9,904 1 


































3', 164 
















o ^^ 

1 8,947 

16 8. 3 








1 0,1 So 



































'9 434 









23 9'3 

•4, 293 

5 595 
1 1,461 







34,859 ' 
•4,.'3o : 

1,968 I 

•7,225 , 
25,111 ' 
23,7^^2 ; 




Monlpomerv. . 
Musc.itine . . . . 




Palo Alto 


Pocahontas. . . , 









Siory . 




Van Buren 



Washington. . . 


Webster , 

Winnebago. . . 
Winneshiek.. . . 




I S50 . 


1S60. I 1S70. ' 1880. 

i I 























17,08 1 




























•6,1 31 1 
















1 2,085 






:•» ♦:;•:♦' 


Total I 192,2141 674,9131,191,792,1,624,463 


Governors. — Robert Lucas, 1 838-4 1; John 
Chamber, iS4i-'45; James Chirk, 1S45. 

Secretaries. — Wm. B. Conway, 1S3S, died 
1S39; James Clark, 1839-41; O. H. W. 
Stull, 1841-43; Samuel J. Burr, iS43-'45 ; 
Jesse Williams, 1845. 

Atiditors. — Jesse Williams, iS40-'43; Will- 
iam L. Gilbert, 1 843-45; Robert M. Sccrcst, 
1845. ■ 

Treasurers. — Thornton Baylie, iS39-'40; 
Morgan Reno, 1840. 

Judges — Charles Mason, Chief Justice. 
1838; Joseph Williams, 183S; Thomas S. 
Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Couucil. — Jesse B. Brown, 
1838-49; Stephen Hempstead, iS39-'4o; M. 
Bainridge, 1840-41; J. W. Parker, i84i-'4r; 
John D. Elbert, 1 842-43 ; Thomas Co.x, 

• ♦..<.♦„••■;.♦_*;♦;.«:.♦^i^>:*;*.>^♦^♦;>^♦^•n«.♦.!^;.♦;,♦^*:>;j:*^*^♦h*;«^^ 



> ♦; 

♦ ♦: 

♦ .♦: 


♦ ♦: 

I S43-'44; S. Clinton Hasting, 1S45; Stephen 
Hempstead, i845-'46. 

Speakers of the House. — William H. Wal- 
lace, i838-'39; Edward Johnson, 1839-40; 
Thomas Cox, i840-'3i ; Warner Lewis, 
1841-42; James 3M. Morgan, iS42-"43; James 
P. Carleton, i843-'44; James M. Morgan, 
1845 ; George W. McLeary, 1 845-46. 


Governors. — Ansel Briggs, iS46-'5o; 
Stephen Hempsfead, iS50-'54; James W. 
Grimes, i854-'58; Ralph P. Lowe, 1858- 
'6g; Samuel J. Kiikwood, i86o-'64 ; Will- 
iam ^L Stone, iS64-'6S; Samuel Morrill, 
i868-'72; Cyrus C. Carpenter, \S>j2-'j6; 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, iS/S-'//; J. G. New- 
bold, 1877-78; John H. Gear, 1878-82; 
Buren R. Sherman, i882-'86 ; William Lar- 
rabee, 1886. 

Lieut c7ia7it-Gover nor s. — Oran Faville.iSjS- 
'6g; Nicholas J. Rusch, i86o-'62; John R. 
Needham, i862-'64; Enoch W. Eastman, 
i864-'66; Benjamin F. Gue, i866-'68; John 
Scott, i868-'7o; ^L M. Walden, iS70-'72 ; 
H. C. Bulls, i872-'74; Joseph Dysart, 
i874-'76; Joshua G. Newbold, i876-'78; 
Frank T. Campbell, i878-'82; Orlando H. 
Manning, 1882-85 ; John A. T. Hull, 1SS6. 

This office was created by the new con- 
stitution Sept. 3, 1S57. 

Secretaries of State. — Elisha Cutter, Jr., 
i846-'48; Joseph H. Bonney, i848-'50; 
George W. McCleary, iS50-'56; Elijah 
Sells, i856-'63; James Wright, iS63-'67 ; 
Ed. Wright, i867-'73 ; Josiah T. Young, 
i873-'79; J. A. T. Hull, iS79-'S5; Franklin 
D. Jackson, 18S5. 

Auditors of State. — Joseph T. Fales, 
i846-'5o; William Pattee, iS50-'54; Andrew 
J. Stevens, iS54--'55 ; John Pattee, i855-'59; 
Jonathan W. Cattell, iS59-'65; John A. 
Elliott, 1865-71; John Russell, iS7i-'75 ; 
Buren W. Sherman. iS75-'Si ; Wm. V. 
Lucas, 1S81 ; John L. Brown, iSS2-'S3; J. 
W. Cattell, acting, i8S5-'86. 

Treasurers of State. — Morgan Reno, 
iS46-'50; Israel Kister, i850-'52 ; >Lartin L. 
Mfirris, iS52-'59; John W. Jones, iS59-'63; 
William H. Holmes, i863-'67; Samuel E. 
Rankin, iS67-"73 ; William Christy, 1873- 
'77 ; George W. Bemis, iS77-'8i ; Edwin 
H. Conger, i8Si-'S5; Voltaire Twombly, 
1 885. 

Attorney-Generals. — David C. Cloud, 
iS53-'56; Samuel A. Rice, i856-'6o; Charles 
C. Nourse, i86o-'64; Isaac L. Allen, 1865- 
'66; Frederick E. Bissell, 1 866- '67; Henry 
O'Connor, iS67-'72; Marcena E. Cutts, 
i872-'76; John F. Mcjunkin, i877-'8i ; 
Smith McPherson, 1881-85 ; A. J. Baker, 

Adjutant-Generals. — Daniel S. Lee, 1851- 
'55; George W. McCleary, 1855-57; Eli- 
jah Sells, 1857; Jesse Bowen, i857-'6i ; Na- 
thaniel Baker, i86i-'77; John H. Looby, 
1877-78; W. L, Alexander, i878-'84. 

Registers of the State Land-Office. — Anson 
Hart, i855-'57 ; Theodore S. Parvin, 1857- 
'59; Amos B. Miller, i859-'62 ; Edwin 
Mitchell, 1862-63; Josiah A. Harvey, 
i863-'67; Cyrus C. Carpenter, ]867-'7i ; 
x\aron Brown, i87i-'75; David Secor, 
i875-'79; J- K- Powers, i879-'82.* 

Sttperintendents of L'ublic Instruction. — 

James Harlan, i847-'48; Thos. H. Benton, 

Jr., i848-'54; James D. Fads, i854-'57, 

Joseph C. Stone, 1857; Maturin L. Fisher, 

i857-'58; Oran Faville, iS64-'67; D. Frank- 

I lin Wells, i867-'68 ; A. S. Kissell, i868~'72 ; 

j Alonzo Abernethy, iS72-'76; Car! W. 

I Van Coelen, iS76-'82; John W. Akers, 

! This office was created in 1S47 and abol- 
i ished in 1S58, and the duties then devolved 
i upon the secretar}' of the Board of Educa- 
tion ; it was re-created March 23, 1864. 
State I^r inters. — Garrett D. Palmer and 
j George Paul, i849-'5i ; William H. Merritt, 
I i85i-'53 ; William A. Hornish, 1853; Den- 

*Otlice abolished January i, 1SS3, and duties devolved 
'■ on the .Secretary of State 

M- l^ 

I ■ iO ; ?! 

'■} ! ^^ .a^.f 

H/S TOR r OF /OU -A . 

nis A-Mahoiicy and Joseph B. Dorr, 1S53- 
'55; Peter Moriarty, iS55-'57 ; John Tees- 
dale, iS37-'6i ; Francis \V. Pahner, 1S61- 
'69; Frank xM. Mills, iS69-'7i ; G. \V. Ed- 
wards, iS/i-'/S ; Rich. p. Clarkson, 1873- 
'79; Frank M. Mills, iS79-'8i ; Geo. E. 
Roberts, 18S1. 

Sta/e Binders. — William M. Coles, 1855- 
'58; Frank M. Mills, iS58-"67 ; James S. 
Carter, i^G-j-jx ; J.J. Smart, iS7i-'75 ; H. 
A. Perkins, i875~'79; M-itt. Parrott, 1S79- 
'85 ; L. S. Merchant, 18S5. 

Secretaries of Board of Ed neat ion. — T. 
H. Benton, Jr., i859-'63 ; Gran Faville, 

This office was abolished March 23, 1S64. 

Presidents of the Senate. — Thomas Baker, 
i846-'47; Thomas Hughes, 1847-48; John J. 
Selman, 1848-49; Enos Lowe, iS49-'5i ; 
Wm. E. Leflingwell, iS5i-'53; Matiirn L. 
Fisher, i853-'55 ; Wm. W. Hamilton, 1855- 

Under the new Constitution the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor is President of the Senate. 

Speakers of the House. — Jesse B. Brown, 
iS46-'4S; Smiley H. Bonham, iS4S-'5o; 
George Temple, i85o-'52; James Grant, 
i852-'54; Reuben Noble, iS54-'56; Samuel 
McFarland, iS56-'57; Stephen B. Sheledy, 
i857-'59; John Edwards, i859-'6i ; Rush 
Clark, iS6i-'63; Jacob Butler, iS63-'65; Ed. 
Wright, i865-'67; John Russell, iS67-'69; 
Aylett R. Cotton, iS69-'7i ; James Wilson, 
i87i-'73; John H. Gccr, i873-'77; John Y. 
Stone, iS77-'79; Lore Alford, i8So-'8i ; G. 
R. Struble, iS82-'83; Wm. P. Wolf, 1SS4; 
Albert Head, 18SG. 

Chief Justices of th: Supreme Court. — 
Charles Mason, 1S47; Joseph Williams, 
1S47-4S; S. Clinton Hasting-, iS4S-'49; 
Joseph Williams, iS49-'55 ; George G. 
Wright, i855-'6o; Ivalph P. Lowe. i86o-'C2; 
Caleb Baldwin, i862-'64; George G. 
Wright, iS64-'66; Ralj^h P. Lowe, 1S66- 
'68; John F. Dillon, i8GS-'7o; Chester C. 

Cole, i870-'7i ; James G. Day, i87i-'72; 
Joseph M. Beck, i872-'74; W. E. Miller, 
1874-76; Chester C. Cole, I S76; Wm. H. 
Sec vers, i876-'77 ; James G. Day, iS77-'7S; 
James H. Rothrock, i878-'83 and '84; 
Joseph M. Beck, i879-'8o and '85 ; Austin 
Adams, i88o-'8i and '86; Wm. H. Seevers, 

Associate Justices. — Joseph Williams, held 
over from territorial government uiitil a 
successor was appointed ; Thomas S. Wil- 
son, 1847; John F. Kinney, iS47-'54; George 
Greene, i847-'55; Jonathan C. Hall, 1854- 
'55; William G.Woodward, 185s ; Norman 
W. Isbell, i855-'56; Lacon D. Stockton, 
i856-'6o; Caleb Baldwin, i86o-'64; Ralph 
P. Lowe, i860; George G. Wright, i860; 
John F. Dillon, i864-'7o; Chester C. Cole, 
iS64-'77; Joseph M. Beck, 1868; W. E. 
Miller, 1870; James G. Day, 1870. 

United States Senators. — Augustus C, 
Dodge, i848-'55 ; George W. Jones, 1848- 
'59; James Harlan, iS55-'65 ; James W. 
Grimes, i859-'69; Samuel J. Kirk wood, 
1866; James Harlan, i867-'73; James B. 
Howell, 1870; George G. Wright, 1871- 
'yy; William B. AUison, i873-'79 ; Samuel 
J. Kirk wood, i877-"8i ; Wm. B. Allison, 
i879-'85; James W. McDill, 1S81 ; James 
F. Wilson, 1883. 

Presoit State Officers (18S6). — Governor, 
William Larrabee ; Secretary of State, 
Frank D. Jackson ; Auditor of State, J. W. 
Cattell, acting ; Treasurer, Voltaire Twom- 
bly ; Superintendent Public Instruction, 
John W. Akers ; Printer, George E. Rob- 
erts; Binder, L. S. Merchant; Adjutant- 
General, W. L. Alexander- Librarian, Mrs. 
S. B. Maxwell. 

Supreme Court. — William H. Seevers, 
Chief Justice, Oskaloosa ; James G. Day, 
Sidnev, James H. Rothrock, Tipton, Joseph 
M. Beck, Fort Madison, Austin Adams, 
Dubucjue, Judges; A. J. Baker, ."'ttorney- 
i General. 


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•^-^.^^.^ixS^^^S. 1 


EIl^P ILU(t3AL;3 



|i^ OBERT LUCAS, the first 
'*^ h. Governor of Iowa Ter- 
ritory, was the fourth 
son and ninth child of 
William and Siisan. 
s^i^vOr ^N nah Lucas, and was 
''^''""'t^NS^;^ born April i, 17S1, 
in Jefferson \'alley, 
at Shepherdstown, Jefferson 
Count}', Virginia, a few miles 
from Harper's Ferry, where his 
ancestors settled before the Rev- 
olution. His father, who was 
descended from William Penn, 
was born January iS, 1743, and 
his mother, of Scotch extrac- 
tion, was born October S, 1745. 
They were married about the 
year 1760, and reared a family of six sons 
and six daughters. His father, who had 
served as a Captain in the Continental army 
during the Revolutionary war, and had 
distinguished himself at the battle of Bloody 
Run, emigrated with his family to Scioto 
Coimt}-, Ohio, early in the present centur}-. 
At the time of this removal Robert was 
a young man. He had obtained his educa- 
tion chiefly in Virginia, from an old Scotch 
schoolmaster ncmieel McMullen, who taught 
him mathematics and surveying. The latter 
afforded him remunerative employment im- 
mediately upon his entrance into Ohio. 

He was married at Portsmouth, Ohio, 
April 3, 1810, to Elizabeth Brown, who died 
October 18, 181 2, leaving an infant daugh-' 

tcr, who afterward became Mrs. Minerva 
E. B. Sumner. March 7, 1S16, he formed 
a second matrimonial connection ; this time 
with Friendly A. Sumner, who bore to him 
four sons and three daughters. 

The first public office held b}- Robert 
Lucas was that of County Surveyor of Sci- 
oto County, the commission from Governor 
Edward Tiffin, of Ohio, appointing him such 
being dated December 26, 1S03. Decem- 
ber 16, 1805, he was commissioned by 
Governor Tiffin justice of the peace for 
three years. His first military appointment 
was that of Lieutenant of militia, by virtue 
of which he was authorized to raise twenty 
men to assist in filling Ohio's quota of 500 
volunteers called for by the President in 
view of possible difficulties with the Spanish. 
He was subsequently promoted through 
all the military grades to Major Gen- 
eral of Ohio militia, which latter rank was 
conferred upon him in 1S18. 

He was a Brigadier-General on the 
breaking out of the war of 1S12, and had 
much to do with raising troops. He was 
appointed a Captain in the regular army, 
but before his commission reached him he 
was already in active service, scouting, 
spying, carrying a musket in the ranks and 
in other useful capacities. After Hull's 
surrender he was paroled and returned to 
Ohio. He was in the course of time made 
a Lieutenant-Colonel, and then a Colonel, 
from which position he resigned. 

He served in numerous civil office in 

>-\:*:>>"C»>"»v ♦>;«>>>>•♦"«•♦>• «>"«~*'4>>>;v'<r*>' >^ 


.• ♦■ ■*■ '«' '♦•■ '4 '♦' '♦' >■ '♦' '♦" ♦ ■< ■ *■ ♦' ■»■ '♦ ■*' »" '<•" ♦" ■<■" >■ '*' *■ ♦" «■' * ■♦" *•■ *"«: ♦" * ■!■" >■ V '♦: V>>>V>>>>T*>>>>'»'CV>>T*T*>>T»~*>>> , '»' ■*"♦• 


gov/:j,w()!cs of /oir.i. 

Ohio, and at the time of his second marriage, 
in iSi6, lie was and iiad been for some time 
a member of the Oiiio Legislature, scr\in^ 
successively for nineteen years in one or the 
other branch, and in the course of his leg- 
islative career presiding over first one 
and then the other branch. In 1820 and 
again in 1S2S, he was chosen one of the 
Presidential electors of Ohio. In Mav, 
1S32, at Baltimore, Maryland, he presided 
over the first Democratic National Con- 
vention—that which nominated Andrew 
Jackson for his second term as President, 
and Martin V-au Buren for Vice Presi- 
dent. In 1832 he was elected Governor 
of Ohio, and re-elected in 1S34. He declined 
a third nomination for the same office. 

Under the act of Congress to divide the 
Territory of Wisconsin and to establish tiie 
territorial government of Iowa, approved 
June 12, 1S38, the subject of this sketch was 
appointed Governor of the new Territory, 
and he immediately accepted the responsi- 
bility. A journev from tlie interior of Ohio 
to the banks of the Upper Mississippi was 
then a matter of weeks; so that, although 
Governor Lucas set out from his home on 
the 25th of July, delaying on his route 
a few days at Cincinnati, to arrange for the 
selection of the books for a territorial 
library, it was not till nearly the middle of 
August that he reached Burlington, then 
the temporary scat of government. 

The first official act of Lucas as G<jv- 
crnor of Iowa was to issue a proclamation 
dated August 13, 1S38, dividing the Tcrii- 
torv into eight representative districts, ap- 
portioning the members of the Council and 
House of Representatives among the nine- 
teen counties then coni]iosing the Terri- 
tory, and appointing the second Monday- 
in September ensuing for the election of 
members of the Legislative Assembly and 
a delegate to Congress. Mis first message 
to the Legislature, after its organization, 
was datetl November 12, 1S3S, and related 

ciiiellv to a code of laws for tiie new com- 
monwealth. He opposed imprisonment for 
debt, favored the death penalty for murder 
(executions to be in the presence of onl}- 
the Sheriff and a suitable number of wit- 
nesses), and strenuouslv urged the organi- 
zation of a liberal S3Stem of common 
schools. The organization of the militia 
was also one of his pet measures. There 
was a broad difference between the views 
of a majoi-ity of this Legislative Assembly 
and the Governor, on manj- questions of 
public policy, as well as points of authority. 
This resulted in the sending to the Presi- 
dent of a memorial, dated January 12, 1839, 
signed by eight of the council and seven 
of the Representatives, praying the re- 
moval of Governor Lucas. In addition to 
this, a memorial for the Governor's re- 
moval was passed b}- both Houses, signed 
in due form by their presiding officers, and 
transmitted to the President. The charges 
made were met by a protest signed by 
eight Representatives, and as a result Gov- 
ernor Lucas was allowed to remain in office 
until the ne.xt change of administration. 

In 1S39 and 40 occurred the well-known 
boundary dispute with Missouri, which 
was finally settled in favor of Iowa, b_v the 
Supi^eme Court of the United States. No- 
vember 5, 1839, Governor Lucas announced 
that the Territory had advanced in improve- 
ment, wealth and population (which latter 
was estimated at 50,000) without a parallel 
in history, and recommended the necessar}- 
legislation preparatory to the formation of 
a State government. This was overruled 
by the people, however. Among the latest 
of GoN'ernor Lucas's acts was a proclama- 
tion dated April 30, 1841, calling the Leg- 
islature to assemble, for the first time, at 
Iowa City, the new capitol. 

March 25, 1841, he was succeeded by 
John Chambers. He lived a private life 
near Iowa City until his death, February 
7, 1853, at the age of scvent\--one vears. 



y.-'. »; 



4 C&^. y'^^^ CHAMBERS was 



the second Governor of 
Iowa Territory. He was 
born October 6, 17S0, at 
Bromley Bridge, Somer- 
set County, New Jersey. 
His father, Rowland Cham- 
bers, was boi'n in Pennsyl- 
vania, of Irish parentage. 
According to a tradition in 
the family, their remote 
ancestors were Scotch, and 
belonged to the clan Cam- 
eron. Having refused to 
join in the rebellion of 1645, 
they migrated to Ireland, 
where, by an act of Parliament, on their 
own petition, they took the name of Cham- 
bers. Rowland Chambers espoused with 
enthusiasm the cause of American inde- 
pendence, and "was commissioned a Colonel 
of New Jersey militia. At the close of the 
war, reduced in circumstances, he immi- 
grated to Kentucky and settled in \\'ash- 
ington, then the seat of Mason County. 
John, the youngest of seven children, was 
then fourteen years old. A few days after 
the fami'y settled in their new home he 
found einplovment in a dry-goods store, 
and the following spring was sent to 
Transylvania Seminary, at Lexington. He 
returned home in less than a \-ear. In 1797 

he became deputy under Francis Taj-lor, 
Clerk of the District Court. His duties 
being light, he applied himself to the study 
of law. In the spring of iSoo he assumed 
all the duties of the office in which he had 
been employed, and in November following 
he was licensed to practice law. 

In 1803 I^Ir., Chambers, who had now 
entered upon a career of uninterrupted 
I professional prosperity, was married to Miss 
i Margaret Taylor, of Hagerstown, Mary- 
land. She lived but about three years, and 
j in 1S07 he married Miss Hannah Taylor, a 

sister of his first wife. Not long after he 
I . 

engaged in the manufacture of bale rope 

and bagging for the Southern market. In 

this he incurred heavy losses. 

In the campaign of 18 12 he served as 

aid-de-camp to General Harrison, with the 

rank of Major. In 1815 Mr. Chambers was 

sent to the Legislature, and in 1828 he went 

to Congress to fill the unexpired term of 

General Thomas Metcalfe. In 1830 and 

I S3 1 he was again in the State Legislature. 

In 1832 he lost his wife. She was a lady of 

cultivated mind and elegant manners, and 

had made his home a happy and attractive 

one. The same year he was offered a seat 

on the bench of the Supreme Court of 

Kentucky, but tiiis he declined. The same 

office was tendered him in 1S35, but before 

the time for taking his seat, he was obliged 

'■>■* '*;■♦: 


!♦ >. 

„ . _ *•■*-*■■*: 



to resign, out o( coiisideration for his health. 
From 1S35 to 1839 ^^ ^^'"'^ '" Congress, 
making for liimself a high reputation. 

Between 1S15 and 1S2S Mr. Chambers 
was, for several years, the commonweahh's 
attorney for the judicial district in which 
he lived. Me was during that period at the 
zenith of his reputation as a lawyer and ad- 
vocate. He met the giants of the Ken- 
tucky bar in important civil and criminal 
trials. His well-known high sense of honor, 
and his contempt for professional chicanerv, 
commanded the respect of his legal com- 
peers. His appearance and manner were 
dignified, his tone calm and impressive, 
and his language singularly direct and 

He closed his congressional career in 
1S39 '^v'th the purpose of resuming tlie 
practice of law, but his old friend General 
Harrison was nominated for the Presi- 
denc}' and induced him to aid in tlie 
personal canvass General Harrison m:;de 
through the country. He was urged by 
President Harrison to accept some office 
requiring his residence in Washington, but 
this he declined, though he afterward ac- 
cepted the appointment of Governor of 
Iowa. He entered upon the duties of this 
office May 13, 1S41. His success in his 
administration of the affairs of the Territory 
was well attested b}' the approbation of the 
people, and by the hearty commendation 
of those in authority at Washington, espe- 
cially for his management of Indian affairs. 
During his term of office he found it neces- 
sary on several occasions to suppress tlie 
feuds of the red men, which he did with 
such firmness and decision that quiet was 
pro.iipth' restored where war seemed im- 
minent. Governor Chambers was repeat- 
edly called on to treat with the Indian tribes 

for the purchase of their lands. In October, 
1 84 1, he was commissioned jointly with 
Hon. T. H. Crawford. Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs, and Governor Doty, of Wis- 
consin, to hold a treaty with the Sacs and 
Foxes, which, however, did not result in a 
purchase. In September, 1842, being ap- 
pointed sole Commissioner for the same 
purpose, he succeeded fully in carrying out 
the wishes of the Goveinment. In 1S43 he 
held a treaty with the Winnebagoes, but in 
this instance no result was reached. 

In 1844, his term of office having expired, 
he was re-appointed by President Tyler, 
but was removed in 1S45 by President 
Polk. Shortly afterward, with greatly im- 
paired health, he returned to Kentucky, 
where, with skillful medical treatment and 
entire relief from official cares, he partially 
recovered. During the few remaining years 
of his life Governor Chambers's recollec- 
tions of Iowa were of the most agreeable 
character. He spoke gratefulh" of the re- 
ception extended to him b}' her people, and 
often referred with great kindness to his 
neighbors in Des Moines Count}-. 
. His infirm health forbade his engaging in 
any regular employment after his return to 
Kentucky, but in 1849, at the solicitation of 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, he ne- 
gotiated jomtly with Governor Ramsey, of 
Minnesota, a successful treaty with the 
Sioux Indians for the purchase of lands. 
The latter years of Governor Chambers's 
life were spent mostly with his children, 
whose affection and respect -were the chief 
conditions of his happiness. During a visit 
to his daughter in Paris, Kentucky, he was 
taken sick at the house of his son-in-law, C. 
S. Brent, and after a few weeks breathed 
his last, September 21, 1852, in his seventy- 
second year. 



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tliird and last Ter- 
ritorial Governor 
was James Clarke. 
Sometime in the 
autunm of the year 
1837, when the trees 
were in the " sear 
and 3'ellow leaf," a printer 
boy of slender form and 
gentle appearance might 
have been seen crossing 
the laurel hills of his own 
State. Behind him rolled 
the waters of the " Blue 
Juniata," on the banks of 
which he had spent, in 
merry glee, his youthful 
days. He had heard and read of strange 
countries that lay far off toward the setting 
sun, through which broad rivers run, and 
spreading landscapes unfolded to human 
eyes the most rare and magnificent beauty. 
With his youthful gaze fixed upon that star 
which never sets, he set forth into the wilds 
of Wisconsin, a stranger in a strange land, 
an adventurer seeking his own fortune, de- 
pending upon his own exertions, with no 
recommendation save an honest face and 
genteel deportment. This young man was 
James Clarke, who afterward became the 
able, talented and popular Governor of 

He remained in Wisconsin, working at 
his trade as a printer, until after the organi- 

zation of the Territory of Iowa, when he 
removed to Burlington, where the first 
Legislature of Iowa assembled. After the 
death of Mr. Conwav he was appointed by 
President Van Buren, Secretary of the Ter- 
ritory, which office he filled witli great 
credit to himself and satisfaction to the 
people. During the time he held this office 
he contributed by iiis kind, gentle and 
amiable manner to soften the feelings of 
hatred and distrust which at one time ex- 
isted between leading men of the Territory. 
Whoever had business at his office found 
him a kind, gentle, quiet, amiable man, al- 
wa^'s ready and willing to do whatever was 
desired of him, regretting, at the same time, 
that he could do no more. During the 
time he was Secretary he performed a vast 
amount of labor, but notwithstanding the 
large amount of business he transacted, he 
still found time to write for the press, and 
contributed many valuable articles touch- 
ing the future greatness of Iowa. 

After he retired from the office of Secre- 
tary- he again returned to the printing trade, 
and became the leading editor of the Bur- 
lington Gazette. To the columns of this 
paper he devoted his whole energies, and 
by so doing made it the leading Democratic 
paper of the Territory. In the earlj- sum- 
mer of 1845 President Polk removed Mr. 
Chambers, and appointed Mr. Clarke to suc- 
ceed him as Governor of Iowa. Previous 
to his appointment he had been elected by 



■ '{r, ■" .. 

.■ - J ' ..JjOO 

•i, f'.i". 

CO ]'.'■: /iWOUS OF IOWA. 

the people of his CD'.irity a delcijatc ti,> the 
fiisl cojivcntion wliich assembled to fonii a 
Constitution for the State of Iowa. In this 
convention he disting'uishcd himself both 
for his talent and personal demeanor, and 
contributed to the pages of tliat Constitu- 
tion some of the g^reat elementary principles 
which lie at tiie foundation of human rights. 
And although that Constitution was de- 
feated, he still had the satisfaction of seeing 
their spirit and meaning transferred to 
another, and still continued as the funda- 
mental law of our State. 

The first Legislature after he received 
his appointment assembled at Iowa City, 
on the first Monday of December, 1S45. 
His message to the Legislature after its or- 
ganization is a inodel of style and clearness. 
He set forth the importance of an early ex- 
tinguishment of the Indian title to all the 
lands within the limits of Iowa, and urged 
the Legislature to memorialize Congress to 
purchase a tract of land on the Upper Mis- 
sissippi for a future home for the Winne- 
bagoes, and thus induce them to part with 
their title to a large tract of country known 
as the " neutral ground," a recommendation 
which the General Government soon after 
acted upon and carried out. 

January 16, 1S46, the Legislature passed 
once more an act for the purpose of elect- 
ing delegates to frame a Constitution for 
the State of Iowa. This lime the friends of 
a State government took it for granted 
that the people of the Teiritory wanted a 
Constitution, so the Legislature provided 
that at the April election following the 
passage of this act, the people of the Ter- 
ritorv sliould elect delegates to a conven- 
tion. Accordingly, at the A]jril election 
delegates were elected, and the cr)nventi(jn, 
agreeable to said act, consisting of thirt\-- 
two memljers instead (jf seventy as in the 
previous convention, met at Iowa Citv, cm 
the hrst Monday of May. 1S46, and after a 

session of eighteen davs produced a Con- 
stitution which was immediatelv submitted, 
adopted, and made the organic law of the 
State of Iowa. After the residt was known 
the Governor issued his proclamation for a 
general election to be held in November 
following, atwhich Ansel Briggs, of Jack- 
son County, was elected Governor of the 

This proclamation was the last public act 
of James Clarke, for as soon as the new 
Governor was qualified, he turned over to 
him all the archives of his office, and re- 
turned once more to the printing office. 
Again he scattered through Iowa his beau- 
tiful editorials tlirough the columns of the 
Burlington Gazette, until the name and 
fame of Iowa became known throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. He 
appeared at the capitol at the first session 
of the State Legislature under the new Con- 
stitution, delivered to that body an affecting 
and interesting farewell address, then stood 
back quietl}' during the whole of the ses- 
sion, and gazed with indignation upon his 
countenance at the dreadful strife, storms 
and bitterness which was manifested during 
the entire session. 

This was the last time that Mr. Clarke 
ever appeared at the Legislature. He died 
soon after, at Burlington, of the cholera. 
Thus closed the earthly career of a just and 
noble man, cut ofT in the prime of life and 
in the midst of an useful career. He was 
married to a sister of General Dodge, and 
this fact being known at the time of his ap- 
pijintment as Governor, drew upon the 
Dodges the title of the " royal family." But 
whatever might be said in this respect, the 
ajipoinlmcnt could not have been bestowed 
upon a better man, or one more competent 
to fill it. His history is without a stain or 
reproach, and throughout his whole life no 
man ever imputed aught against his char- 
acter as a man and a citizen. 









;* ♦: 








1 ) 





^^^ pit 

:\>i.ii , 





%i^r^ip^'^HE first Governor of 
^.i^.^jr^-v-iUvT/ Iowa under its State 
organization, was 
Ansel Briggs, who, 
like his two imme- 
diate successors, was 
a son of that won- 
derful nursery of progress, 
New England. He was 
the son of Benjamin Ingley 
Briggs and Electa his wife, 
and was born in Vermont, 
February 3, 1806. His 
bo)hood was spent in his 
native State, where, in the 
common schools, he re- 
ceived a fair education, 
improved by a term spent at tlie academy 
of Norwich. In his youth, about the year 
1830, with his parents, he removed to 
Cambridge, Guernsey County, Ohio, where 
he engaged in the work of establishing 
stage lines, and where, as a Whig, he com- 
peted with Jolin Ferguson, a Jacksijn 
Democrat, for the office of county audi- 
tor and was defeated. In his twenty- 
fourth year he married a wife, born the 
same day and year as himself, of whom he 
was soon bereft. Before leaving Ohio he 
married his second wife, Nancy M., daugh- 
ter of Major Dunlap, an otTicer of the war 
of 1812. 

In 1S36, removing from Ohio, he joined 
that hardy band, so honored here to-day, 
the pioneers of Iowa, and settled with his 
family at Andrew, in Jackson Count)-. 
Here he resumed his former business of 
opening stage lines, sometimes driving the 
stage himself, and entering into contracts 
with tlie postoffice department for carrying 
the United States mails weekly between 
Dubuque and Davenport, Dubuque and 
Iowa City, and other routes. 

On coming to Iowa he affiliated with the 
Democrats, and on their ticket, in 1S42, 
was elected a member of the Territorial 
House of Representatives from Jackson 
County, and subsequently sheriff of the 
same county. On the formation of the 
State government, he at once became a 
prominent candidate for Governor. His 
competitors for the Democratic nomination 
were Judge Jesse Williams and William 
Thompson. The question above all others 
dividing the parties in Iowa in that day was 
that of banks, favored by the Whigsi and op- 
posed by the Democrats. A short time be- 
fore the nominating convention met, Briggs, 
at a banquet, struck a responsive chord in 
the popular heart by offering the toast, " No 
banks but earth, and they well tilled," a 
sententious appeal to the pride of the pro- 
ducer and the prejudice of the partisan, 
which was at once caught up as a party 

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!»♦; iSo covEAwoA'S OF /OHM. ' ;♦•: 


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crv, and did more to secure its aulhor the 
noininatioii for Governor tlian all else. 

The convention was held at Iowa Cit}- 
on Thursday, September 24, 1846, and as- 
sembled to nominate State officers and two 
Congressmen. It was called to order bv 
F. D. Mills, of Des Moines County. Will- 
iam Thompson, of Henry County, presided, 
and J. T. Fales, of Dubuque, was Secretary. 
The vote for Governor in the convention 
stood: Briggs, sixty-two; Jesse Williams, 
thirty -two; and William Thompson, thirty- 
one. The two latter withdrew, and Briggs 
was then chosen by acclamation. Elisha 
Cutler, Jr., of ^'"an Buren County, was 
nominated for Secretary of State; Joseph 
T. Fales, of Linn, for Auditor, and Morgan 
Reno, of Johnson, for Treasurer. S. C. 
Hastings and Shepherd Leffler were nomi- 
nated for Congress. The election was held 
October 28, 1846, the entire Democratic 
ticket being successful. Briggs received 
7,626 votes, and his competitor, Thomas 
McKnight, the Whig candidate, 7,379, giv- 
ing Briggs a majority of 247. 

The administration of Governor Briggs 
was generally placid. Although avoiding 
excitement and desirous of being in har- 
monious accord with his party, when oc- 
casion required he exhibited an independent 
firmness not easily shaken. One perplex- 
ing controversy bequeathed him by his 
predecessors was the Missouri boundar)- 
question, which had produced much dis- 
quiet, and even a resort to arms on the part 
of both Iowa and Missouri. 

After the expiration of his four-}cars 
term. Governor Briggs continued his resi- 
dence in Jackson County, where he engaged 
in commercial business, having sold out his 
mail contracts when he became Governor. 

By his second marriage he had eight 
children, all of whom died in infancy save 
two, and of these latter Ansel, Jr., died 
May 15, 1S67, aged twenty-five years. 
John S. Briggs, the only survivor of the 

familv, is the editor of the Idalic Herald, 
published at Blackfoot, Idaho Territory. 
Mrs. Briggs died December 30, 1847, dur- 
ing her husband's term as Governor. She 
was an ardent Christian woman, adhering 
to the Prcsbvterian faith, and very domestic 
in her tastes. She was well educated and 
endowed by nature w'ith such womanly 
tact and grace as to enable her to adorn the 
high estate her husband had attained. She 
dispensed (albeit in a log house, a form of 
architecture in vogue in Iowa in that day, 
as the mansion of the rich or the cabin of 
the poor) a bounteous hospitality to the 
stranger and a generous charity to the poor, 
in which giacious ministrations she was al- 
ways seconded by her benevolent husband. 

In 1S70 Governor Briggs removed from 
Andrew to Council Bluffs. He had visited 
the western part of the State before rail- 
roads had penetrated there, and made the 
trip by carriage. On that occasion he en- 
rolled himself as one of the founders of the 
town of Florence, on the Nebraska side of 
the Missouri River, six miles above Coun- 
cil Bluffs, and which, for a time, disputed 
with Omaha the honor of being the chief 
town of Nebraska. 

He made a trip to Colorado during the 
mining excitement in i860. After return- 
ing and spending some time at home, he 
went to Montana in 1S63, v.-ith his son John, 
and a large party, remaining until 1S65, 
when he came back. 

His last illness, ulceration of the stomach, 
was only five weeks in duration. He was 
able to be out three days before his death, 
which occurred at the residence of his son, 
John S. Briggs, in Omaha, May 5, iSSi, at 
half past three in the morning. Governor 
Gear issued a proclamation the next day, 
reciting his services to the State, ordering 
half-hour guns to be fired and the national 
ilag on the State capitol to be half-masted, 
during the day of the funeral. He was 
buried on Sunday succeeding his death. 


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srEPi!i:.x nE:iFi,TEAo. 




-#SiK; -i^STEPHEK HEffiPSTEfln.«^^ 

P^R.^^^'^-vHIS gentleman, the 
y/^^^^M\ second U-overnor of 
the State, was born 
at New London, 
Connecticut, Octo- 
ber I, 1812, and 
21 ■ Ij? ,- lived in that State 

l|-,'r\'^. ' until the spring of 1S2S, 

when his father's famil}' 
came West and settled on 
a farm a few miles from 
St. Louis, Missouri. Here 
he remained until 1830, 
when he entered as clerk 
iX'^"^i>'-c ^'^ '^ commission house in 

^^■^p)^ Galena, Illinois, and dur- 

ing tlie Black Hawk war he 
was an officer in an artillery company or- 
ganized for the protection of that place. 

At the close of the war he entered as a 
student of the Illinois College at Jackson- 
ville, Illinois, remaining about two years, 
leaving to commence the stud}- of law 
wiiich he finished under Charles S. Hemp- 
Stead, Esq., then a prominent lawyer at 
Galena. In 1S36 he was admitted to prac- 
tice his profcssi<3:i in the courts of the Ter- 
ritory of Wisconsin, then embracing Iowa, 
and in the same year located in Dubuque, 
being the first lawyer who practiced in 
that place. At the organization of the 

Territorial Legislature in 1838 he was 
elected to represent the northern portion 
of the Territory in the Legislative Council, 
of which he was chairman of the committee 
on judiciary, one of the important com- 
mittees of the Council. At the second 
session of that body he was elected presi- 
dent thereof, was again elected a member 
of the Council in 1845, which was held in 
Iowa City, and was again president of the 
same. In 1844 he was elected one of the 
delegates to the first constitutional conven- 
tion of the State of Iowa, and was chair- 
man of the committee on incorporations. 
In 1848, in connection with Hon. Charles 
Mason and W. G. Woodward, he was ap- 
pointed commissioner by the Legislature to 
revise the laws of the State of Iowa, and 
which revision, with a few amendments, 
was adopted as the code of Iowa in 1S51. 
In 1S50 he was elected Governor of the 
State of Iowa, receiving 13,486 votes, 
against 11,403 for James L. Thompson, 575 
f(3r William P. Clarke, and 1 1 scattering. 

The vote was canvassed on the 4th of 
December, and a committee was appointed 
to inftn"m the Governor elect that the two 
Houses of tlie Legislature were rcad_v to re- 
ceive him in joint convention, in order that 
he might receive the oath prescribed by 
the Constitution. After receiving formal 


notification. Governor Hempstead, accom- 
panied by Governor Brii^i:;s, the jiuigcs of 
the Supreme Court and tic officers of 
State, entered the hall of the House, and 
having been duly announced, the Governor 
elect dcliveied his inaugural message, after 
which the oath was administered by the 
chief justice of the Supreme Court. 

This session of the Legislature passed a 
number of important acts which were 
approved by Governor Hempstead, and 
formed fifty-two new counties, most of 
them having the same names and bound- 
aries to-day. These new counties were : 
Adair, Union, Adams, Cass, Montgomer}-, 
Mills, Pottawaltomie, Bremer, Butler, 
Grund}', Hardin, Franklin, Wright, Risley, 
Yell, Greene, Guthrie, Carroll, Fox, Sac, 
Crawford, Shelb}', Harrison, Monona, Ida, 
Waukau, Humboldt, Pocahontas, Buena 
Vista, Fa)'ette, Cherokee, Plymouth, Alla- 
makee, Chickasaw, Floyd, Cerro Gordo, 
Hancock, Kossuth, Palo Alto, Clay, O'- 
Brien, Sioux, Howard, Mitchell, Worth, 
Winnebago, Winneshiek, Bancroft, Em- 
mett, Dickinson, Osceola and Buncombe. 
The last-named county was so called under 
peculiar circumstances. The Legislature 
was composed of a large majority favoring 
stringent corporation laws, and the liability 
of individual stockholders for corporate 
debts. This sentiment, on account of the 
agitation of railroad enterprises then begin- 
ning, brought a large number of prominent 
men to the capital. To have an effect upon 
the Legislature, the}- organized a "lobby 
legislature," in which these questions were 
ablv discussed. They elected as Governor 
Verplank Van Antwerp, who delivered to 
this self-C(jnstituted body a Icngtliv mes- 
sage, in which he sharply criticised the 
regular general assembly- Sf)mc of the 
members of the latter were in the habit of 
making long and useless speeches, much to 
the hindraiic- of business. To these he 
especially rc-fcrred, charging them with 

speaking "for buncombe," and recom- 
mended that as their lasting memorial, a 
countv should l)e called bv that name. 
This suggestion was readilv seized upon 
by the Legislature, and the county of " Bun- 
combe" was created with few dissenting 
voices. Bv act of the General Assembly 
approved September ii, 1S62, the name 
was changed to " Lyon," in honor of Gen- 
eral Nathaniel Lyon, who was killed in the 
civil war. 

Governor Hempstead's message to the 
fourth General Assembly, December, 1S52, 
stated, among other things, that the popu- 
lation of the State was by the federal cen- 
sus 192,214, and that the State census 
showed an increase for one year of 37,786. 
He also stated that the resources of the 
State for the coming two years would be 
sufficient to cancel all that part of the funded 
debt which was pajable at its option. 

By 1S54 the State had fully recovered 
from the depression produced by the bad 
season of 1S51, and in 1S54 and 1855 the 
immigration from the East was unprece- 
dented. For miles and miles, day after da)-, 
the prairies of Illinois were lined with cattle 
and w-agons, pushing on toward Iowa. At 
Peoria, one gentleman said that during a 
single month 1,743 wagons passed through 
that place, all for Iowa. The Burlington 
Telegraph said : " Twenty thousand immi- 
grants have passed through the city within 
the last thirty days, and they are still cross- 
ing the Mississippi at the rate of 600 a day." 

Governor Hempstead's term expired in 
the latter part of 1854, and he returned to 
Dubuque, where the following year he ivas 
elected county judge. This position he 
held twelve jears, and in 1867 he retired on 
account of impaired health. He li\'ed, how- 
ever, till February 16, 1SS3, when at his 
lionie in Dubuque he closed his record on 
earth. He was a useful and active man. 
and deserves a prominent place in the 
esteem of lowans. 

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V' ; - ■'•" -Cn-r-i^t ->"E third 

to fill the of- 
fice of Governor of 
Iowa, and whose 
name deserves a 
foremost rank 
among the m e n 
whose personal his- 
tory is interwoven insepar- 
ably with that of the State, 
was James Wilson Grimes. 
He was born in the town 
of Deering, Hillsborough 
County, New Hampshire, 
October 20, 18 16. His 
parents — John Grimes, 
born August 11, 1772, and 
Elizabeth Wilson, born 
March ig, 1773 — were natives of the same 
town. Of a family of eight children born 
to tlicm, James was the youngest. In 
carl}' childiiood he evinced a taste for 
learning, attending the district school and 
also studying Latin and Greek under the 
instruction of the village pastor. He 
completed his preparation for college 
at Hampton Academy, and entered Dart- 
mouth College in August, 1S32, in the 
sixteenth year of his age. Upon leaving 
college in Februar}-, 1S35, he commenced 
reading law with James Walker, Esq., in 
Petersburgh, New Hampshire. 

Being young and adventurous, and wish- 
ing to carve a fortune for himself, he left 

his native iiome in 1S36 for the far West, 
landing in Burlington, then a new town in 
what was known as the " Black Hawk 
Purchase." Here he opened an office and 
soon established a reputation as a rising 
lawyer. In April, 1837, he was appointed 
city solicitor ; and entering upon the duties 
of that office he assisted in drawing up the 
first police laws of that town. In 1S3S he 
was appointed justice of the peace, and be- 
came a law partner of William W. Chap- 
man, United States District Attorney- for 
Wisconsin Territor}-. In the early part of 
the 3-ear 1841 he formed a partnership with 
Henr}' W. Starr, Esq., which continued 
twelve )-cars. This firm stood at the head 
of the legal profession in Iowa. Mr. Grimes 
was widely known as a counselor of supe- 
rior knowledge of the law, and with a clear 
sense of truth and justice. He was chosen 
one of the representatives of Des Moines 
Count}' in the first Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Iowa, which convened 
at Burlington, November 12, 183.8: in the 
sixth, at Iowa City, December 4, 1S43 ; and 
in the fourth General Assembly of the 
State, at Iowa City, December C, 1S52. 
He early took front rank among the pub- 
lic men of Iowa. He was chairman of the 
judiciary committee in the House of Rep- 
resentatives of the first Legislative As- 
sembly of the Territory, and all laws for the 
new Territory passed through his hands. 

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aor/£uxoNS of row a. 

1 Ic was married at Burlington, Novem- 
ber 9, 1S46, to Miss Elizabeth Sarah Neally. 

In February, 1854, Mr. Grimes was nom- 
inated by a convention of the Whig party 
for Governor of the State. It was the 
largest convention of that party ever held 
in Iowa, and the last. He was elected, and 
assumed the duties of the office in Decem- 
ber, 1854. Soon after his election it was 
proposed that he should be sent to the 
United States Senate, but he made it under- 
stood that he should fill the term of office 
for which he had been chosen, and he 
served his full term to the entire satisfac- 
tion and acceptance of all parties. He was 
a faithful leader in the political regenera- 
tion of the State. He introduced liberal 
measures to develop the resources of 
the State, and to promote the interests 
of all educational and humane establish- 
ments. Up to the time of his election 
as Governor, Democracy reigned supreme 
in the Territory. The representatives in 
Congress were allies of the slave power. 
He, after being elected, gave his whole 
soul to the work, and it may truly be said 
that Governor Grimes made Iowa Repub- 
lican and allied it with the loyal States. 

January 14, 1858, he laid down his office, 
only to be placed in another and greater 
one; foi^ on the 25th he was nominated 
by the Republican caucus for United 
States Senator. He took his seat in the 
Senate March 4, 1859, '''i<^ "'"^s placed upon 
the committee on naval affairs January 24, 
1 86 1, on which he remained during the 
remainder uf his senatorial career, serving 
as chairman from December, 1864. 

Mr. Grimes voted for the Pacific Rail- 
road bill on June 20, 1862, and for estab- 
lishing the gauge of the road from the Mis- 
souri River to the Pacific Ocean, at four 
feet eight and a half inches, February 18, 

Januarv 16, 18G4, Mr. Grimes was again 
chosen United States Senator from Iowa 


i* ♦; 

for six years from Marcli 4, 1S65, receiving 
tiie votes of all but six of the members uf 
the General Assembly in joint convention; 
128 out of 134. His council was often 
sought in matters of great moment, and in 
cases of peculiar difficulty. Always ready 
to promote the welfare of the State, he 
gave, unsolicited, land worth $6,000 to the 
Congregational college at Grinnell. It 
constitutes the "Grimes foundation," and 
" is to be applied to the establishment and 
maintenance in Iowa College, forever, of 
four scholarships, to be awarded b}- the 
trustees, on the recommendation of the fac- 
ulty, to the best scholars, and the most 
promising, in any department, who may 
need and seek such aid, and without any 
regard to the religious tenets or opinions 
entertained by any person seeking either 
of said scholarships." These terms were 
imposed by Mr. Grimes and assumed Jul}- 
20, 1S65, by the trustees. He received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1865 
from Dartmouth College, and also from 
Iowa College. He also aided in founding 
a public library in Burlington, donating 
$5,000, which was expended in the purchase 
of costly books, and subsequently sent from 
Europe 256 volumes in the German lan- 
guage, and also contributed 600 volumes of 
public documents. 

In January, 1869, he made a donation of 
85,000 to Dartmouth College, and $1,000 
to the " Social Friend," a literary society of 
which he was a member when in college. 

His health failing, Mr. Grimes sailed for 
Europe April 14, 1S69, remaining abroad 
two years, reacliing home September 22, 
1871, apparently in improved health and 
spirits. In November he celebrated hi? 
silver wedding, and spent the closing 
months of his life with his family. He voted 
at the city election February 5, 1S72, was 
suddenly attacked with severe pains in the 
region of the heart, and died after a few 
short hours of intense suffering. 


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~ ' jHE fourth Governor 
of the State, and 
the seventh of Iowa 
without reference to 
the form of govern- 
ment, was Ralph P. 
Lowe. He was born 
in Ohio in i8oS, and lived 
just three-fourths of a cent- 
ur)'. He came to the 
Territory of Iowa in 1S39 
or 1840, when he was a 
little over thirty years old. 
He settled in Muscatine, 
where in a short time he 
became prominent in local 
affairs and of recognized 
ability in questions of public policy. While 
yet residing in that city, he represented 
the county of Muscatine in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1S44 that framed the 
rejected Constitution. 

After this constitutional convention, Mr. 
Lowe took no further part in public mat- 
ters for a number of years. He removed 
to Lee County about 1849 or '50, where 
he became district judge as a successor to 
George H Williams, who was afterward 
famous as President Grant's Attorney Gen- 
eral. He was district judge five years, 
from 1S52 to 1S57, being succeeded by 
Judge Claggett. In the summer of 1857 


he was nominated by the Republicans for 
Governor of Iowa, with Oran Faville for 
Lieutenant-Governor. The Demociacy 
put in the field Benjamin M. Sanmels for 
Governor and George Gillaspy for Lieu- 
tenant Governor. There was a third ticket 
in the field, supported by the American or 
" Know Nothing " party, and bearing the 
names of T. F. Henry and Easton Morris. 
The election was held in October, 1857, and 
gave Mr. Lowe 38,498 votes, against 36,088 
for Mr. Samuels, and 1,006 for Mr. Henry. 

Hitherto the term of office had been four 
)'ears, but b}- an amendment to the Consti- 
tution this was now reduced to two. Gov- 
ernor Lowe was inaugurated January 14, 
1S58, and at once sent his first message to 
the Legislature. Among the measures 
passed by this Legislature were bills to in- 
corporate the State Bank of Iowa ; to pro- 
vide for an agricultural college ; to author- 
ize the business of banking; disposing of 
the land grant made b}- Congress to the 
Des Moines Valley Railroad ; to provide 
for the erection of an institution for the 
education of the blind; and to provide for 
taking a State census. 

No events of importance occurred dur- 
ing the administration of Governor Lowe, 
but it was not a period of uninterrupted 
prosperity. The Governor said in his 

biennial message of January 10, i860, re- •<,;> 

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viewing the preceding two years: " The 
period that has elapsed since the last 
biennial session has been one of great dis- 
turbing causes, and of anxious solicitude to 
all classes of our fellow citizens. The first 
year of this period was visited with heavy 
and continuous rains, which reduced the 
measure of our field crops below one-half 
of the usual product, whilst the financial 
revulsion which commenced upon the At- 
lantic coast in the autumn of 1S57 did not 
reach its climax for evil in our borders until 
the year just past." 

He referred at length to the claim of the 
State against the Federal Government, 
and said that he had appealed in vain to 
the Secretary of the Interior for the pay- 
ment of the 5 per cent, upon the military 
land warrants that the State is justly en- 
titled to, which then approximated to a 
million of dollars. The payment of this 
fund, he said, " is not a mere favor which 
is asked of the General Government, but a 
subsisting right which could be enforced in 
a court of justice, was there a tribunal of 
this kind clothed with the requisite juris- 

The subject of the Des Moines River 
grant received from the Governor special 
attention, and he gave a history of the 
operations of the State authorities in ref- 
erence to obtaining the residue of the lands 
to which the State was entitled, and other 
information as to the progress of the work. 
He also remarked " that under the act 
authorizing the Governor to raise a com- 
pany of mounted men for defense and pro- 
tection of our frontier, approved February 
9, 1858, a company of thirty such men, 
known as the Frontier Guards, armed and 
equipped as required, were organized and 
mustered into service under the command 
of Captain Henry B. Martin, of Webster 
City, about the first of March then follow- 
ing, and were divided into two companies, 
one stationed on the Little Sioux River, 

the other at Spirit Lake. Their presence 
afforded security and gave quiet to the 
settlements in that region, and after a ser- 
vice of four months they were duly dis- 

"Late in the fall of the year, however, 
great alarm and consternation was again 
felt in the region of Spirit Lake and Sioux 
River settlements, produced by the appear- 
ance of large numbers of Indians on the 
border, whose bearing was insolent and 
menacing, and who were charged with 
clandestinely running off the stock of the 
settlers. The most urgent appeals came 
from these settlers, invoking again the 
protection of the State. From the repre- 
sentations made of the imminence of their 
danger and the losses already sustained, 
the Governor summoned into the field once 
more the frontier guards. After a service 
of four or five months they were again 
discharged, and paid in the manner 
prescribed in the act under which the)' 
were called out." 

Governor Lowe was beaten for the 
renomination by Honorable S. J. Kirkwood, 
who was considered much the stronger 
man. To compensate him for his defeat 
for the second term. Governor Lowe was 
appointed one of the three judges under 
the new Constitution. He drew the short 
term, which expired in 1861, but was 
returned and served, all told, eight years. 
He then returned to the practice of 
law, gradually working into a claim busi- 
ness at Washington, to which city he re- 
moved about 1874. In that city he died, on 
Saturday, December 22, 1883. He had a 
large family. Carleton, one of his sons, 
was an officer in the Third Iowa Cavalry 
during the war. 

Governor Lowe was a man of detail, 
accurate and industrious. In private and 
public life he was pure, upright and honest. 
In religious faith he was inclined to be a 

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. f^" KIRKWOOD, the 
fifth Governor of the 
State of Iowa, was born 
December 20, 181 3, in 
Harford Count}-, Mary- 
land, on his father's 
farm. His father was twice 
married, first to a lady named 
Coulson, by whom he had 
two sons, and, after her 
death, to Mary Alexander, by 
whom he had three children, 
all sons, the youngest of whom 
is the subject of these notes. The 
father of Governor Kirkwood was 
a native of Maryland, his ancestors 
having settled there previous to the Revo- 
lution ; his mother was born in Scotland, 
and both parents were strict members of 
the Presbvterian church. 

When ten years ol3 young Kirkwood was 
sent to Washington City to attend a school 
taught by a relative named John McLeod. 
He remained at school four years, when he 
entered a drug store at Washington as 
clerk, in which occupation he continued till 
after attaining his majority, with the excep- 
tion of about eighteen months spent in 
teaching in York County, Pennsylvania. 
In 1835 Samuel left Washington and set- 
tled in Richland County, Ohio, where he 
assisted his father and brother (who had re- 

moved from Maryland there) in clearing a 
farm. In 1S41 he entered, as a student, the 
law office of Thomas W. Bartley, afterward 
Governor of Ohio, and in 1843 ^^'-^s admit- 
ted to the bar by the Supreme Court of 
Ohio. He then engaged in the practice 
of law with his former preceptor, Mr. 
Bartley, forming an association which con- 
tinued for eight years. 

From 1S45 to 1849 he served as prose- 
cuting attorney of his county. In 1849 he 
was elected as a Democrat to represent his 
county and district in the constitutional 
convention. In 1S51 Mr. Bartley, his part- 
ner, having been elected to the supreme 
judiciary of the State, Kirkwood formed a 
partnership with Barnabas Barns, with 
whom he continued to practice until the 
spring of 1855, when he removed to the 

Up to 1854 Mr. Kirkwood had acted with 
the Democratic party. But the measures 
proposed and sustained that year by the 
Democracy in Congress, concentrated in 
what was known as the Kansas-Nebraska 
act, drove him with hosts of anti-slavery 
Democrats out of the party. He was be- 
sought by the opposition in the " Richland 
district" to become their candidate for 
Congress, but declined. In 1855 he came 
to Iowa and settled two miles northwest of 
Iowa City, entering into a partnership with 
his brother-in-law, Ezekiel Clark, in the 












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milling business, and kept aloof from pub- 
lic affairs. He could not long conceal his 
record and abilities from his neighbors, 
however, and in 1S56 he was elected to the 
State Senate from the district composed of 
the counties of Iowa and Johnson, and 
served through the last session of the 
Legislature held at Iowa City and the first 
one held at Dcs Moines. 

In 'IS59 ^^^- Kirkwood was made the 
standard-bearer of the Republicans of Iowa, 
and though he had as able and popular a 
competitor as General A. C. Dodge, he was 
elected Governor of Iowa by a majority of 
over 3,000. He was inaugurated Januarv 
II, i860. Before the e.xpiration of his first 
term came the great civil war. As Gov- 
ernor, during the darkest days of the Rebell- 
ion, he performed an exceedingly impor- 
tant duty. He secured a prompt response 
by volunteers to all requisitions by the 
federal Government on the State for troops, 
so that during his Governorship no " draft " 
took place in Iowa, and no regiment, except 
the first, enlisted for less than three years. 
At the same time he maintained the State's 
financial credit. The Legislature, at its ex- 
tra session in 1S61, authorized the sale of 
$Soo,ooo in bonds, to assist in arming and 
equipping troops. So frugally was this 
work done, that but $300,000 of the bonds 
were sold, and the remaining $500,000 not 
having been required, the bonds represent- 
ing this amount were destroyed by order 
of the succeeding Legislature. 

In October, iS6r, Governor Kirkwood 
was. with comparatively little opposition, 
re-elected — an honor accorded for the first 
time in the history of the State. His ma- 
jority was about iS.oco. During his second 
term he was appointed by President Lin- 
coln to be Minister to Denmark: but he 
declined to enter upon his diplomatic duties 
until the expiration of his term as Governor. 
The position was kept open for him until 
that time, but, when it came, pressing pri- 

vate business compelled a declination of 
the office altogether. 

In January, 1S66, he was a prominent 
candidate before the Legislature for United 
States Senator. Senator Harlan had re- 
signed the senatorship upon his appoint- 
ment to the office of Secretary of the 
Interior by President Lincoln, just before 
his death, but had withdrawn from the 
cabinet soon after the accession of Mr. 
Johnson to the Presidency. In this way 
it happened that the Legislature had two 
terms of United States Senator to fill, a 
short term of two years, to fill Harlan's 
unexpired term, and a long term of six 
years, to immediatel}' succeed this ; and 
Harlan had now become a candidate for 
his own successorship, to which Kirkwood 
also aspired. Ultimately, Kirkwood was 
elected for the first and Harlan for the 
second term. During his brief senatorial 
service, Kirkwood did not hesitate to meas- 
ure swords with Senator Sumner, whose 
natural egotism had begotten in him an 
arrogant.and dictatorial manner, borne with 
humbly until then by his colleagues, in 
deference to his long experience and emi- 
nent ability, but unpalatable to an inde- 
pendent Western Senator like Kirkwood. 

At the close of his senatorial term, March 
4, 1867, he resumed the practice of law, 
which a few years later he relinquished to 
I accept the presidency of the Iowa City 
; Savings Bank. In 1S75 he was again elected 
I Governor, and was inaugurated January 13, 
\ 1S76. He served but little over a vear, as 
early in 1S77 he was chosen United States 
Senator. He filled this position four years, 
resigning to become Secretary of the In- 
terior in President Garfield's cabinet. In 
this office he was succeeded, April 17, 1SS2, 
by Henry M. Teller, of Colorado. 

Governor Kirkwood returned to Iowa 
City, his home, where he still resides, being 
now advanced in years. He was married 
in 1843 to Miss Jane Clark, a native of Ohio. 

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I (76 /.ALT/ M. STOXE. 

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JHE subject of this brief 
sketch was the ninth 
to hold the position 
of Governor of Iowa, 
and the sixth to fill 
the office under the 
State organization. 
He held the office four 
years, from 1864 to 1S68. 

William Milo Stone was 
born October 14, 1827, 
a son of Truman and La- 
vina (North) Stone. His 
great-grandfather on both 
sides of the family was in 
the seven years' struggle 
for independence. His 
grandfather, Aaron Stone, was in the second 
war with England. Truman Stone moved 
to Lewis County, New York, when the son 
was a year old, and six ^-ears later to Co- 
shocton County, Ohi<j. 

Like many other self-made men, William 
^L had few advantages. He never attended 
a school of any kind more than twelve 
months. In boyhood he was for two seasons 
a team-driver on tlie Ohio Canal. At seven- 
teen he was apprenticed to tlie chairmaker's 
trade, and he followed that business until 
twenty-three years of age, reading law 


meantime during his spare hours, wher- 
ever he happened to be. He commenced 
at Coshocton, with James Mathews, who 
afterward became his father-in-law ; con- 
tinued his readings with General Lucius V. 
Pierce, of Akron, and finished with Ezra B. 
Taylor, of Ravenna. He was admitted to 
the bar in August, 185 1, by Peter Hitch- 
cock and Rufus P. Ranney, supreme judges, 
holding a term of court at Ravenna. 

After practicing three years at Coshocton 
with his old preceptor, James Mathews, he, 
in November, 1854, settled in Knoxville, 
which has remained his home since. The 
year after locating here Mr. Stone pur- 
chased the KnowiWe. Journal, and was one 
of the prime movers in forming the Repub- 
lican party in Iowa, being the first editor to 
suggest a State convention, which met 
February 22, 1S56, and completed the or- 
ganization. In the autumn of the same 
year he was a Presidential elector on the 
Republican ticket. 

In April, 1857, Mr. Stone was chosen 
Judge of the Eleventh Judicial District. 
He was elected judge of the Sixth Judicial 
District when the new Constitution went 
into operation in 1858, and was serving on 
the bench when the American flag was 
stricken down at Fort Sumter. At that 






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time, April, iS6i, lie was holding court in 
Fairfield, Jefferson County, and when the 
news came of the insult to the old flag he 
immediatel}' adjourned court and prepared 
for what he believed to be more important 
duties — duties to his country. 

In May he enlisted as a private; was 
made Captain of Company B, Third Iowa 
Infantry, and was subsequently promoted 
to Major. With that regiment he was at 
the battle of Blue Mills, Missouri, in Sep- 
tember, iS6i, where he was wounded. At 
Shiloh, the following spring, he commanded 
the regiment and was taken prisoner. By 
order of Jefferson Davis he was paroled for 
the time of forty days, with orders to re- 
pair to Washington, and if possible secure 
an agreement for a cartel lor a general ex- 
change of prisoners, and to return as a 
prisoner if he did not succeed. Failing to 
secure that result within the period speci- 
fied he returned to Richmond and had 
his parol extended fifteen days; repairing 
again to Washington, he effected his pur- 
pose and was exchanged. 

In August, 1S62, he was appointed by 
Governor Kirkwood Colonel of the Twen- 
ty-second Iowa Infantry, which rendez- 
voused and organized at Camp Pope, Iowa 
Cit\% in August, 1862. The regiment was 
occupied for several months in guarding 
supply stores and the railroad, and escorting 
supply trains to the Army of the Southeast 
Missouri until January 27, 1863, when it re- 
ceived orders to join the army under Gen- 
eral Davidson, at West Plains, Missouri. 
After a march of five days it reached its 
destination, and was brigaded with the 
Twenty-first and Twenty-third Iowa regi 
ments, Colonel Stone commanding, and was 
designated the First Brigade, First Divis- 
ion, Army of Southeast Missouri. April i 
found Colonel Stone at Milliken's Bend, 
Louisiana, to assist Grant in the capture of 
Vicksburg. He was now in immediate 
command of his regiment, which formed a 

part of a brigade under Colonel C. L. 
Harris, of the Eleventh Wisconsin. In the 
advance upon Port Gibson Colonel Harris 
was taken sick, and Colonel Stone was 
again in charge of a brigade. In the battle 
of Port Gibson the Colonel and his com- 
mand distinguished themselves, and were 
successful. The brigade was in the reserve 
at Champion Hills, and in active skirmish 
at Black River. 

On the evening of Ma}- 21 Colonel Stone 
received General Grant's order for a gen- 
eral assault on the enemy's lines at 10 a. m. 
on the 22d. In this charge, which was 
unsuccessful. Colonel Stone was again 
wounded, receiving a gunshot in his left 
forearm. Colonel Stone commanded a 
brigade until the last of August, when, 
being ordered to the Gulf department, he 
resigned. He had become veiy popular 
with the people of Iowa, and they were 
determined to make him Governor. 

He was nominated in a Republican con- 
vention held at Des Moines in June, 1863, 
and was elected by a large majorivv. He 
was brevetted Brigadier-General in 1S64, 
during his first year as Governor. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1864, and was re- 
elected in 1865, his four years in oflice 
closing January 16, 1S68. His majority in 
1S63 was nearly 30,000, and in 1865 about 
16,500. His dmiinished vote in 1865 was 
due to the fact that he was very strongly 
committed in favor of negro suffrage. 

Governor Stone made a very energetic 
and efficient executive. Since the expira- 
tion of his gubernatorial term he has sought 
to escape the public notice, and h.-.s given 
his time largely to his private business in- 
terests. He is in partnership with Hon. O. 
B. Ayres, of Knoxville, in legal practice. 

He was elected to the General Assembly 
in 1877, and served one term. 

In May, 1857, he married Miss Carloaet 
Mathews, a native of Ohio, then residing in 
Knoxville. Thev have one son — William A. 



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■^:'j>^;^p.'--^-;^^<>4 OLONEL sa: 

5^ jfjyvr •/ ;- Ml^ UEL MERRILL, 


seventh Governor of 
the State of Iowa, the 
successor of Governor 
Stone, is among the 
men of the West who 
have been called from 
f"' f^''^ private life to places of trust on 
'^t't2%^- account of their peculiar fitness 
fej*%'^ for office. He was born in the 
town of Turner, Oxford County, 
Maine, August 7, 1S22. He is 
of English ancestr}-, being a 
descendant on his mother's side 
of Peter Hill, who came from 
the West of England and set- 
tled in Sacn, Maine (now known as Bidde- 
ford), in 1653. From this ancestry have 
sprung the most of the Hills of America. 
On his father's side he is a descendant of 
Nathaniel Merrill, who, with his brother 
John, came from Salisbury, England, and 
settled in Newburg, Massachusetts, in 1636. 
Abel Merrill married Abigail Hill, June 
25, 1809, in Buxton, Maine. They soon 
moved to Turner, where they became the 
parents of eight children, Samuel, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, being next the youngest, 
the fourth and youngest son in the family, 
and in the eighth generation from his Pil- 
grim fathers. 

Samuel was married first to Catherine 
Thoms, who died m 1847, but fourteen 
months after their marriage. In January, 
185 1, he was again married, his second wife 
being a Miss Hill, of Buxton, Maine. To 
this union there have been born four chil- 
dren, three of whom died young, the eldest 
living to be onl)^ two and a half years old. 

At the age of sixteen he moved with his 
parents to Buxton, where his time was 
mostly engaged by turns in teaching and 
in attending school until he attained his 
majority. Having determined to make 
teaching a profession, he set out for that 
purpose toward the sunny South, but, as 
he says, he was " born too far north " for 
his political comfort. Suspicion having 
been aroused as to his abolitionist pro- 
clivities, and finding the elements not al- 
together congenial, he soon abandoned the 
land of chivalry for the old Granite State, 
where he engaged for several years in 

In 1847 he removed to Tamworth, New 
Hampshire, where he embarked in mer- 
cantile business in company with a brother. 
In this, as in ail his business enterprises, he 
was quite successful. Not being satisfied 
with the limited resources of Northern 
New England, he determined to try iiis 
good fortune on the broad prairies of the 
new and more fertile West. Accordingly, 





■* ;..*; 


;*;:♦,' •■ ■ - • < 

^ ■ ■ ~ . -. ■ ■ - - ■ :• i 

aOVERXORS OF lOM'A. - . . 5 


in 1S56, lie turned his face toward the set- 
ting sun. He made a final settlement at 
McGrcijor, lown, where he established a 
branch house of the old firm. 

During all these years of business Mr. 
Merrill took an active but not a noisy part 
in politics. In 1854 he was elected as an 
Abolitionist to the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature, at the same time General N. B. 
Baker, ex-Adjutant General of Iowa, was 
Governor of the same State. In 1S55 he 
was returned for a second term to the Leg- 
islature. In Iowa he was equally fortunate 
in securing the good will of those who 
knew him. His neighbors and those who 
had dealings with him found a man who 
was honest in his busmess, fair in his deal- 
ings, social in his relations, and benevolent 
in his disposition. He took an active in- 
terest in the prosperity of the town and 
ever held an open hand to all needed chari- 
ties. These traits of character had drawn 
around him, though not realized or intended 
by himself, a host of personal admirers. 
This good will resulted in his being nomi- 
nated for a seat in the State Legislature, 
and he was the only one on his ticket that 
was elected. The Legislature met in extra 
session in 1861 to provide for the exigencies 
of the Rebellion, and in its deliberations Mr. 
Merrill rendered effective and unselfish 

He continued in business at McGregor 
until the summer of 1862, when he was 
commissioned as Colonel of the Twent}-- 
first Iowa Infantry, proceeding immediately 
to Missouri, where active service awaited 
him. Marmaduke was menacing the Union 
forces in Central Missouri, which calledlor 
prompt action on the part of the Union 

ing at Houston, eighty miles distant. On 
the morning of the nth of January, 1S63, 
they having come across a body of rebels, 
found them advancing in heavy force. 
Colonel Merrill immediately made dis- 
position for battle, and brisk firing was 
kept up for an hour, when the enem\' fell 
back. Colonel Merrill now moved in the 
direction of Hartville, where he found the 
rebels in force under Marmaduke, and from 
six to eight thousand strong, with six pieces 
of artillery, while Colonel Merrill had but 
800 men and two pieces of artillery. 

In this engagement the rebels lost several 
ofTicers and not less than 300 men in killed 
and wounded. The Union loss was seven 
killed and sixty-four wounded, five captured 
and two missing. The regiment performed 
severe marches and suffered much in sick- 
ness during the winter. It was assigned to 
the Thirteenth Corps, General John A. Mc- 
Clernand ; fought gallantly at the battle of 
Port Gibson; and while the impetuous 
charge of Black River bridge was being 
made Colonel Merrill was severely, and re- 
ported fatally,wounded. The battle of Black 
River bridge, the last of the series of engage- 
ments during the campaign of Vicksburg in 
which the rebels fought vv'ithout their fortifi- 
cations, was a short but bloody combat. 
While Colonel Merrill was leading his regi- 
ment in this deadly charge he v.-as wounded 
through the hips. This brought his miii- 
tarv career to a close* Suffering from his 
wounds, he resigned his commission and re- 
turned to McGregor, but was unable to at- 
tend to his private affairs for nianv months. 

In 1S67 he was chosen Governor to suc- 
ceed William M. Stone. He was inaugu- 
rated January 16, 1S68, and served till 

Generals. Colonel Merrill was placed in January 11, 1S72, being re-elected in iS6i. 

command of a detachment of the Twentv- j After the expiration of his term of office 

first Iowa, a detachment of the Ninety-ninth ! he returned to McGregor, but as soon as 

Illinois, a portion of the Third Iowa Cavalry I he could adjust his business interests he lo- 

and two pieces 01 artillery, with orders to ! cated in Des Moines, where he is now 

make a forced march to Springfield, he be- j President of the Citizens' National Bank. 

5t. <>■■♦■'♦:>::<■"'^K■0"*"*>"4^■*>■:#>:»?*::*: '♦:>:>>>>>■'♦' v«"<->:>:»'>^^^ 

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- ; 1 .... 

.\;8i ni 









C)-/f[/S C. CARPENTER. 207 

-^11 eSE^S ©^ tAlB-lXlEl ^-"^ 

-■v^'-T^ , i^OM his numerous offi- 
cial positions, and 
the ability with 
which they have 
been filled, Cyrus 
C. Carpenter, the 
eighth GoN'ernor of 
^),r'-ai ; the State of Iowa, 

^fiiC^^ deserves to be remembered 
IS one of Iowa's foremost 
men. He is a native of Sus- 
quehanna County, Pennsyl- 
% una, and was born Novem- 
"% bcr 24, 1S29. His parents 

were Asahel and Amanda M. 
(Tha3-er) Carpenter, both of whom died be- 
fore he was twelve years old. His grand- 
father, John Carpenter, was one of nine 
young men who, in 1789, left Attleborough, 
Massachusetts, for the purpose of finding a 
home in the " new country." After various 
vicissitudes they located upon the spot 
which they called Harford, in Northeastern 
Pennsylvania, the township in which Cyrus 
was born. This location at that time was 
far from any other settlement, Wilkesbarre, 
in Wyoming Valley, near the scene of the 
celebrated Indian massacre, being among 
the nearest, though fifty miles away. 

Cyrus attended a common school three 
or four months in a year until 1S46, then 

taught winters and worked on a farm sum- 
mers for three or four years, and with the 
money thus raised paid his expenses for 
several months at the academy which had 
been established in his native town. After 
leaving this institution, in 1852, he started 
westward; halted at Johnstown, Licking 
County, Ohio ; taught there a year and a 
half, and with his funds thus replenished he 
came to Iowa, loitering some on the wav, 
and reaching Des Moines in June, 1854. A 
few days later he started on foot up the 
Des Moines Valley, and found his way to 
Fort Dodge, eighty miles northwest of Des 
Moines, from which place the soldiers had 
moved the previous spring to Fort Ridgely, 

He now had but a single half dollar m 
his pocket. He frankly told the landlord 
of his straightened circumstances, offering 
to do any kind of labor until something 
should " turn up." On the evening of his 
arrival he heard a Government contractor 
state that his chief surveyor had left him 
and that he was going out to find another. 
Young Carpenter at once offered his ser- 
vices. To the inquiry whether he was a 
surveyor, he answered that he understood 
the theory of surveying, but had had no 
experience in the field. His services were 
promptly accepted, with a promise of steady 

r«::«;!»':*":*::«"<-:*'*.;«"<sr«s:*~'<p/#?'«>T-K:c>::«::*>"4?:»"<:*:'* ■ 

.1 ■■-:ij-:t 

f* ♦; 

!♦ *; ■ • ■ . . ■ ■ :• I 

2oS .. - GOVERXOKS OF lOM'A. , 

employment if he were found competent. 
The next morning he met the party and 

State Land Office in iS66, re-elected in 
iS6S, and held the office four years, declin- 

took command. When the first week's i ing to be a candidate for renomination. 

work was done he went to Fort Dodge to 
replenish his wardrobe. As he left, some 
of the men remarked that that was the last 
that would be seen of him. He was then 
of a slight build, jaded and torn by hard 
work, and, when he left the camp, so utterly 
tired out it is not surprising that the men 
who were inured to out-door life thought 
him completely used up. But they did not 
know their man. With the few dollars 
which he had earned, he supplied himself 
with comfortable clothing, went back to 
his work on Monda}- morning and con- 
tinued it till the contract was completed. 

The next winter he taught the first school 
opened in Fort Dodge, and from that date 
his general success was assured. For the 
first two years he was employed much of 
the time by persons having contracts for 
surveying Government lands. He was thus 
naturally led into the land business, and 
from the autumn of 1855, ^^'hen the Land 
Office was established at Fort Dodge, much 
of his time was devoted to surveying, select- 
ing lands for buyers, tax-paying for foreign 
owners, and in short a general land agency. 
During this period he devoted such time as 
he could spare to reading law, with the 
view of eventually entering the profession. 

Soon after the civil war commenced he 
entered the arm}-, and before going into the 
field was commissioned as Captain in the 
staff department, and served over three 
years, attaining the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel and being mustered out as brevet 

He has served his State in numerous 
civil capacities. He \vas elected Surveyor 
of Webster County in the spring of 1S56, 
and the next year was elected a Represen- 
tative to the General Assembly, and served 
in the first session of that body held at Des 
Moines. He was elected Register of the 

He ' was elected Governor of Iowa in 

1571, and was inaugurated January 1 1, 1S72. 
He was re-elected two years later, and 
served until January 13, 1S74. He made 
an able and popular executive. In his first 
inaugural address, delivered January n, 

1572, he made a strong plea for the State 
University, arid especially its normal de- 
partment, for the agricultural college, and 
for whatever would advance the material 
progress and prosperity of the people, urg- 
ing in particular the introduction of more 

At the expiration of his second term as 
Governor Mr. Carpenter was appointed, 
without his previous knowledge, Second 
Comptroller of the United States Treasury, 
and resigned after holding that office about 
fifteen months. He was influenced to take 
this step at that time because another bureau 
officer was to be dismissed, as the head of 
the department held that Iowa had more 
heads of bureaus than she was entitled to, 
and his resigning an office of a higher grade 
saved a man who deserved to remain in 
Government employ. 

He was in the forty-seventh Congress 
from iSSi to 18S3, and represented Web- 
ster County in the twentietli General As- 
sembly. He is now leading the life of a 
private citizen at Fort Dodge, his chief 
employment being the carrying on of a 
farm. He is not rich, which is a striking 
commentary on his long official service. 
He has led a pure and upright life. 

He has been a Republican since the or- 
ganization of that party. In religious mat- 
ters he is orthodox. 

He was married in March, 1SG4, to Miss 
Susan C. Burkholder, of Fort Dodge. They 
have no children, but have reared from 
childhood a niece of Mrs. Carpenter, Miss 
Fannie Burkholder. 

.1 ■ M • M 

,1-; .<.-iti. 



i£,':j-^«^^^?/'^ 3: was the tenth Governor 

'^Mt%** of the State, and the 



thirteenth of Iowa, num- 

* _i^,j&j('?;:- -^._ be ring from the first 
^ijr^^-^'^^i- ,X^5° Territorial G o v e r nor. 




He is yet living at Mount 
Pleasant. He is a native of 
Pennsylvania, and his an- 
cestors in this country were 
among the very early set- 
tlers in New Jersey. They 
were Friends, and conse- 
quently none of them 
figured in the struggle for 
^ the independence of the colo- 
nies. Governor Newbold is the son of 
Barzilla and Catherine (Houseman) New- 
bold. He was born in Fayette County, 
Pennsylvania, May 12, 1830, and reared as 
a'farmer. When he was eight years of age 
the family moved to Westmoreland County, 
same State, where he was educated in the 
common school, and also in a select school 
or academy, the latter taught by Dr. John 
Lewis, since of Grinnell, Iowa. At sixteen 
he returned with the family to Fayette 
County, where he remained eight years, 
assisting his father in running a flouring 
mill, when not teaching. When about nine- 
teen he began the study of medicine, read- 
ing a year or more while teaching, and then 
abandoning the notion of being a physician. 

In the month of March, 1854, Mr. New- 
bold removed to Iowa, locating on a farm, 
now partly in the corporation of Mount 
Pleasant, Henry County. At the end of 
one year he removed to Cedar Township, 
Van Buren County, there merchandising 
and farming till about 1S60, when he re- 
moved, to Hillsboro, Henry County- and 
pursued the same callings. 

In 1862, when the call was made for 600,- 
000 men to finish the work of crushing the 
Rebellion, Mr. Newbold left his farm in the 
hands of his family and his store in charge 
of his partner, and went into the army as 
Captain of Company C, Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment Iowa Infantry. He served nearly 
three years, resigning just before the war 
closed, on account of disability. During 
the last two or three months he served at 
the South he filled the position of Judge 
Advocate, with headquarters at Woodville, 

His regiment was one of those that made 
Iowa troops famous. It arrived at Helena, 
Arkansas, in November, 1S62, and sailed in 
December following on the expedition 
against Vicksburg by way of Chickasaw 
Bayou. At the latter place was its first en- 
gagement. Its second was at Arkansas 
Post, and there it suffered severely, losing 
in killed and wounded more than sixty. 

Alter Lookout Mountain it joined in the 
pursuit of Bragg's flying forces to Ring- 

.* ♦ 

... .-;.•.,■■■, . ^ •■ ■■ - .-•..■/\.-' ^ 

212 . GOVERXORS OF IOWA. |t>' 

gold, where il engaged the enemy in their 
strong works, November 27 losing twenty- 
nine wounded. The following year it joined 
Sherman in iiis Atlanta campaign, then on 
the famous march to the sea and through 
the Carolinas. 

On returning to Iowa he continued in 
the mercantile trade at Hillsboro for three 
or four 3'ears, and then sold out, giving 
thereafter his whole attention to agricult- 
ure, stock-raising and stock-dealing, mak- 
ing the stock department an important 
factor in his business for several 3'ears. Mr. 
Newbold was a member of the thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth General Assem- 
blies, representing Henry County, and was 
chairman of the school committee in the 
fourteenth, and of the committee on appro- 
priations in the fifteenth General Assembly. 
In the fifteenth (1874) he was temporar}- 
Speaker during the deadlock in organizing 
the House. In 1875 he was elected Lieu- 
tenant Governor on the Republican ticket 
with Samuel J. Kirkwood. 

His Democratic competitor was E. B. 
Woodward, who received 93,060 votes. Mr. 
Newbold received 134,166, or a majority of 
31,106. Governor Kirkwood being elected 
United States Senator during that session, 
Mr. Newbold became Governor, taking the 
chair February i, 1877, and vacating it for 
Governor Gear in January, 1S7S. 

Governor Newbold's message to the Leg- 
islature in 1S78 shows painstaking care 
and a clear business-like view of the in- 
terests of the State. His recommendations 
were carefully considered and largely 

toriness in meeting its obligations. Of all 
forms of indebtedness, that of a floating 
character is the most objectionable. The 
uncertainty as to its amount will invariably 
cnterinto an}- computation made by persons 
contracting with the State for supplies, ma- 
terial or labor. To remove the present 
difficulty, and to avert its recurrence, I 
look upon as the most important work that 
will demand your attention."" 

One of the greatest problems before 
statesmen is that of equal and just taxation. 
The following recommendation shows that 
Governor Newbold was abreast with fore- 
most thinkers, for it proposes a step which 
yearly finds more favor with the people : 
"The inequalities of the personal-property 
valuations of the several counties suggest 
to my mind the propriety of so adjusting 
the State's levy as to require the counties 
to pay into the State treasury only the tax 
on realty, leaving the corresponding tax on 
personalty in the county treasury. This 
would rest with each county the adjust- 
ment of its personal property valuations, 
without fear that they might be so high as 
to work injustice to itself in comparison 
with other counties." 

Governor Newbold has always affiliated 
with the Republican party, and holds to its 
great cardinal doctrines, having once em- 
braced them, with the same sincerity and 
honesty that he cherishes his religious senti- 
ments. He has been a Christian for some- 
thing like twenty-five years, his connection 
being with the Free-Will Baptist church. 
He found his wife, Rachel Farquhar, in 

adopted. The State's finances were then , Fayette County, Pennsylvania, their union 

in a less creditable condition than ever be- 
fore or since, as there was an increasing 
floating debt, then amounting to S340,- 
826.56, more than $190,000 in excess of the 
Constitutional limitation. Said Governor 
Newbold in his message: " The common- 
wealth ought not to set an example of dila- 

taking place on the 2d of May, 1850. They 
have had five children, and lost two. The 
names of the living are — >Lary Allene, 
Emma Irene and George C. 

The Governor is not yet an old man, and 
may serve his State or county in other 
capacities in the coming years. 




A ■ T :■.-. ' ,,.../ '?:-)n 





\ \ 

• \ 


■ "- JOHX 11. GEAR. ' 315.. 

4.] U£_ 

_ _ __ ii .^ 






;^H E eleventh to hold the 
highest official posi- 
tion in the State of 
Iowa was John H. 
Gear, of Burlington. 
He is yet living in 
that city. He was 
born in Ithaca, New York, 
April 7, iS::5. His father 
was Rev. E.G. Gear, a cler- 
gyman of the Protestant 
Episcopal church, who 
was born in New London, 
Connecticut, in 1792. 
When he was quite young 
his family removed to 
Pittsfieldj Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts; in 1S16, after being or- 
dained, he emigrated to New York and 
settled at Onondaga Hill, near which is now 
the thriving city of Sj'racuse. Soon after 
locating there he was married to Miranda E. 
Cook. He was engaged in the ministry in 
various places in Western New York until 
1S36, when he removed to Galena, Illinois. 
There he remained until 1S3S, when he was 
appointed Chaplain in the United States 
Army at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. He 
died in 1S74, aged eighty-two j-ears. 

John H., his only son, in 1843, came to 
Burlington, \vhere he has since continued 
to reside. On his arrival he commenced 

his mercantile career by engaging as clerk 
with the firm of Bridgeman & Bros. After 
being with this firm for a little over a year 
he entered the employ of W. F. Coolbaugh 
(since president of the Union National 
Bank, of Chicago), who was even at that 
early date the leading merchant of Eastern 
Iowa. He was clerk for Mr. Coolbaugh 
for about five years, and was then taken 
into partnership. The firm of W. F. Cool- 
baugh & Co. continued in business for 
nearly five years, when Mr. Gear suc- 
ceeded to the business by purchase, and 
carried it on until he became known as the 
oldest wholesale grocer in the State. He 
Is now president of a large rolling mill 
company at Burlington. 

Mr. Gear has been honored by his fellow- 
citizens with many positions of trust. In 
1852 he was elected alderman ; in 1S63 was 
elected mayor over A. W. Carpenter, be- 
ing the first Republican up to that time 
who had been elected in Burlington on a 
party issue. In 1S67 the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids & Minnesota Railroad Com.pany 
was organized, and he was chosen as its 
president. His efforts highly contributed 
to the success of the enterprise, which did 
much for Burlington. He was also active 
in promoting the Burlington & Southwest- 
ern Railway, as well as the Burlington & 
Northwestern narrow-gauge road. 

,• i) . 



<.Oy£A',YO/x-S OF /UH'A. 

He has always acted with the Republican 
party, and in 1S71 was nominaled and 
elected a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the Fourteenth General As- 
sembly. In 1S73 he was elected to the 
Fifteenth General Assembly. The Repub- 
lican caucus of the House nominated him 
for S{)eaker by acclamation, and after a 
contest of two weeks he was chosen over 
his opponent, J. W. Dixon. He filled the 
position of Speaker very acceptably, and 
at the close of the session all the members 
of the House, independent of party affili- 
ations, joined in signing their names to a 
resolution of thanks, which was engraved 
and presented to him. In 1S75 he was the 
third time nominated to the Assembly by 
the Republican party, and while his county 
gave a large Democratic vote he was again 
elected. He was also again nominated for 
Speaker, by the Republican caucus, and 
was elected by a handsome majority over 
his competitor. Hon. John Y. Stone. He 
IS the only man in the State who ever had 
the honor of being chosen to this high posi- 
tion a second time. He enjoys the reputa- 
tion of being an able parliamentarian, his 
rulings never having been appealed from. 
At the close of the session he again received 
the unanimous thanks of the House for his 
courtesy and impartiality. 

In 1S77 he was nominated for Governor 
by the Republican convention which met 
at Des Moines, June 28, and at the election 
held the following October he received 
121,546 votes, against 79,353 for John I^. 
Irish, 10,639 for Elias Jessup, and 38,228 for 
D. P. Stubbs. His plurality over Irish was 
4-. 193- He was inaugurated January 17, 
1S7S, and served four years, being re-elected 
in 1S79, by the following handsome vote: 
Gear, 157,571 ; Trimble, 85.056 ; Campbell, 
43439; Dungan, 3,258; Gear's majoritv 
over all competitors, 23,828. His second 
inauguration was in January, iSSo. 

Governor Gear's business habits enabled 

>im to discharge the duties of his office 
with marked ability. He found the finan- 
cial condition of the State in a low ebb, but 
raised Iowa's credit to that of the best of 
our States. In his last biennial message he 
was able to report : " Tlie warrants out- 
standing, but not bearing interest, Septem- 
ber 30, 1S81, amounted to $22,093.74, and 
there are now in the treasury ample funds 
to meet the current expenses of the State. 
The war and defense debt has been paid, 
except the warrants for $125,000 negotiated 
by the executive, auditor and treasurer, 
under the law of the Eighteenth General 
Assembly, and $2,500 of the original bonds 
not yet presented for payment. The only 
other debt owing by the State amounts to 
$-45>435-i9. due to the permanent school 
fund, a portion of which is made irredeem- 
able by the Constitution. These facts place 
Iowa practically among the States which 
have no debt, a consideration which must 
add much to her reputation. The expenses 
of the State for the last tw^o years are less 
than those of any other period since i86g, 
and this notwithstanding the fact that the 
State is to-day sustaining several institu- 
tions not then in existence; name!}', the 
hospital at Independence, the additional 
penitentiary, the normal school, and tlie 
asylum for the feeble-minded children, be- 
sides the girl's department of the reform 
school. The State also, at present, makes 
provision for fish culture, for a useful 
weather service, for sanitary supervision 
by a board of health, for encouraging im- 
migration to the State, for the inspection of 
coal mines by a State inspector, and liberaliv 
for the military arm of the Government." 

Governor Gear is now in the sixty-first 
year of his age, and is in the full vigor of 
both his mental and physical faculties. He 
was married in 1852 to Harriet S. Foot, 
formerly of Middlcbury, Vermont, by whom 
he has had four children, two of whom are 







i* ♦. 





4r /, 

^//yytcZ'^^ -) 

» *' 

*i JUI^EX A'. Sl/i:ixMA\. 210 

.vv >^,, 


^^v^^^»-^ ' 





.Vi ^^j 

'Y'^ ' ''" ^ " ^ME twelfth Governor 
t( of the State was 
^ l' Buren. R. Sherman, 

who held office two 
terms, from 1882 to 
1886. He was born 
in Phelps, Ontario 
County, New York, May 
28, 1836, and is the third 
son of Phineas L. and Eve- 
line (Robinson) Sherman, 
both of whom were natives 
of the Empire State. 

The subject of this sketch 
received his early educa- 
tion in the public schools 
of his native place, and con- 
cluded his studies at Elmira, New York, 
acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 
English branches. At the close of his 
studies, acting on the advice of his father, 
who was a mechanic (an ax maker), he ap- 
prenticed himself to Mr. S. Ayres, of El- 
mira, to learn the watchmaker's trade. In 
1855, with his family, he removed to Iowa 
and settled upon an unbroken prairie, in 
what is now Geneseo Township, Tama 
County, where his father had purchased 
lands from the Government. There young 
Sherman labored on his father's farm, em- 
ploying his leisure hours in the study of 
law, whicli he had begun at Elmira. He 
also engaged as bookkeeper in a neighbor- 

ing town, and with his wages assisted his 
parents in improving their farm. In the 
summer of 1S59 he was admitted to the bar, 
and the following spring removed to Vin- 
ton, and began the practice of law with 
titin. V/illiam Smyth, formerly District 
Judge, and J. C. Tracr, conducting the 
business under the firm name of Sm3'th, 
Traer & Sherman. 

They built up a flourishing practice and 
were prospering when, upon the opening 
of the war, in 1861, Mr. Sherman enlisted in 
Company G, Thirteenth Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry, and immediately went to the 
front. He entered the service as Second 
Sergeant, and in February, 1862, was made 
Second Lieutenant of Company E. On the 
6th of April following he was very severely 
wounded at the battle of Pittsburg Landing, 
and while in the hospital was promoted to 
the rank of Captain. He returned to his 
company while yet obliged to use crutches, 
and remained on duty till the summer of 
1863, when, by reason of his wound, he v,-as 
compelled to resign and return hom.e. Soon 
after returning from the army he was 
elected County Judge of Benton County, 
and re-elected without opposition in 1S65. 
In the autumn of 1 866 he resigned his judge- 
ship and accepted the ofhce of clerk of the 
District Court, to v/hich he was re-elected 
in 1S68, 1870 and 1872, and in December, 
1S74, resigned in order to accept the ofTice 


of Auditor of Slate, to wfiich he had been 
elected by a majority of 28,425 over J. M. 
King, the " anti-monopoly" candidate. In 
1S76 he was re-nominated and received 50,- 
272 more voles than W. Gro\vnc\veg(Dcmo- 
crat) and Leonard Brown (^Greenback) to- 
j^cther. In 1S78 he was again chosen to 
represent the Republican part}- in that office, 
and this time received a niajoritv of 7,164 
over the combined votes of Colonel Eiboeck 
(Democrat) and G. V. Swearenger (Green- 
back). In the six years that he held this 
office, he was untiring in his faithful appli- 
cation to routine work and devotion to his 
especial share of the State's business. He 
retired with such an enviable record that it 
was with no surprise the people learned, 
June 27, iSSi.that he was the nominee of the 
Republican party for Governor 

The campaign was an exciting one. The 
General Assembly had submitted to the 
people the prohibitory amendment to the 
Constitution. This, while not a partisan 
question, became uppermost in the mind 
of the public. Mr. Sherman received 133,- 
330 votes, against 83,244 for Kinne and 28,- 
1 12 for D. M. Clark, or a plurality- of 50,086 
and a majority of 21,974. In 1883 he was 
re-nominated by the Republicans, as was L. 
G. Kinne by the Democrats. The National 
party oflercd J. B. Weaver. During the 
campaign these candidates held a number 
of joint discussions at different points in the 
State. At the election the vote was : Sher- 
man, 164,182; Kinne, 139,093 ; Weaver, 23,- 
0S9; Sherman's jjlurality, 25,089; majority, 
2,000. In his second inaugural Governor 
.Sherman said : 

" In assuming, fur the second time, the 
office oi Chief Magistrate of the State, I 
fully realize ni}- grateful obligations to the 
people of Iowa, through whose generous 
c<^nndcnce I am here. I am aware of the 
duties and gra\e responsibilities of this ex- 
alted position, and as well what is expected 
of me therein. .\s in the past I have given 

my undivided time and serious attention 
thereto, so in the future I promise the most 
earnest devotion and untiring effort in the 
faithful performance of my official require- 
ments. I have seen the State grow from 
infancy to mature manhood, and each year 
one of substantial betterment of its previous 

" With more railroads than any other 
State, save two ; with a school interest the 
grandest and strongest, which commands 
the support and confidence of all the peo- 
ple, and a population, which in its entirety 
is superior to any other in the sisterhood, 
it is not strange the pride which attaches to 
our people. When we remember that the 
xesults of our efforts in the direction of good 
government have been crowned with such 
magnificent success, and to-day we have a 
State in most perfect physical and financial 
condition, no wonder our hearts swell in 
honest pride as we contemplate the past 
and so confidently hope for the future. 
What we m.ay become depends on our own 
efforts, and to that future I look with earnest 
and abiding confidence." 

Governor Sherman's term of office con- 
tinued until January 14, 18S6, when he was 
succeeded by William Larrabee, and he is 
now, temporarily, perhaps, enjoying a well- 
earned rest. He has been a Republican 
since the organization of that party, and his 
services as a campaign speaker have been 
for many years in great demand. As an 
officer he has been able to make an enviable 
record. Himself honorable and thorough, 
his management of public business has been 
of the same character, and such as has com- 
mended him to the hearty approval of the 
citizens of the State. 

He was married August 20, 1862, to Miss 
Lena Kendall, of \'inton, Iowa, a young 
lady of rare accomplishments and strength 
of character. The union has been happy 
in every respect. They have two children 
— Lena Kendall and Oscar Eugene. 


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Is1=^^^?%->| is the thirteenth 
Governor of this 
State, and the six- 
teenth Governor 
of Iowa, counting 
from the Territo- 
rial organization. His ancestors 
bore the name of d'Larrabee, and 
were among the French Hugue- 
nots who came to America early 
in the seventeenth century, set- 
tling in Connecticut. Adam 
Larrabee was born March 14, 
1787, and. was one of tlic earlv 
graduates of West Point Military Academv. 
He served with distinction in the war of 
1 812, having been made a Second Lieuten- 
ant March i, iSi i. He was promoted to be 
Captain February i, 1S14, and was soon 
after, March 30, of the same year, sc\'erclv 
wounded at the battle of Lac(jle Mills, dur- 
ing General Wilkinson's campaign on the 
St. Lawrence. He recovered from this 
wound, which was in the lung, and was 
afterward married to Hannah Gallup Lester, 
who was born June S, 179S, and died >Larch 
15, 1S37. Captain Larrabee died in 1S69, 
aged cightv-two. 

The subject oi this sketch was born at 

Ledyard, Connecticut, January 20, 1S32, 
and was the seventh of nine children. He 
passed his early life on a rugged New Eng- 
land farm, and received only moderate 
school advantages. He attended the dis- 
trict schools winters until nineteen years of 
age, and then taught school for two winters. 
He was now of an age when it became 
necessary to form some plans for the future. 
In this, however, he ivas embarrassed by a 
misfortune which beiel him at the age of 
fourteen. In being trained to the use of 
fire-arms under his father's direction, an ac- 
cidental discharge resulted in the loss of 
sight in the right e\-e. This unfitted him 
for many employments usuail}- sought by 
ambitious youths. The family lived two 
miles from the sea, and in that locality it 
was the custom for at least one son in each 
family to become a sailor. William's two 
; eldest brothers chose this occupation, and 
; the third remained in charge of*the home 

Thus made free to choose for himself 
William decided to emigrate West. In 
1S53, accordingly, he came to Iowa. His 
elder sister, Hannah, wife of E. H. Williams, 
was then living at Garnavillo, Clayton 
County, and there he went first. In that 
way he selected Northeast Iowa as his 















:♦ ♦: 




GOrERXOnS OF lon-A. 

future home. After teaching one winter at 
Hardin, he was for three jxars employed as 
a sort of foreman on the Grand Meadow 
farm of his brother-in-law, Judge Williams. 

In 1S57 he bought a one-third interest in 
the Clermont Mills, and located at Cler- 
mont, Fayette County. He soon was able 
to buy the other two-thirds, and within a 
year found himself sole owner. He oper- 
ated this mill until 1874, when he sold to S. 
M. Leach. On the bieaking out of the war 
he offered to enlist, but was rejected on ac- 
count of the loss of his right eye. Being 
informed he might possibly be admitted as 
a commissioned officer he raise .i a companv 
and received a commission as First Lieu- 
tenant, but was again rejected for the same 

After selling the mill Mr. Larrabee de- 
voted himself to farming, and started a 
private bank at Clermont. He also, ex- 
perimentally, started a large nursery, but 
this resulted only in confirming the belief 
that Northern Iowa has too rigorous a cli- 
mate for fruit-raising. 

Mr. Larrabee did not begin his political 
career until 1867. He was reared as a 
Whig, and became a Republican on the or- 
ganization of that party. While interested 
in politics he generally refused local offices, 
serving only as treasurer of the School 
Board prior to 1S67. In the autumn of that 
year, on the Republican ticket, he was 
elected to represent his county in the State 
Senate. To this high position he was re- 
elected from time to time, so that he served 
as Senator continuously for ei^-hteen years 
before being promoted to the highest office 
in the State. He was so popular at home 
that he was generally re-nominated by ac- 
clamation, and for some years the Demo- 
crats did not even make nominations. 
During the whole eighteen years Senator 
Larrabee was a member of the principal { 
committee, that on Ways and Means, of 
which he was generally chairman, and was | 

also a member of other committees. In the 
pursuit of the duties thus devolving upon 
him he was indefatigable. It is said that 
he never missed a committee meeting. Not 
alone iji this, but in private and public 
business of all kinds his uniform habit is 
that of close application to work. ~ Many 
of the important measures passed by the 
Legislature owe their existence or present 
form to him. 

He was a candidate for the gubernatorial 
nomination in 18S1, but entered the contest 
too late, as Governor Sherman's following 
had been successfully organized. In 1SS5 
it was generally conceded before the meet- 
ing of the convention that he would be 
nominated, which he was, and his election 
followed as a matter of course. He was 
inaugurated January 14, 1SS6, and so far 
has made an exxeilent Governor. His 
position in regard to the liquor question, 
that on which political fortunes are made 
and lost in Iowa, is that the majority should 
rule. He was personally in favor of high 
license, but having been elected Governor, 
and sworn to uphold the Constitution and 
execute the laws, he proposes to do so. 

A Senator who sat beside him in the 
Senate declares him to be " a man of the 
broadest comprehension and information, 
an extraordinarily clear reasoner, fair and 
conscientious in his conclusions, and of 
Spartan firmness in his matured judg- 
ment," and says that " he brings tlie prac- 
tical facts and philosophy of human nature, 
the science and histor}- of law, to aid in his 
decisions, and adheres with the earnestness 
of Jefferson and Sumner to the fundamental 
principles of the people's rights in govern- 
ment and law." 

Governor Larrabee was married Sep- 
tember 12, 1861, at Clermont, to Anna M. 
Appclman, daughter of Captain G. A. 
Appclman. Governor Larrabee has seven 
children — Charles, Augusta, Julia, Anna, 
William, Frederic and Helen. 

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.■^EORGE W. HOWE, was one of the 

Uvq-. first settlers of Clarke County, and 
"^^ was the pioneer merchant of Osceola, 
where he was engaged in business at the 
time of his death, which occurred October 
1, 1864. He was born in Enfield, Massa- 
chusetts, August 2, 1 8 10, and was the 
second son of Sylvanus and Sukey (Joslin) 
Howe, descendants of one of the original 
founders of the town. He grew to man- 
hood on the farm of his father, and at- 
tended the common school. At the age of 
twenty-one he entered the store of Saxton 
& Field, and afterward became a member 
of the firm under the name of Saxton, 
Field & Co. In 1S36 he formed a partner- 
ship with Seth llichards, and emigrated to 
the Territory- of Wisconsin, which then in- 
cluded the Territory of Iowa, and settled 
at Fort Madison, where he established a 
store under the firm name of Hort'e & 
Richards; and soon after the arrival, in 
1837, of his partner, Seth Richards, they 
removed their stock of goods to Bentons- 
port, in Van Buren County, Iowa. Owing 
to the financial troubles in 1837 they went 
out of business and engaged in farming, 
making two farms in Van Buren Coimty, 
he driving the ox teams to break the 
prairie. In 1840 he engaged as a clerk for 
A. J. Davis, in his store at Bentonsport, 

and afterward had charge of a store at 
lowaville, Iowa. In 184S he established a 
store at Red Rock, Marion County, Iowa, 
in partnership with Seth Richards, under 
the firm name of Howe & Richards. In 
1S50 the same firm entered 960 acres of 
land near the center of Clarke County, 160 
acres of which they sold to the county in 
1851, and upon that land the town of Osce- 
ola is located. The price paid was 62J.^ 
cents per acre. Having been compelled 
in 1851 to remove his stock of goods from 
Red Rock, by the high waters of the Des 
Moines River in June of that year, he took 
them to what was then called Lost Camp, 
in Green Ba)' Township, Clarke County, 
where he remained until Osceola was 
founded in November, 1851, when he re- 
moved to that place and continued there 
the mercantile business under the firm 
name of Howe & Richards. This firm had 
branch stores at Cor3'don, Wa3me County, 
Afton, Union County, and Bedford, Taylor 
County, Iowa. Mr. Howe was an honest 
and upright man in all his dealings, and 
was a friend of the poor, and assisted 
many a good man to secure a home in 
Clarke County before the days of home- 
stead laws. He married in September, 
1863, Miss Martha S. Underwood, daughter 
of Roswell Underwood, of Enfield, Massa- 

.K \ ' 

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iiisrour OF clarke couxrr. 

chusctts. Slic still survives 'him. His 
estate was worth §200,000, all of which he 
accuimilatcd himself without any assist- 
ance from others. 

tP. GLENN is a native of Sangamon 
Count}', Illinois, a son of Thomas M. 
'"^^ and Anna (Scott) Glenn, natives of 
■ South Carolina. He was born November 
6, 1825, and was reared on a farm, making 
his home with his parents, and obtained his 
education in the common schools, which he 
attended in the winter. When twenty 
years of age he enlisted in the Mexican war 
in Colonel Baker's regiment. Company E, 
Fourth Illinois, from Da Witt County. He 
was absent from home just twelve months, 
his most important engagements being the 
siege of Vera Cruz and the battle of Cerro 
Gordo. He returned to his home in Illi- 
nois and engaged in farming. In 1S53 he 
with his family and parents, moved to 
Clarke County, Iowa, and entered 160 acres 
of Government land on the northwest 
quarter of section 27, township 73, range 
25 west, Fremont Township. He at once 
went to work to build a cabin in which to 
shelter his fainih', which consisted of a wile 
and two children. Here he lived two years, 
when he sold out at an advance on the 
purchase price, and bought an adjoining 
farm, which he afterward sold and moved 
to Kansas. Meeting with reverses there he 
returned to Iowa where he has since lived. 
At the breaking out of the war of the Re- 
bellion he raised what was known as Cor.i- 
pany F, Sixth Iowa Infantry, which was 
the first company to leave for the field from 
Clarke County. He participated in the 
battle of Shiloh and had many narrow 
escapes, but was by shot or shell uninjured. 
He was married July i, 1847, to Frances 
Orlena Hamilton, and to tliem were born 
nine children — Thomas M., Olive A., James, 

K., Samuel P., Orlena, Tabitha, Ruth, 
George and Fannv. James K., Samuel P., 
Orlena and George are deceased. Mrs. 
Glenn died February 3, 1866, and in 1867 
Mr. Glenn married Miss Sarah E. Harlan, 
a daughter of Aaron and Jemima (Polly) 
Harlan, early settlers of Clarke County. 
Mr. Harlan was born in Barren County, 
Kentucky, January 13, 1803, 'ind in his in- 
fancy his father moved to Hamilton Count}-, 
Ohio, and thence in 1807 to Wayne County, 
Indiana, where he lived until manhood. He 
married Jemima, daughter of William and 
Jemima (Kelsoe) Polly, and to them were 
born eight childi^en — James R., Stephen, 
Hosea, Noah, Aaron, Edee, Nancy and 
Sarah E. Mr. Harlan came to Clarke 
County in the fall of 1853, and first pur- 
chased eighty acres of land in Osceola 
Township, northeast of the village. lie 
afterward bought forty-five acres in Fre- 
mont Township. He is now in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age, and is one of the 
oldest residents of Clarke County. 

^■iJJ-ARREN CONAWAY, an entcr- 
t:U/ V/l prising citizen of Knox Township, 
t^-j^ where he resides on section 5, Avas 
born in McLean County, Illinois, Septem- 
ber 28, 1839. His parents, Aquilla and 
Rachel (Barnett) Conaway, were natives of 
Maryland and Kentucky respectively. Our 
subject was the youngest in a family of 
nine children, whose names are as follows 
— Catharine, Milton, James H., William, 
Providence, Aquilla, Margaret A., Nancy 
Jane and Warren. Warren Conaway re- 
mained on the home farm in McLean 
County till eighteen years of age, his edu- 
cation being received in the common 
schools of his native county. At the age 
of eighteen years he removed with his pa- 
rents to Daviess County, Missouri, living 
there till the breaking out of the war of the 

;i /. :■/ 

• ♦: 


Rebellion, when he enlisted in the Fort\-- 
eighth Missouri State Militia. He served 
four years, engaged in figiiting the bush- 
whackers and guerrillas, and in guarding 
the rights of loyal citizens. He left Daviess 
County in 1S70, when he came to Clarke 
County, Iowa, and located on his present 
farm in Knox Township, which contains 
160 acres of highly cultivated land, and has 
since been engaged in farming and stock- 
raising. He has a good, comfortable resi- 
dence, commodious barn and out-buildings 
for his stock. Mr. Conaway was married 
to Elizabeth Ann Day, December 29, 1S64, 
and to .this union have been bom seven 
children— Irwin Edgar, Armilda E., Emma 
L., Elmer Herman, Nova C, Roscoe and 
Maiceila. Mr. Conaway started in life 
without means, but by his untiring industry 
and persevering energy he has made his 
present fine property, and is to-dav classed 
among the representative men of Knox 

fOHN Mcdonough is a native of 
Greene County, Pennsylvania, born 
".v. J"ly 14. 1S20, a son of Richard and 
Ann (Mellon) McDonough, both natives of 
Ireland, the father born in County Ferma- 
nagh, in 1791, and the mother in County 
Tvrone, in 1790. They were married in 
New York about 1814, and to them were 
born ten children, of whom John was the 
fourth. The}' located in Pittsburgh, Penn- 
svlvania, about the year 1S16, but shortl}' 
after went to Greene County, where they 
remained live or six years. They then 
returned to Pittsburgh, locating on Char- 
tens Creek, in the suburbs, about 1824. 
Both died in AUeghenv City, Pennsylvania, 
the father February t, 1840, and the mother 
surviving till May 28, 1S63. John McDon- 
ough, the subject of this sketch, was reared 
in Pittsburgh and Allegheny Cit)', receiving 
his education in the schools of the latter 

city, but on account of the limited circum- 
stances of his parents his facilities were 
not very good. At the age of seventeen 
years he began working in tJie foundry of 
Kingsland, Leightner & Co., and remained 
with that firm and their successors sixteen 
3'ears, and in the meantime availed himself 
of the night schools, where he received a 
fair education. He had not been in the 
employ of the firm long before he was 
taken into the office, and was gradually 
promoted from post to post until January 
I, 185 1, when ha was admitted as a partner, 
the firm being then known by the name of 
Boilman, Garretson & Co., iron founders. 
He remained with this firm till January, 
1853, when he started a foundry' in Alle- 
gheny City under the firm name of McDon- 
ough & Stewart. He sold out his interest 
in this foundry June i, 1854, to John D. 
Kilgor, and in the same month visited 
Iowa. He was so taken with the country 
that he entered a section of land in Jackson 
Township, where he now lives. He then 
returned \.o his home, but in the spring of 
1S55 came with his family to Clarke 
Count}', where he found the house which 
he had contracted to build, lying flat on the 
ground. The family were obliged to camp 
in wagons, and although they endured 
many hardships they stuck to the place 
through the pioneer days, and are now liv- 
ing in comfortable circumstances, having 
a most beautiful home. Since coming 
here Mr. McDonough has devoted most of 
his time to farming and stock-raising, in 
which he has been verv successful, owning 
at present about 500 acres of choice land, 
and at times has owned much more. The 
quiet life of a farmer has had charms even 
for one who has been raised among the 
"madding crowd" of a great city, and 
engaged among the noises of manufacto- 
ries. April 12, 1847, Mr. McDonough was 
married at Brady's Bend, Armstrong 
County, Pennsylvania, to Miss 

1'.! oi' .-.i 








Campbell, who was born in Allegheny 
County, Pennsylvania. February 34, 1S23. 
a daughter of James and Mary Campbell, 
who were both natives of Scotland, they, 
coming to America about 1819. Eight 
children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Mc- 
Donough, all of whom survive— James C, 
of Dakota, was born March i, 1848, and 
married to Electa J. Hamilton in April, 
18S0; Richard S., of Hastings, Iowa, was 
born February 7, 1850, married June 18, 
1879, to Kate Duval; Mary, at home, born 
August II, 1852; John, Jr., born Septem- 
ber 12, 1854, living at home; Charles B., 
at home, born March 30, 1S58; Thomas 
Benton, at home, born June 8, i860; Ann 
Mellon, born June 26, 1S62, and William 
C, born October 7, 1867. Mr. McDonough 
has for a number of years past been an en- 
ergetic advocate and worker in the cause 
of education. After coming here he was 
elected school director, next justice of the 
peace, which office he filled a number of 
years. He next served as county supervisor 
two or three terms, then was a trustee of 
the Iowa Agricultural College at the time 
of the contract for the present building. 
During the late war he was Captain of a 
company of home guards in the Southern 
Border Brigade. He was president of the 
Clarke County Agricultural Association, 
having purchased their fair grounds at a 
sheriff's sale, selling it in stock shares to 
residents who made it one of the very best 
in Iowa. He helped organize the Old 
Settler's Association of Clarke County, 
and was its first president. In the fall of 
18S3 he was elected Senator of the fifth 
Senatorial District (Clarke and Decatur) 
to the twentieth and twenty-first General 
Assembly, and is still serving as such, and 
is on record as a staunch supporter of tem- 
perance, and of woman's rights and suf- 
frage. Mr. McDonough is extensively 
engaged in stock-raising, giving particular 
attention to horses. Few men in Clarke 

County are more widely known or more 
generally respected than John McDon- 
ough. He has been active in the support 
of every movement calculated to pro- 
mote the general welfare of his township 
and county, and has won the confidence and 
esteem of all who know him. In his polit- 
ical views Mr. McDonough formerly affili- 
ated with the Whig party, but since the 
organization of the Republican party has 
voted that ticket. Mr. McDonough is an 
active member of the Catholic church, and 
took a prominent part in the erection of the 
first Catholic church in Clarke County, at 
Woodburn. Though a staunch believer in 
the doctrines of his church he has freely 
contributed for the erection of other 
churches, regardless of color or creed. 


1^ WYATT is one of the wealthy pio- 
t^l "cers of Franklin Township. His 
vj:^* first house was a rude cabin, 18 x 20 
feet, built of logs on 160 acres of land, on sec- 
tion, 22, purchased from John Jackson, in 
x'\pril 1854. Commencing in this small way, 
he has made rapid progress, and is now one 
of the leading agriculturists in the town- 
ship, His farm of 284'^ acres is devoted 
to stock-raising, for which it is especiallv 
adapted. It consists of prairie up-land, 
natural meadow and timber-land, and the 
main branch of the Chariton River runs 
through the farm, giving a water frontage 
of three-quarters of a mile. Mr. Wvatt 
was born in Indiana, near Terre Haute, 
September 7, 1820. After the age of one 
year he lived in Edgar County, Illinois. 
He was earlj' inured to farm labor, and the 
lessons of his youth were never forgotten. 
December 3, 1S46, in Edgar County, Mr. 
Wyatt married Miss Eliza Jane Scott, who 
was born in that county, January 21, 1S26. 
They came to Wapello County, this State, 
October 25, 1853, and to their present 


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home the following spring. The rude 
cabin of pioneer days has given wav to an 
elegant residence, and all corresponding 
improvements. Of their ten children but 
four are living — William E., living in Lu- 
cas County; Jacob B. and Mrs. Electa J. 
Wells also reside in I^ucas Countv; James 
R., lives with his parents; Joseph B., Frank- 
lin, John, Luther C, Margaret A. and 
Cinderilla C. are deceased. Mr. Wyatt 
was the fourth child of fourteen children. 
His parents, William and Elizabeth (Prick- 
et) Wyatt, were from Virginia. The 
father died in Edgar County, Illinois, and 
the mother in W^isconsin. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wyatt have been connected with the Bap- 
tist church for thirty-five years. In poli- 
tics he is a Democrat. ,,.^ 

— o-^3)»-<o — 4^g3> — °'^^3>-« — 

t^BRAHAM CARTER, M. D., de- 
^ ceased, was born in Mason Count}', 
^.SS' Kentucky, October 22, 1800, and died 
at his home in Osceola, Iowa, June 26, 1874. 
He was well known in Southern Indiana, 
where he had gained a strong foothold on 
the affections of the people by his skill in 
his profession. He began the study of 
medicine, after completing his academical 
education, in the office of Dr. Donnavan, 
of Bracken County, Kentucky, and at- 
tended lectures at the Transylvania Uni- 
versity, under Drs. Dudle}', Richardson, 
Blythe and colleagues, in 1821 and 1822. 
After his graduation he practiced in his 
native county a short time, and then in 
1825 moved to Decatur County, Indiana, 
and loc.ited near Greensburgh, where he 
continued in the practice of medicine until j 
1853, when he moved to Indianapolis, and | 
from there moved to Iowa, whither most of j 
his children had preceded him. He was a j 
conscientious, untiring worker, and the | 
labor and exposures incident to the faith- j 
ful pursuit of his profession undermined I 

his health, and for some years he was practi- 
cally retired from practice. As the time 
drew near for his departure from this 
world, he was fully aware of his approach- 
ing dissolution, but to one who for more 
than half a century had lived a consistent 
and eaiiiest Christian lile death was no 
terror, and he went with joy to claim the 
rewards of a well-spent life. When thir- 
teen years of age he became a member of 
the Christian church, Jiiaintaining his rela- 
tions to that denomination until he was 
transferred to the church triumphant. He 
was a close student of the Bible and Chris- 
tian literature, and in the church was an 
efficient and reliable worker. In all his 
relations to mankind he was strictly honor- 
able and was universally esteemed. He was 
a pioneer of the medical profession in 
Southern Indiana, and gained an enviable 
reputation by his successful treatment of 
disease, and especially by his skillfulness 
in all surgical cases. He was without a 
peer in his section of the State, and was 
called upon to go long distances to perform 
difficult operations. Dr. Carter was mar- 
ried November 22, 1S22, to Miss Harriet 
Norris, and to them were born five chil- 
dren — Adelia, Richardson, Caspar, Perlina 
and Elizabeth, only two of whom are now 
living — Mrs. Adelia New, of Indianapolis, 
and Casper Carter, of Osceola, lov/a. 












Y^HOMAS B. O'NEALL resides on 
^^i'.'c the southwest quarter of section 32, 
r^J Liberty Township, where he settled 
in 1S6S. He has 2S0 acres of prairie land 
and twenty-four acres of timber, all in ex- 
cellent condition. He was born in Greene 
County, Indiana, August 24, 1840. His 
parents, William and Mary (Boyd 1 O'Neall, 
were natives of South Carolina, and moved 
to Greene County in 1829, purchasing a 
slightly improved farm in the forests of In- 



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diana. A cabin had been erected and a few 
acres cliopped. There the family lived 
until Thomas B. was fourteen years of age, 
then niovcd to Warren County, Illinois, 
where he was reared to manhood. He came 
to Clarke County, Iowa, February 20, 1S68. 
May ig, iS6g, he was married to Miss Eliza- 
beth Binkerd, daughter of Jolm and Judith 
Binkerd, pioneers of Clarke County. Mrs. 
O'Neall was born February 12, 1852, in 
Henry County, Iowa. Her parents now 
reside in Holt County, Nebraska, locating 
there in 1SS2. In 1S69 the parents of Mr. 
O'Neall came to live with him. His 
mother died at his home December 4, 1878, 
aged seventy-seven years, three months and 
nineteen days. His father died January 27, 
1883, aged eighty-three years and twenty- 
two days. Mr. and Mrs. O'Neall have had 
nine children, viz. — Eliza E. (died, aged 
four months), Jemima, Phebe, Elizabeth 
(died, aged fourteen months), William C, 
Cora B., Irene, Peter and Sophia. Mr. 
O'Neall was the eighth often children, only 
one besides himself living — Mrs. Rhoda M. 
Booth, of Hopeville, this county. Of the 
ten children in the Binkerd family, Mrs. 
O'Neall is the eighth. One brother, George 
K. Binkerd, lives neat Lacelle, this county. 
Mr. O'Neall is one of the leading agricul- 
turists of the county. His farm is princi- 
pally devoted to stock-raising. In politics 
he is a Democrat. He has served the town- 
ship several terms as magistrate. Hugh 
O'Neall, the founder of the O'Neall family 
in America, immigrated to this country in 
the year 1730. He came from near the 
town of Antrim. Ireland, and settled at 
Chrilian, a small town near Wilmington, 
Delaware, where he married Annie Cox, 
daughter of Jonathan Cox, by whom he 
had seven sons, one of whom was Will- 
iam, the greaf-grandfather of the subject of 
this sketch. William O'Neal! married Mary 
Frost, daughter of William Frost, who bore 
him one daughter and six sons, one of whom 

was Henry, grandfather of T. B. O'Neall, 
who married Mary Miles, daughter of 
Samuel Miles, and to them were born five 
daughters and nine sons, one, William O'- 
Neall, being the father of the subject of 
this sketch. 

ILLIAM G. EVANS, one of the 
pioneers of Clarke Count}-, was 
born in Morrow County, Ohio, 
November 21, 1828, a son of Owen Evans, 
who was a native of Cambria County, Penn- 
sylvania. He was reared and educated in 
the common schools of his native county, 
and has made farming the principal avoca- 
tion of his life. May 16, 1850, he was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth J. Rider, a native of New 
York State, and a daughter of William 
Rider, deceased. Of the six children born 
to this union five are yet living — Mitchel 
L., Marshall O., Mary E., Sarah C. and 
Lewis, all married but the last named. Mr. 
Evans located in Farmington, Iowa, in the 
fall of i8;o, and in 185 1 located in Appa- 
noose County. In August, 185 1, he came 
to Clarke County, and entered 160 acres of 
land in Washington Township, this being 
the third entry made in the to\vnship. In 
August, 1852, lie removed his family to his 
land in Washington Township, having at 
that time but 50 cents, an ox team and his 
i6o acres of timber land. He subsequently 
entered another tract of 200 acres of prairie 
land. When he first came to this county 
Mr. Evans found the inhabitants to be 
principally Indians. His first residence 
was a round log cabin with puncheon floor 
and clapboard roof, and his nearest neigh- 
bor lived in a rail pen, one and a half miles 
away. Ox teams were the usual modes of 
conveyance in those early days, and their 
journey to mill, forty miles distant, was made 
by the same wa^'. Mr. Evans was bereaved 
by the death of his wife. May 29, 1 882. In Oc- 
tober, 1883, he was again united in marriage 



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to Mrs. Mar)' A. (Riley) Sifrit, of Martin 
County, Indiana, who had three children 
by her former husband — Delpiiia, Clyde A. 
and Carrie P. Since the war Mr. Evans 
has paid special attention to stock-raising. 
In the spring of iSSi he removed to Mur- 
ra}-, where he was engaged in general mer- 
chandising one year, when he sold out and 
has since devoted his attention to the breed- 
ing of fine horses, in which he is meeting 
with success. He has on his farm two fine 
Clydesdale stallions. Cl3'de, sixteen and a 
half hands high, weighing i,6oo pounds, and 
Punch, sixteen hands in height, also weigh- 
ing 1, 600 pounds. He still owns a good 
farm of 180 acres. Mr. Evans has been 
elected to hold various township and other 
local oflBces. He is a member of the Metho- 
dist Protestant church. 

l^prW J- DENLY, one of the progressive 
^jljljj: farmers of Knox Township, residing 
^j ■^ on section g, is a native of Wiltshire, 
England, born April 23, 1838, the eldest son 
of Joha and Sarah (Gilmore) Denly, who 
were the parents of ten children — Thomas 
J., Emily, Daniel, Fanny, Edward, John, 
Sarah, Hannah, Martha and a daughter 
Mary, who is now deceased. Thomas J. 
was reared on a farm, and educated in the 
common schools of his native country. He 
came to America in January, 1S57, and for 
two years lived in New York and vicinity. 
He then removed to Pike County, Penn- 
sylvania, where he followed farming two 
years. Apnl i, 1861, he enlisted in Com- 
pany K, Fourth Regular Artillery, and was 
in the service three years. He participated 
in the engagements at Yorktown Peninsula, 
second battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fred- 

Ohio. August 23, 1S64, he was married to 
Mar}' Gilmore, of Holmes County, Ohio, a 
daughter of Thomas and Dorothy (Young) 
Gilmore. They have seven children living 
— James Alfred, Mary Emily, Ellen Eliza- 
beth, Martha L., Jane, Ira E. and Fanny E. 
A son named Wesley E. is deceased. After 
leaving Wayne Count)-, Ohio, Mr. Denly 
settled in Knox County, Illinois, remaining 
two and a half years. He then came to 
Clarke County, Iowa, and made his home 
in Ward Township for seven years, and in 
the spring of 1S83 bought the farm where 
he has since resided. His farm is one of 
the best located in Knox Township, and 
contains 140 acres of improved land under 
the best of cultivation. He has a comfort- ^>; 
able residence surrounded by shade and se.-S 
ornamental trees, out buildings for the ac- :•»•::«: 
commodation of his stock, and a fine orchard ^>: 
on his farm. This fine property has been :•»>; 
acquired by rears of industrious toil and Kd 
persevering energy, Mr. Denly being a K*: 
poor man when he commenced life for him- J*>i 
self, and is numbered among the self-made j^;*-; 
men of Clarke County, where he is much J*;?*; 
respected for his fair and honorable deal- ij;*! 
ings. In politics he was formerly a Re- ^^■ 
publican, but now affiliates with the Green- [*:*; 
back party. 

^ipHOMAS W. DAY, farmer and stock- 
-;:, i,.; raiser, residing on seccion 27, Madison 
Tpi Township, Clarke County, was born 
in Clay County, Indiana, October 23, 1841, 
his father being a native of Wayne County, 
Kentucky. Our subject was reared to agri- 
cultural pursuits which he has made the 
principal vocation of his life, and in his 

youth received a common school education, -v*: 

crickjburgh, Chancellorsville and Gettvs- ! In 18,4 the father came with his family to j**! 

burgh. He was honorably discharged at t Iowa, locating in Dcs Moines County, and j**! 

Rappahannock, Virginia, in April, 1S64. ] in 1055 removed to Clarke Coimty, when !**■ 

After the war he located in Wayne County, j he settled with his family in what is now ;**! 

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Jackson Township. The surrounding coun- 
try- was then in a wild state, and was prin- 
cipally inhabited with Indians and wild 
animals. During the late war our subject 
enlisted in Company B, Eighteenth Iowa 
Infantry, and served faithfully for three 
years. He participated in the battles of 
Springfield, Missouri, Saline River and 
Poison Springs, Arkansas, and Prairie De 
Hand, beside others of minor importance. 

of twelve children — C. Frederick, M. 
Anne, Margaret, Katharine, John and Hen- 
ry (twins), Charles, Elizabeth, Louis. Will- 
iam, Mary and Matilda, all living at home. 
Mr. Burgus followed agricultural pursuits 
in Des Moines County till the fall of 1868, 
when he came to Clarke County, and set- 
tled on the farm where he has since been 
engaged in farming and stock-raising. He 
had but $25 when he landed in America, 

Mr. Day was united in marriage October I but owing to his industry, persevering en- 

4, 1 87 1, to Margaret Little, a daughter of 
Hugh Little, a resident of Madison Town- 
ship, Clarke County. Six children have 
been born to this union, of whom two are 
deceased. Those living are— Bryan, Mary 
J., Roy and Rubie. Mr. Day came to his 
present farm in 1S71, where he has since 

ergy and good management he has met 
with good success,' and is now the owner 
of a fine farm of 237 acres where he resides. 
He has served his township as trustee, 
besides filling other minor offices. He is 
a member of the German Lutheran church. 

^;;ti resided with the exception of three years 

spent in Rice County, Kansas. He has met 
with fair success in his farming pursuits, 
and now owns sixt}- acres where he resides, 
in Madison Township, besides a farm of 160 
acres in Rice County, Kansas. Mr. Day is 
an active and enterprising citizen, and is at 
present serving as township trustee and 
constable. He is a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 


HARLES BURGUS, a successful 

t farmer and stock-raiser, living: on sec- 
tion 22, Madison Township, was born 
in the province of Pomer, Germany, Octo- 
ber 2, CS31, his father, Frederick Burgus, 
being a native of the same province. Our 
subject remained in his native country till 
i860, coming to America in the fall of that 
year. He spent the first year of his residence 
in America in Walworth County, Wiscon- 
sin, moving to Des Moines County, Iowa, in first settled in Albany, that State, where he 
January, 1S62. He was married Novem- lived five years. June 19, 1S64, he wedded 
ber 3, 1865, to .Nliss Elizabeth Ries, a Miss Ann Mecham, a native of County 
daughter of Christian T^ies, of I3urlington, Roscommon, Ireland. March 4, i856. they 
Des Moines County. They have a family moved to Galesburg-, Illinois, where Mr. 

ATRICK FOX resides on section 12, 
Jackson Township, and owns one of 
'=?(;' the best farms in the eastern portion of 
the county. It consists of 280 acres. When 
he first occupied it, in 1SS3, no furrow had 
been turned nor tree planted. Now the 
broad fields gladden the heart of their 
owner. March 11, 1875, ,Mr. Fox first 
made his home in this county. He settled 
on section i, Jackson Township, contracting 
for 140 acres. Poor crops caused him to fail 
in his payments. Surrendering his land 
with his stock in 18S3, he occupied his 
present home. He brought to this county 
about $2,000, all of which was lost in that 
first investment. Mr. Fox was born in 
County Leitrim, Ireland, December 1 1,1837. 
His parents. Frank and Catharine Fox, 
never left their native land. To better his 
fortunes, he embarked for the United States 
in 1861, landing at New York City. He 

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Fox rented land, and remained upon it un- 
til hi5 removal to this county. The names 
of their children are — Frank, Thomas, Kate 
^who died at the age of eighteen months), 
Ella. Maurice (who died at the age of six- 
teen months), Annie, Marie, Maggie, Lizzie, 
and John (who died in infancy). Mr. Fox 
came to this county a poor man, but his 
energ}- and' frugality have been well re- 
warded. The family are members of the 
Catholic church. Politically, Mr. Fox is a 
Dempcrat, :' ,i> ■ 

^mLVAH M. HADLEY was born in 
■ikV, Morgan County, Indiana, January 15, 
"s-^ss" 1851. He came with his parents to 
this State in 1855, making their home in 
Warren County. In 1856 they settled in 
Franklin Township on the southwest 
quarter of section 29. His father pur- 
chased a farm, which had been slightly 
improved. Later, the family, returned to 
Morgan County, where the parents now 
live. The father was born in that county 
in 1828, and the mother was born in Ran- 
dolph County in 1830. To them were born 
eight children — our subject, Alvah M., and 
one daughter, Mrs. Elmira H. Farmer, re- 
siding at the home of her parents, are the 
only ones now living. S3lvia Ellen died 
at the age of sixteen years; Julia Eva died 
aged thirteen years ; Louisa died aged eight 
years ; Emma died in this county, aged two 
years; Lmarinda died at about two years 
of age ; Efhe, twin sister of Eva, died at the 
age of one month. Mr. Hadley's father re- 
tained the ownership of his Clarke County 
farm until 1881, when he sold to Alvah M. 
October 3, 1872, the subject of this sketch 
was married to Miss Susannah M.Cook, 
daughter of Milton and Martha Cook, who 
was born in Hendricks County, Indiana, 
December 10, 1S54. She died September 
14, iSSo, leaving four children — Loren R., 

Loles v., Luna C. and Luther M. March 
II, 18S2, Mr. Hadley married Miss Ella 
Mac}-, daughter of Ira C. and Achsah 
Macy, who was born in Randolph County, 
Indiana, October 30, 1855. Soon after 
marriage they came to the old homestead 
of Mr. Hadley's father in the township 
where they now reside. They have two 
children — Lindley E. and Lmarinda. In 
politics Mr. Hadley, like all those bearing 
the name, is a Republican. His parents are 
members of the Society of Friends, under 
whose teachings the religious views of 
their son Alvaii were formed. He is a 
practical farmer, a worthy citizen and a 
good neighbor. 


-o—^frfeSg— >- 

f;lLLIAM O. PARRISH, M. D., one 

t'lt/r M ! of the leading physicians and sur- 
I'='e>??] geons of Hope vi lie, is a native of 
Jackson County, Michigan, born March 8, 
1839, a son of Orrin H. Parrish, who was 
born in Ohio, and is now deceased. His 
father being a farmer, our subject was 
reared to agricultural pursuits, passing his 
youth on his father's farm. He received 
good educational advantages, and for a 
time attended Central University at Pella, 
Marion Count}', Iowa, his parents having 
settled in that county in 1857. He was a 
soldier ill the late war, enlisting in Com- 
pany B, Third Iowa Infantry, and serving 
over four years. He took part in the en- 
gagements at Blue Mills, Pittsburg Land- 
ing, Shiloh, Hatciiie River, sieges of Vicks- 
buig and Atlanta, with Sherman to the sea; 
thence to Richmond, and from there went 
to Washington where he participated in 
the grand review. Our subject attended 
lectures at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, at Keokuk, Iowa, from which 
institution he graduated February 25, 1S6S, 
and the same year located in Galesbiirg, 
Iowa, where he began his life's work. 

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uiSTonr OF clarke couNir. 

November 22, 1S71, he was united in mar- 
riage to Mrs. Emma A. Butin, a daughter 
of Madison Mo :)re. Five children have 
been born to them, of whom four still sur- 
vive — Earl O., Guy D., Jennie M. and 
William L. The doctor followed his pro- 
fession in Galcsburg till 1S77, when he 
came to Hopeville, where he has since re- 
sided, and since coming here has become 
well and favorably known as a skillful 
practitioner, and has succeeded in establish- 
ing a large and lucrative practice. Doctor 
Parrish is a member of the Masonic and 
Odd Fellows orders, and also belongs to 
the Grand Army of the Republic. He is 
a member of the Christian church. 

|^|NDREW A. WOODS, son of Samuel 
M\ and Julia Ann Woods, was born in 
^ts? Highland County, Ohio, December 3, 
1S44. He was united in marriage Novem- 
ber 2, 1865, to Lucetta Jane Mossbarger, 
who was born December 12, 1842, in Indi- 
ana, a daughter of William and Mercy 
Mossbarger, who came from Montgomery 
County, Indiana, to Clarke County, locat- 
ing in Jackson Township, where her father 
died in May, 186S, aged fift3'-slx years. 
The mother is now living in Nebraska, 
making her home with her son Leonard 
and her daughter Olive. Mr. and Mrs. 
Woods have eight children — Lillie -May, 
Rozella, Oscar A., Austin E., Samuel V., 
Julia .A.., Josephine and Charles. Samuel 
Woods, father of our subject, was born in 
Virginia, in 18 14, and his mother was a 
native of Highland County, Ohio, born 
June 14, 1S15. They were married in 1835, 
and had a family of five children, whose 
names a?-c as follows — Joseph, living in 
Hillsboro. Ohio; Mrs. Angeline Stotler, of j 
Bijonc County, Indiana; Mrs. Zelnia Par- j 
ish, deceased; Andrew A., our subject, and j 
Perr}^ who is deceased. The father died in . ' 

Highland County, Ohio, September 13, 
1S49, ^"<J t^'^s mother subsequently married 
John Deal, who is now deceased. The fam- 
ily came to Clarke County, Iowa, in 1855, 
when they located in Liberty Township, 
but for many years past the home of Mr. 
Woods, and his mother, Mrs. Deal, has 
been on section 28, of Liberty Township. 
The parents of Mrs. Beal, Joseph and .'►:5 
Susannah Creek, were both Virginians by g>: 
birth. Mrs. Beal is a woman of remarka- '^■*'. 
ble energy, and was well fitted in her ;■♦■■♦: 
prime for pioneer life. During the war she f->'\ 
showed thepracticaliility and possibility of K*; 
raising cotton in Iowa. The price of cot- f^\ 
ton being so high she was unable to buy, |^:j*: 
so obtained some cotton seed which she '^^ 
planted and cultivated, picked, wove and ^*i 
spun, and made into clothing, sheets, pil- p;*; 
low cases, etc., and can yet produce fabrics 5:*i 
of many kinds of her own carding, spin- ^;>; 
ning and weaving of the staple raised §>■ 
b}^ herself on her farm in Clarke Count\\ [»:>; 


'OHN KERR, son of Arthur and Han- 
nali (Bellers) Kerr, is a native of Car- 
roll County, Ohio, born May 11, 1836. 
In 1853 he accompanied his parents to 
Clarke Count)', Iowa. His father took up a 
claim in Knox Township, but soon ex- 
changed it and entered 200 acres of land 
in Liberty Township, and eighty acres in 
Warren County. The father died October 
19, 18S2, and the mother now makes her 
home with her son John. Their family 
consisted of nine children — James, John, 
Margaret, Mathias, Isabel, Isaac, William, 
Ellen and Marion. In August, 1S62, our 
subject enlisted in Company D, Thirtv- 
ninth Iowa Infantr}-, and served his coun- 
try three years, participating in numerous 
skirmishes, but no important battle. He 
was for some time v/agon-master of the 
Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, 

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Captain Benjamin being Quartermaster. 
After the war lie returned home, and has 
since engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
He is the owner of 525 acres of fmely im- 
proved land, all under cultivation, his resi- 
dence being on section 27, Fremont Town- 
ship. He is one of the representative 
citizens of the county, and a self-made man, 
accumulating his property by his own ex- 
ertions. He hauled the first run of burrs that 
ever was brought to Clarke County, with 
a team of o.xcn, and assisted in building the 
first saw-mill in the count)-, located in 
Osceola. Mr. Kerr has taken an active 
interest in the local afTairs of his township, 
and has served fourteen consecutive j-ears 
as trustee. He is a member of the Knights 
of Pythias, Osceola Lodge, No. 32. In 
politics he is a Republican. He was mar- 
ried October 17, 185S, to Miss Elizabeth 
Glenn, and to them were born eight chil- 
dren — Thomas A., Dora B., Cora D., Lon 
C, Marion P., Abe C, Annie H. and John 
H. Thomas married Miss Ida Rackle}', 
and Dora is the wife of Lafayette Harlan. 
Mrs. Kerr died December 24, 1S79. 

; farmei", living at Murray, was born 
^i in Ross Count)', Ohio, September 22, 
1 82 1, a son of John Abernathy, who was 
born near Warm Sprmgs, Virginia, and a 
grandson of John Abernathy, who served 
in the Revolutionary war. The grand- 
father settled with his family in Ross 
County, Ohii), in i3cS, when the principal 
inhabitants were Indians and wild animals. 
A few of the members of his family were 
captured by the Indians who covered them 

ships incident to pioneer life, and here 
George was reared among Indians, his home 
being a rude log cabin. He was married 
February i, 1844, to Sarah Evans, a daugh- 
ter of Nathaniel Evans, a pioneer of Parke 
County, and of the two children born to 
this union one is living, a son, John, 
now living in Madison Township of Clarke 
County. In 1844 our subject, accompanied 
by his wife, his brother William and his 
family, immigrated with ox teams to Logan 
County, Illinois, where they settled on 
Salt Creek Prairie. After his wife's death 
in 1849 '^6 returned with his two children 
to Parke County, Indiana, and early in the 
year 1850 he located in Wapello County, 
Iowa. He was again united in marriage 
February 28, 1850, taking for his second 
wife Elizabeth Griggs, a daughter of Eaton 
Griggs who, in early days, was a noted gun- 
smith in Agency City, Iowa. To this union 
have been born twelve children, ten still 
living — Mrs. Sarah E. Turner, William E.. 
George P., Charles L , Henry L., Andrew 
J., Emma J., Maggie L., Viola A. and Luther 
M. He went to Agency City in May, 1853, 
thence to La Harpe, Hancock County, Illi- 
nois, in 1S53. He returned to Wapello 
County, Iowa, 1858, and in 1S60 removed to 
Sullivan County, Missouri. In the spring of 
1861 he traded his farm in Missouri for 
one in Iowa, the farm being in Monroe 
County, to which he removed with his fam- 
ily in August, 1 86 1. In 1861 he went to 
Washington Territory and engaged in 
mining there and in Oregon and Idaho 
with his three brothers. They had formed 
a company composed of eighty-four men 
on their way out there at Fort Kearney on 
the Platte River. Two of the brothers are 
still in Idaho, and the third is now living 

with splinters which were then set on fire, 1 in Utah. Our subject returned to Iowa in 
leaving great scars on their persons. 

the spring of 1828 our subject's father re- 
moved v.ith his family to Parke County, 
Indiana, where thev endured all the hard- 

In I the fall of 1863, and in 1S65 settled in Mad 

ison Township, Clarke County, where he 
remained till 1S83, since which he has re- 
sided at Murray Springs. When our sub- 

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ject was fourteen years old his father gave 
him a hand sickle, which is still in his pos- 
session, and when a young man he used a 
plow with a wooden mold board, in his 
agricultural pursuits. After coming to 
Clarke County, Iowa, he used a one-horse 
shovel plow, a two-horse sulky turning 
plow and two-horse corn planter and check 
rower, a two-horse sulky cultivator and 
combined reaper and mower, and a self 

§R. ALESTER BENSON was born 
in Tioga Count}-, Pennsylvania, No- 
V33> vember 13, 1824. His parents, Syl- 
vester and Electa (Elcthorp) Benson, were 
born, reared and married in Vermont, go- 
ing to Pennsylvania immediately after mar- 
riage. They made the trip in winter by 
•JiJj sleigh, traveling 300 miles. They had nine 
children, Alester bemg the eldest, and the 
onlv one now living. In 1S34 the family 
moved to Hocking County, Ohio, where 
Alester was reared to manisood. March 
16, 1S48, he married Miss Jane Chamberhn, 
a native of Ross County, Ohio. In 1854 
they moved to Logan Count}-, Illinois, 
where the Doctor ff)llowed farming and 
practicing medicine for eight years. In the 
autumn of 1S60 he moved to Wapello 
Countv, Iowa, where he followed his pro- 
fession several years. In 1S69 he came to 
Franklin Township, where he has since 
lived. He owns a line stock farm of 177 
acres, besides having divided 160 acres with 
his children. Since coming to this county 
thc Doctor has given the greater portion of 
his time to farming; but has responded to 
professional calls from personal friends. He 
has made a specialty of treating cancers, in 
which he has been very successful. Mr. 
and Mrs. Benson have had four children — 
William, resides in Warren County; Mrs. 
Permelia Jane Oliver lives near her father; 

Orlando, also resides with his parents. Al- 
ester, Jr., died at the age of six months. 
March 12, 1S80, Mrs. Benson died at the 
age of forty-eight. In September, 1880, 
in Warren County, he married Miss Pris- 
cilla Kerney, a native of Ohio. Her par- 
ents, now deceased, settled in Warren 
County in 1851. The parents of Dr. 
Benson came to Ottumwa, Wapello Coun- 
ty, m 1855, and later came to the home 
of the Doctor, where the father died June 
26, 1874, aged seventy-two years, and the 
mother August 26, 1884, aged eighty-six 
years and four months. Dr. Benson is 
a prominent member of the Baptist church, 
in politics a Democrat, and in local elec- 
tions casts his vote for the best man. Dr. 
Benson's grandfather, John Benson, was 
one of the " Green Mountain boys," who, 
with the old hero, Ethan Allen, did such 
heroic work in the Revolutionary war. 

V^^ P. GIBSON, residing on section 18, 
YrJ. Jackson Township, Clarke County, 
""ifJ-* Iowa, is a native of Fayette County, 
Pennsylvania, born December 18, 1823, a 
son of Joseph and Rachel (Phillips) Gibson, 
the father a native of Ireland, coming with 
his parents to America wlien an infant, and 
the mother born near Philadelphia, a native 
of the State of New Jersey. Our subject 
was reared at his birth-place, remaining 
there till reaching his majority. He served 
an apprenticeship at the carpenter's trade 
in his native county, and worked at his 
trade some time. He then engaged in the 
manufacture of fanning mills, following this 
pursuit through the States of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio and Ken- 
tucky. He came to Iowa in 1S54, locating 
in Clarke County, and entered a half sec- 
tion of land about eight miles north of his 
present place, which he afterward sold, and 
after a few changes, subsequently bought 

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his present farm, where he has followed 
agricultural pursuits for the past twenty- 
three years. He spent two years at Osceola 
although at the same time he carried on his 
farm. .March 16, 1854, he was married to 
Edith H. Millard, a daughter of John and 
Sailie (Hall) Miliard, both natives of Rhode 
Island, the father born September 14, 17S7, 
and the mother June 11, 1796. They immi- 
grated to Ohio in 1S16, when Marietta was 
but a fort, coming the entire distance from 
Rhode Island by wagon, and stopping at 
various forts on the way, the I ndian troubles 
making that necessar}-. The Millard family- 
resided in Washington County, Ohio, till 
1854, when they came to Iowa with Mr. and 
Mrs. Gibson, they living in Clarke County 
till their death, the father dying May 15, 
1858, and the mother surviving till April 7, 
1867. Mr. and Mrs. Gibson have three chil- 
dren living — Sailie Millard, married Charles 
F. Proudfoot, and lives in Liberty Town- 
ship; Daniel Millard and Edith Eleanora. 
A son died in infanc}'. ... _ ,-. . 

— S^8|ri^- 

Opal E. Mr. Adkins followed agricult- 
ural pursuits until 18S1, wlien he engaged 
in the hardware business at Hopeville, 
which he has since carried on with success. 
He keeps a stock of ever3thing pertaining 
to his business, and by his strict integrity 
and upright dealings he has won the con- 
fidence of the people, and has succeeded 
in building up a good trade. Although 
Mr. Adkins never seeks official honors, he 
was elected and filled the office of consta- 
ble for two years. He is a member of the 
Christian church. 

SAAC WIANT is a native of Bedford 
Jj'l County, Pennsylvania, born June 29,. 
%? 1824, a son of Jacob and Magdalene 
(Dicbert) Wiant. His father died in 1826, 
and his mother subsequently, with her six 
children, moved to Grant Coimty, In- 
diana, where he was reared and married. 
- After his marriage his new cares increased 
his desire for a home, and accordingly, to 
better his opportunities for procuring one, 
he left Indiana and came West, locating in 
Clarke County, Iowa. He entered a tract 
of Government land, which he has im- 
proved and now has a tine farm of 275 acres 
of well-improved land, all under cultiva-. 

jf^OBERT M. ADKINS, dealer in hard- 

ilMi ^^''^'"'-'' stoves and tinware, Hopeville, 

*tH.\ a son of W3'att Adkins, deceased, was 

born in Monroe County, Indiana, the date 

of his birth being October 7, 1S54. Our | tion, with grod buildings and a pleasant 

subject was about two years old when he | residence. He is an enterprising, pro- 

was brought by his parents to Clarke 
County, Iowa, they locating in Doyle 
Township. Here he was reared on a farm 
and educated in the common schools, liv- 
ing here since coming with his parents in 
1856, with the exception of six months 
spent in Bloomington, Indiana. Mr. .Adkins 
was married November 6, 1874, to Miss 
Mary J. Kinyoun, a daughter of James E. 
Kinyoun, of Hancock Coiuitv, Illinois. 
Four of the seven children born to this 
union are deceased. The names of those 
still living are — Mamie L., Halley D. and 

grcssive citizen, and a good farmer. He is 
public-spirited, and in addition to attending 
to his personal affairs is active in promot- 
ing the interests of his town and coimty. 
He has served as township trustee twenty- 
one consecutive years, and as treasurer of 
the School Board nine years. In politics he 
is a Republican, but in local elections votes 
for men, not party. In religious faith he is 
allied to the United Brethren church, and 
is a liberal supporter toward its material 
needs. Mr. Wiant was married in Novem- 
ber, 1845, to Eliza Woolnian, daughter of 

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Abraham and Ruth Woolman. To tlicm 
have been bom seven children — Mar}- Eliza- 
beth, Eliza Jane, Martha Emily, Ruth D., 
John C. F., Lucy M. and William T. S. 

^•^T-ILLIA.M GREEN OTIS, one of 
"VMI '-'^^ oldest pioneers of Knox Town- 
t*^j.^TJ ship, was born in Washington 
County, Ohio, October 3S, 1S29, a son of 
James and EUice (Bainter) Otis, the father 
a native of Vermont, who servcrl in the war 
of 1812, and the mother born in Zanesville, 
Ohio. Her father was a wheelwright by 
trade, and was the first mechanic who set- 
tled in Zanesville. He was of German 
descent. James Otis was a son of Barna- 
bas Otis, a descendant of the Puritans who 
came to America in the Mayflower, he be- 
ing a soldier in the Revolutionary war. 
Mr. and Mrs. James Otis were the parents 
of six children — Lydia M., James H., Will- 
iam G., Henry Clay, John B. and one who 
died in infancy. William G. was nine years 
of age when his parents removed to Marion 
County, wliere he was reared. His early 
life was spent in helping with the farm 
work, and in attending the subscription 
schools of his neighborhood. In 184S he 
came to Iowa, and in the spring of 1849 ^^ 
started on a trip through the State. He 
then returned to Ohio, and in September, 
1850, came again to Iowa with a two-horse 
team, when he entered land from the 
Government on section S, Knox Township, 
where he has since resided. During the 
late war he enlisted in the defense of his 
JJi country, August 22, 1S62, in Company K, 
;t;;t; Thirt3--ninth Iowa Infantry, and partici- 
pial pated in several skirmishes an(.l engage- 
:♦;>; ments. Prior to this he had joined the 
:*>; Iowa State Militia, and hnd marched 
;♦:♦: through St. Joe. Missouri, where he was 
;■♦!,«•! on guard duly f'ir some time. Me received 
;-»>; an honorable discharge at Washington City 

June 5, 1S65, v,-hen he returned to his home 
in Knox Township, where he has since fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits. Mr. Otis was 
united in marriage February 25, 1872, to 
Miss E. M. Morgan, who was born and 
reared in Morgaa Coiuity, Indiana, a 
daughter of William and Mary (Taggard) 
Morgan. Six children have been born to 
this union— Maiy Estella, Elinor Morgan, 
Martha Ellen and three who died in in- 
fancy. Mr. Otis was elected justice of the 
peace in 18S4, and served justice in an im- 
partial manner to all who called before his 
jurisdiction, filling the office with credit to 
himself and satisfaction to his constituents. 
In politics he casts his suffrage with the 
Greenback part)'. He is a comrade of Knox 
Post, G. A. R. He has a snug farm of 
fifty-six acres, liis land being imder fine 
cultivation. His residence and farm build- 
ings are comfortable and commodious, and 
he has one of the best spring houses in tlie 

— ^>-K&-< 

;q^ANS OEHLERT, one of the success- 

tful agriculturists of Jackson Tov,n- 
ship, residing on section 3, was born 
in German}', March 6, 1834. His parent'-, 
Hans and Margaretha Oehlert, now de- 
ceased, never left their native land. He 
was raised a practical farmer. December 
21, 1S60, he married Miss i^Iagdalena 
Schmidt, who was born in Germany, Feb- 
ruary I, 1841. Mr. Ochlcrt o\\ ned a home 
and was able to farm his own land ; but 
tales of free America with its grand oppor- 
tunities for men of energy had reached him, 
and the hope of bettering his condition 
(which hope has been fully realized) caused 
him to leave the fatherland and sail for the 
United States. He landed at Castle Gar- 
den in June, 1870, and came directly to 
Iowa. For a while he worked at farm labor 
and on the railroad, but in the spring of 



1/ 1 


BIOr.R. il'lllCA L SKE TCHES. 


1S71 settled on his present farm on sec- 
tion 3. He owns 160 acres of the best land 
to be found in the township, all under im- 
provcnient. He has two children. His 
son, Hans, married Mattie Benick and lives 
in Jackson Township. His daus^hter, Mag- 
n;ie, and her husband, James Woods, live 
with h.ini. The family are worthy mem- 
bers of the Lutheran church. , Mrs. Hal- 
ling of Jackson Township is a sister of ^frs. 
Oehlert. In politics Mr. Oehlertisa Demo- 
crat. He is a kind-hearted man, a good 
citizen, and is esteemed by all. 

/^OHN M. BALL, mayor of the city of 
':-{l Osceola, was born near Fairvicw, 
:^ Guernsey County, Ohio, August 10. 
1837. His parents, John and Charity 
(Ridgway) Ball, were natives of Maryland, 
each going to Ohio when very 3-oung and 
remaining in that Slate many j'ears. They 
were the parents of nine children, John 
M. being the sixth child. In 1854 the family 
removed to Mahaska County, this State, 
settling on a farm. The subject of this 
notice was reared on a farm, and remained 
at home until he reached maturit)-. At the 
outbreak of the civil war, in 1861, he en- 
listed in Company H, Eighth Regiment, 
Iowa Infantry, serving four years and nine 
months in the Army of the Tennessee and 
\\\i Gulf. He was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Shiloh and held six months at 
Macon, Georgia, then transferred to Libby 
prison, at which place he was paroled. He 
then went to Annapolis, tliencc to St. Louis, 
Missouri, and finall}- joined his regiment. 
He participated in the battles of Grand 
Gulf, Jackson, Champion Hills, Black River 
Bridge, the siege and capture of Vicks- 
burg, the siege of Mobile, and many others. 
He was mustered out in May, 1866. Mr. 
Ball volunteered as a private. He was pro 
niotcd to Second Scrjieant, then First Ser- 

geant, then Second and First Lieutenant, 
and was mustered out with the rank of 
Captain. He then returned to Mahaska 
County, and in the fall of 1866 came to 
Osceola, whdn he purchased the liverv sta- 
ble owned by Murrey. He continued in 
this business two years, then became pro- 
prietor of an hotel known for many years as 
the Osceola House. Here he continued 
twelve years. Retiring from the hotel he 
next commenced dealing in agricultural 
implements, and took the contract of tiling 
the Des Moines, Osceola & Southern Rail- 
road, from Leon to Des Moines. He then 
formed a partnership with P. S. Fowler in 
the real-estate and insurance business, 
which he still continues. He served ten 
years as member of the city council of 
Osceola, and was elected mayor of the cit3' 
of Osceola in March, 18S6. In 1S6S Mr. 
Ball was married to Miss Jennie Burrows, 
of this city. They have four children — C. 
Minor, Carrie L., Bessie F. and Gar}- L. 
Mr. Ball is a member of the I. O. O. F., 
Lodge No. 95. 

EMUEL McKINXEY, an enterprising 
farmer, living on section 15, Liberty 
Township, was born in Chariton, 
Lucas County, Iowa, in October, 1S51. 
His parents, William and Elizabeth (F'y- 
nor) McKinney, were both natives of Indi- 
ana. They were married in Champaign 
County, Illinois, and soon after their mar- 
riage moved to Iowa, where the father died 
in 1854, leaving a widow and four children 
— Mrs. Matilda Coombs, of Cherokee 
County; Elias, now of Liberty Township ; 
Lemuel, our subject, and Riley, of Liberty 
Township. His widow subsequentlv mar- 
ried again, taking for her second husband 
George Beal, and is now living in Liberty 
Township. Lemuel McKinney vv'as left 
fatherless before reachinij the age of three 

I'. !''■. 

I) : TM,;!! ,in;.l i ,ru)? 





vcars. After his motlicr married again he 
was taken to the hoine of his uncle, Rilej' 
Pynor, then a resident of Champaign 
Countv, IlHnois, with whom he remained 
till he came to Iowa in 1864. Mr. Pynor 
now lives in Washington Territory. After 
coming to Iowa with his imcle, onr subject 
lived with his sister, Mrs. Coombs, remain- 
ing with her till fifteen years of age, when 
he came to Claike County and settled in 
Liberty Township, whe'"e he has a good 
farm containing I3oacresof well-improved 
land. Mr. McKinncy was married to Miss 
Mary E. Jackson, a daughter of Andrew 
Jackson, of Liberty Township. They have 
a family of seven children — Ralph, Riley R., 
Wesley R., Lemuel L., Elias F., Mary. A. 
and an infant. In his political views Mr. 
McKinne}' is a Democrat. He has held 
the office of justice of the peace for two 
terms, and in 1885 was elected township 
clerk, which position he still holds, and 
is serving with credit to himself and satis- 
faction to his constituents. 

eight months. He was disabled while in the 
service, on account of which he was dis- 
charged, and now draws a pension. He 
was married September 28, 1S69, to Ada 
O. Brown, a daughter of Chester Brown 
who is deceased. They have four children 
living — Anna O., Frances E., Thomas K. 
and Cyrus S. Four of their children are 
deceased. Mr. Gregg followed farming 
till the fall of 1884, when he came to Hopc- 
ville, where he has since made his home. 
Mr. Gregg has served as justice of the 
peace about five years, beside holding 
other ofifices of trust and responsibilit\'. 
He was elected assessor but declined to 
serve. He is a member of the Grand Army 
of the Republic. His wife and daughter, 
Anna O., are members of the United 
Brethren church. -..'_' 


j^jT:ESLEY GREGG, one of the oldest 
^'X/'\ji residents of Clarke Count}-, was 
l*=s>3^ born in Peoria County, I Uinois, the 
date of his birth being April i, 1843. His 
father, Thomas Gregg, brought his family 
to Iowa in 1844, living in Lee County till 
the fall of 1S51, when he removed his fam- 
ily to Clarke County, and settled in Doyle 
Township among the Indians and wild an- 
imals, and in his youth our subject often 
visited the Indian camps. Our subject 
was reared on the old homestead, his edu- 
cation being limited to the pioneer sub- 
scription schools held in log cabins with 
puncheon floors, clapboard roofs, slab seats, 
huge fireplaces, and stick-and-mud chim- 
neys. During the late war he enlisted in 
the defense of the Union, in Company D, 
Thirty-ninth Iowa Infantry, serving only 

^.OBERT C. GRIGG, physician and 
ypA^ surgeon and druggist, residing in 
^^\ Murray, was born in Cumberland 
County, Kentuck)-, May 14, 183S, a son of 
Joseph W. Gi'igg, of Warren County, Illi- 
nois, who was a native of Virginia. Robert 
C. spent his youth on a farm, receiving a 
good education in Hcdding Seminary (now 
college), in Abingdon, Illinois. He began 
the study of medicine with Dr. Madison 
Reece, of Abingdon, and later attended 
Rush Medical College, of Chicago, Illinois, 
from which institution he graduated Feb- 
ruary I, 1871. The same year he came to 
Murray, Clarke Count}', and immediately 
began the practice of medicine, he having 
previously practiced for a time with his 
preceptor in Abingdon, Illinois. Doctor 
Grigg was imited in marriage January 9, 
1872, to Miss Maria Dolph, and they are 
the parents of two children — Ruble Olive 
and Milton Fowler. The doctor still fol- 
lows his profession, and has built up a good 
practice. He engaged in the drug business 


in 1S79, buildi-.i:^ his t-vvstiry brick busi- 
ness house which is 22x73 feet, in iSSi. 
He carries a full line of drugs, medicines, 
paints and oils, bo^ks nn 1 stationery, cut- 
lery, wall paper ami fancy goods, and is 
carrying on a good business. During tiis 
late war the doctor enlisted in C impany 
H, Eighth-third Illin lis lafantr}-, for three 
j'cars, and participated in the battles of 
Garretsburg, Fort Donelson, and other en- 
gagements. He was wounded at Fort 
Donelson, which crippled him for life. 
Doctor Grigg is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal church. He is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, and of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

^sR. MARION T. MARTIN, a phy- 
Ifl/irt sician of Wood burn, Clarke Coun'y, 
"^0 is a native of Hancock County, Illi- 
nois, born Jul)' 10, 1840; a son of Dr. John 
and Philanda (Couch) Martin, the former 
a native of Tennessee and the latter 
born in Meigs County, Ohio. Both par- 
ents are yet living, residents of James- 
port, Davis Count}', Missouri, where the 
father is still engaged in the practice of 
medicine. When live years of age our 
subject was taken by his parents to Sulli- 
van County, Missouri, where he lived till 
1864, receiving his primary education in 
the schools of that region. At the age of \ Doctor was appointed postmaster of that 
eighteen years he began the study of med- 1 village, and at the same time engaged in 
icine in his father's office where he re- the mercantile business, which he fol- 
maincd some time. August 17, 186 r, he ' lowed for three vears when he failed in 
enlisted in Company A., Twenty-third Mis- ; business, owing to the panic, and lost 

he remained till October 9, 1862. He was 
then sent North by way of Richmond, and 
exchanged. While at Macon -the Doctor 
and three others escaped from their prison 
and took to the woods, but were fmall)' 
recaptured at the end of nine days, and 
for punishment they were staked to the 
ground two hours at a time. After his 
exchange the Doctor was taken to Wash- 
ington, where he was in Emory Hospital ten 
days, then taken to Camp Parole, Alexan- 
dria, where he was discharged on account of 
disability, December 7, 1S62, and arrived 
home December 21, 1S62. He again studied 
medicine with his father in Sullivan Coun- 
t}', Missouri, and afterward assisted him 
in his practice, remaining in that locality 
till December 28, 1S64. He then went to 
Last Chance, Lucas County, Iowa, before 
that place was organized, remaining there 
till January 19, 1S75, when he came to 
Woodburn, Clarke County, and has since 
been engaged in the practice of his chosen 
profession, building up a large and lucrative 
practice. Doctor Martin was married 
January 19, i860, to Miss Hannah J. Stout, 
a native of Washington County, Indiana, 
and a daughter of Benjamin PI. and Sallie 
(Ruberson) Stout. Eight children have 
been born to this union — Elmina R., Har- 
riet E., Russia F., Cortez Prentiss, Stephen 
L., Lilly (deceased), Delia E., Charlie B. 
In 1873 while a resident of Last Chance, the 

souri Infantry, the first engagement in 
which his regiment participated being the 
battle of Shiloh, where they were taken 
prisoners. The Doctor was first taken to 
Montgomery, Alabama, remaining there 
six weeks, when he v/as placed under pa- 
role and taken to Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
and from there to Macon, Georgia, where 

the savings of his life. Since coming 
here he has taken an active interest in 
the advancement of this place, and was one 
of the comimissioners through whose influ- 
ence the town was incorporated. He has 
been a member of the city council since its 
incorporation and was president of the 
coal-mining company of Woodburn dur- 

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///s7 0j\}' or CLAiih'E corxrr. 

ing tlie year 18S3. He is also holding the 
office of ma_vor at the present time. He 
is a member of Unity Lodge, No. 21c, A. 
F. & A. M., of Woodburn, of whicli lie is 
senior warden, and is also surgeon of 
Davenport Post, No. 3S5, G. A. R., of the 
same place. He and his wife and two of 
their children, a son and daughter, are 
members of the Christian church. 

fOHN CHANEY, judge of the Circuit 
Court of the Third Judicial District, 
..-^ comprising Clarke, Decatur, Union, 
Ringgold, Adams, Taylor, Montgomery 
and Page counties, is a native of Monroe 
County, Indiana, born near Bloomington, 
Jul}- 4, 1832. His father, Frank Chancy, 
was a native of North Carolina, and his 
mother, Rachel (Elborn)Chane3% of Indiana. 
His father died in 1876, and his mother is 
now a resident of Vernon Countv, Mis- 
souri. The family consisted of thirteen 
children, seven sons and six daughters, of 
whom our subject is the eldest. Six are 
now living. John Chancy lived in his na- 
tive State until nineteen years of age, and 
in 185 1 came to Iowa and lived in Lucas 
County until 1867, when he moved to Clarke 
County. After coming to Iowa he attended 
the Albion school a short time, and then en- 
tered the Iowa Wesley an University at 
Mt. Pleasant, where he pursued his studies 
two and a half years. After leaving school 
he taught several terms and in the mean- 
time began the study of law with Colonel 
Dungan, and in 1866 was admitted to the 
bar. In 1862 he enlisted in the defense of 

he was made Adjutant of the battalion. A 
division of the ofliccrs was afterward mad.c, 
and Mr. Chaney was commissioned First 
Lieutenant of Company A, Thirtv-fourth 
Infantry, and served as such until the close 
of the war, being dischaiged August i6, 
1S65. He participated in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the battle at Arkansas Post, and 
assisted in the capture of several of the 
strongholds of the Confederacy. After 
his return from the war he lived in Lucas 
Coimty nearly- two years, and in June, 1867, 
located in Osceola, where he was actively 
engaged in the practice of his profession 
until the fall of 1SS4, when he was elected 
to his present position. Mr. Chaney is a 
membei- of the Masonic and Odd Fellows 
orders, and is a comrade in the Osceola 
Post, Grand Army of the Republic. He 
was married in July, 1S61, to Miss Sarah 
C. Fuel, daughter of John Fuel, of Lucas 
County, Iowa. They have four children — 
Mary L., wife of L. D. Burnett, of Omaha, 
Nebraska ; Frank, John and C. L. Mr. and 
Mrs. Chaney are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. 

."y^^EORGE H. COWLES, one of the 
} i ^7-- oldest bankers in Clarke County, and 
*Vfa a respected and influential citizen of 
Osceola, is a native of the State of Iowa, 
born in Van Buren County, February 20, 
184S. He is the only son of Chester W. 
and Martha W. (Howe) Cowles, his father 
a native of Amherst, and his mother of 
Enfield, Massachusetts. In the spring of 
1S5S his father came to Io>va and located 
the Union, and was assigned to Company j in Bentonport, Van Buren Countv. where 

K. Thirty-fourth Iowa Infantry, and com- 
missioned its Second Lieutenant. He was 
afterv.-aid promoted to First Lieutenant 
and later to Captain of Company E, com- 
manding the C(jmpan)- nine months, when 

he still lives, aged seventy-eight years, his 
wife being sixty-two years old. George 
H. Cowles was reared and educated in his 
native county. After leaving school he 
was employed in the store of H. F. Grief 

it was consolidated with Company A, and j & Bro., four years. In 1869 he removed 

■,.:/; ^o ..\f\ .'■. ■'') .'•i 

.* 7Ij<.'",'s 


to Osceola and began business for himself, 
and soon after became associated witli A. 
H. Burrows in a private banking business. 
Four vears later Mr. Cowles purciiased his 
partner's interest and continued tlie busi- 
ness alone thirteen years. February 8, 
iSS6, he was one of the (jrganizers of the 
Osceola Bank, of which he is a director, 
and was chosen its vice-president. In ad- 
dition to his banking interests he owns and 
superintends a farm of 1,240 acres in Jack- 
son Township, Lucas County. He has 
125 head of horses, having a number 
of high-grade imported Normans. ]Mr. 
Cowles was married in 1S71 to Miss Alice 
Spalding, of Osceola. lie is an active 
member of the Masonic fraternity. 

^'^rjDAM KERNS, of Fremont Township, 
;/vV is a native of Morrow Countv, Ohio, 

■^.:;~ born July 14, 1S31, a son of James and 
Sarah (Fansler) Kerns. When he was 
fourteen years old his father was killed by 
a falling tree, and he was then thrown on 
his own resources and started out to fight 
the battle of life alone, with no one to coun- 
sel or guide. He left the old home bare- 
footed and with clothing barely sufficient 
to cover him, and first found employment 
with an old gentleman named James Blok- 
son. He remained with him three months, 
receiving $12 a month for his services. He 
then worked by tiie day at Mt. Gilead, at 
anything he could find to do, andforatime 
was employed in the saw-mill of Peter 
Doty, who proved a warm friend to the 
orphan boy. When twenty-three years old 
he came to Osceola, Clarke County, Iowa. 
He had saved about S500 of his earnings, 
and tills he gave for the proceeds of a iialf 
interest in a saw-mill, and at the end of a 
year had $2,200. He then bought a mill 
of Cooper & Clark, of Mt. Vernon, Ohio, 
and erected it in FienKjnt Township, but 

soon after sold it to Bennett t^ Crawford, 
and went to Missouri, and on the dav of 
James Buchanan's election to the presi- 
dency, put up a mill for Williams & Cu. 
He then went to Adair County, Iowa, and 
thence to Burt County, Nebraska, but was 
iinsuccessful in liis ventures and returned 
to Osceola, and bought a mill in company 
with Nathan McGrew. This partnership 
continued about eight vears, with good re- 
sults. His first purchase of land was 160 
acres in Fremont Township. This is still 
his home, but he has increased his acreage 
by subsequent purchases to 380. His land 
is all under cultivation and his improve- 
ments are among the best in the township. 
Mr. Kerns is purely a self-made man, his 
accumulations being due to his persevering 
industr}- and strict business integrity. He 
was married in October, 1S63, to Miss Mat- 
tie R. Johnston, daughter of F. W. and 
Electa (Barrs) Johnston, of Osceola. To 
them have been born seven children — 
Julia, Lilly, James, Walter, Kittle, Leona 
\'iola, and Frederick. The latter is de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. Kerns are members 
of the Mi<si(.inary Baptist church. In [loli- 
tics he is a Republican. 


r^^AMUEL REISH is one of the old 
Tv^ pioneers of Clarke Countv, having 
^^'- been identified with its interests for 
thirty years. He is a native of Uniun 
Countv, Pennsylvania, born February 24, 
1S26. His parents, Samuel and Rachel 
Reish, had a familv of nine children. They 
removed to Miami County, Ohio, when 
our subject was seven years old, where 
they made their home for thirt}- years. 
Samuel Reish was reared on a farm in Mi- 
ami Count}", his education being received 
in the subscription schools of those piijncer 
davs. February 5, 1S51, he was married to 
Julia Ann Heaton, who v.'as born in Miami 


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County, Oiiio, a daughter of A\'illiam Hea- 
ton. Thcv have six children living — Min- 
erva Ann, Martha Jane, William E., Rachel 
Alice, John li., Mary Lenora. A daughter, 
Ellen, is deceased. In 1S56 Mr. Rcish 
came to Clarke County, Iowa, by team, 
when he located in Troy Township, on 
eighty acres of land. After living on this 
land ten years he sold it and removed to 
Knox' Township, bu3'ing 205 acres of land 
on section 14, which he has since finely im- 
proved. He has a good storj^-and-a-half 
residence, built in 1883, ''• ^"^ barn, 30x40 
feet, with basement, and other farm build- 
ings. He is devoting his attention to gene- 
ral farming and dealing in stock, in which 
he is meeting with success. He has added 
to his original purchase till his farm now 
contains 260 acres of land, all under a high 
state of cultivation. He is much respected 
throughout the county, having by his fair 
and honorable dealings won the confidence 
and esteem of all who have known him 
during his long residence in Clarke County. 
He is a member of the Second Advent 
church of Osceola. . ■ ■, 

■»{f= — 


§OHN BURGUS has been a resident 
of Clarke County, Iowa, since coming 
<;, here in 187G, when he settled on the 
farm whei-e he he has since made his home, 
his farm being located on section 27, Mad- 
ison Township, Mr. Burgus v.-as born in 
Prussia. German}', the date of his birth be- 
ing June 24, i.S-i", a son of Frederick Bur- 
gus, who is now deceased. He grew to 
maturity in his native countr}-, and in iS6i 
came with his father's family to the United 
States, the)- locating in Des M(_)ines County, 
Iowa. Our subject remained in Dcs Moines 
County till 1S76, when he removed to 
Clai'ke Count}-, as before stated, where he 
has since devoted his attention to farming 
and stock-raising, and now owns a farm of 

1 10 acres of choice land. Mr. Burgus was 
united in marriage March 15, 1S77, to Miss 
Kate Knotts, a daughter of Benjamin 
Knotts, deceased. They have three chil- 
dren — Minnie I., Jessie Belle and Frederick 
E. Samuel Knotts, a brother of Mrs. Bur- 
gus also finds a home with them. 

"f^pWARD F. RILEY, one of the enter- 
TrrJ' prising and influential citizens of Os- 
"^^l ceola, is a native of Morrow Count}-, 
Ohio, born near Mount Gilead, September 
I7r 1839. ^'s parents, Ezra and Louisa 
(Potter) Riley, were natives of Ohio and 
Connecticut respectively, the mother com- 
ing to Ohio when five years of age. Both 
are now living at Ashley, Ohio. They 
were the parents of five sons, our subject 
being their eldest child. Edward F. passed 
his youth in Delaware County, Ohio, re- 
ceiving his primary education in the com- 
mon schools of that county. He subse- 
quently attended the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity at Delaware for a time, completing 
his education at the University at Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, from which institution 
he graduated in 1862. He then began the 
practice of law at Mount Gilead, where he 
remained one year, and in 1S64 came to 
Osceola, Clarke County, Io-»va, and soon 
after opened a law office, where he has since 
followed the practice of his profession, and 
at the same time is dealing in real estate. 
In 1878 he embarked in the banking busi- 
ness, when he opened his private bank, of 
which he is president, and has since been 
carrying on a general banking business ; 
and by his honorable and upright dealings 
he has become well and favorably known 
throughout Clarke County. Mr. Riley 
was united in marriage September 16, iS6S, 
to Miss Martlia Smith, and this union has 
been blessed with two sons — Allen E. and 
Frank B. Mr. Kilev is the owner of five 


{arms, on which he is raising stock, making i losva in 1855. In 1857 he returned to Rock 
a specialty of cattle, lie is one of the live ! Island County. April 4, 1S61, he was mar- 

business men of Clarke County, and is al- 
wa)-s active in promoting any enterprise 
which he deems for the advancement'of 
the countv, or the good of the connnunity 
in which he makes his home. 

ricd in ^Varrcn County, Illinois, to Evaline 
Sargent, she being a native of that county, 
born September 23, 1S40, a daughter of 
John Sai"gent. They have a family of eight 
children — Frank, Henry C, Eva May, Jes- 
sie F., Dell S., Lee Roy, Marv Ann and 
Mildred, all living at home. Mr. Perdue 
enlisted from Warren County, August 9, 
1S62, in Company H, Eighty-third Illinois 
Infantry. He received a severe wound in 
in Cabell County, West Virginia, Au- ! his left side at the battle of Fort Donelson, 

^-^ANIEL PERDUE, residing on sec- 
V\ tion 27, Liberty Township, was born 

gust 2, 1839, '""'S parents, James and Sarah 
(Letts) Perdue, being born and reared in 
the State of \'irginia. They were married 
in Cabell County, West Virginia, and to 
them were born ten children, our subject 
being the ninth child, their names being 
as follows — William Henry, a practicing 
phj'sician in Neosho County, Kansas; John 
W., of Pettis County, Missouri; Mrs. Mar- 
tha Welcher died in Rock Island. Illinois, 
leaving a large family; Mrs. Anna C. Jor- 
dan died in Coffey County, Kansas, leaving 
a large family; Jam;s E. lives in Adair 
Countv, Iowa ; Mrs. .Susan Evans of Hutch- 
inson, Kansas; Thomas -J. served three 
years in the Thirty-fifth Iowa Infantry, now 

February 4, 1863, bv a musket shot passing 
through his body, from which he slowly 
recovered, being in hospital for weeks. He 
was honorably discharged April 10, 1863, 
when he returned to Warren County. In 
October, 1864, he came to Clarke County, 
Iowa, and has since made his home on sec- 
tion 27, Liberty Township, where lie has a 
fine farm containing 227 acres wliich he has 
brought from a wild state to a well-im- 
proved and highly-cultivated tract of land. 
In politics Mr. Perdue affiliates with the 
Democratic J)art^•. He is commander of 
Davenport Post, No. 385, G. A. R., of 
Woodburn. He has been a constant suf- 
ferer from his wound received while in the 

lives in Seward County, Nebraska; Isaiah 1 army, and now receives a pension of Si- 

cnlisted in the Ninth Iowa Infantrv and per month. . , 

died at Little Rock, Arkansas, while in the 1 ', '■ 

service of his countrv ; Daniel, the subject j ~«~-'i=i<yz>'>^==^ -<- 
of this sketch, and Christopher C, served j 

three years in Company H, Eighty-third j t"^:;, BR AH AM CARSON, one of the 

Illinois Infantry, now lives in Liberty. In 1 ,/t\- pioneers of Jackson Township, resides 

1S42 the parents removed with theii- family ' feii^?- on section 11. He took eighty acres of 

to Knox County, Illinois, and a year later | Government land in 1S55, and immediately 

settled in .Mercer County, Illinois, where ; commenced improvements. After about 

the father died August 6, 1848. The widow 1 ten years' residence he added another 

subsequently went with her family to Rock ; eighty acres, buying it second-hand. Mr. 

Island County, Illinois, where she died in \ Carson was born in Fayette County, Penn- 

1853. In 1851 Daniel Perdue, our subject, ' sylvania, October 9, 1812. His father, 

went to live with his brother-in-law, Q. A. ; Thomas Carson, was born in Maryland, 

Jordan, of Rock Island County, with wiioni and his mother, Anna Layton, was a native 

he remained six years, coming with him to , of New England. Abraham was the third 

.i J.. ■. /.. .:■ 


of a famil)- of twelve children. He was 
reared in Fayette Count}', and in that 
county married EH;;abcth Chambers, born 
in West Virijinia, September 8, iSio. They 
have nine children, viz.: Asa, of Jackson 
Township ; Mrs. Mary Arnctt, also of Jack- 
son Township ; Thomas, of Osceola Town- 
ship ; Mrs. Ellen Reese, James, Ephraim, 
Mrs. Nancy Johnson, also of Jackson Town- 
ship ; Job, at home with his parents ; Mrs. 
Caroline Crowl, a resident of Indiana. Mr. 
Carson retains eighty acres of land for his 
own use, and has assisted his sons with the 
remainder. He has a good home, all the 
comforts of life, and with man}- of his chil- 
dren settled around him he looks back 
with pride upon a well-spent life, with but 
few regrets. Politically he is a Republican. 
George Chambers of Woodburn, and Jo- 
seph Chambers of Jackson Township, are 
brothers of Mrs. Carson. 

fOHX C. STRAWN is a native of 
Greene Count)-, Pennsylvania, born 
December i8, 1848, a son of Jehu 
Strawn, who was born in the same county, 
and is now a resident of Warren Count}-, 
Iowa. John C. was reared on a farm, his 
father being engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, and his education was obtained in 
the common schools of his neighborhood. 
After leaving home he served an appren- 
ticeship of three years in Waj-nesburg, 
Pennsylvania, then worked in a rolling- 
mill in Wheeling, West V^irginia, for one 
year, after which he was employed in a 
carriage shop in North Wheeling about 
three months. He came to Iowa in 1S71 and 
located in Nev/ Virginia. He was mar- 
ried April 22, 1873, to Adaline Crooks, a 
daughter of Robert Crooks, a pioneer of 
this county, who was burned to death in a 
prairie fire in an early day. They have one 
child — Ida May, aged eleven years. Mr. 

Strawn came to Murray, Clarke County, 
in 1875, and engaged in blacksmithing and 
repairing in which he met with excellent 
success, his business steadily increasing 
luitil he established his present factory. 
Besides an immense amount of repairing 
he is extensivel}' engaged in the manufact- 
ure of plows, the excellent qualit}^ of his 
work constantly bringing him new custom- 
ers. He has served efficiently in the town 
council, with credit to himself and to the 
satisfaction of his constituents. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and a 
Knight of Pythias. Both he and his wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal 




-|[^^HAUNCEV C. HORTON was born 
Wc^ in Susquehanna County, Pennsylva- 
i^\ nia. May 13, 1833. His father, Jona- 
than Horton was born in Southern Ver- 
mont. His mother, Polly E. (Wilcox) Hor- 
ton, was born in Connecticut. They were 
married in Susquehanna Count}-, and in 1842, 
moved to Dubuque County, Iowa, near Ta- 
ble Mound, where they improved a farm 
upon which they lived three years, then 
moved to Jones County. In December, 1864, 
the parents, with seven children, came to 
this county and made their heme on section 
g. This homestead is now owned and occu- 
pied by the subject of this sketch. The 
father died April 17, 1S70, aged sixty-eight 
vears; the mother died January iS, 1876, in 
her sixty-eighth year. The names of the 
children are — Chauncey C, Elias W., a resi- 
dent of Coffey County, Kansas; Mrs. Louisa 
C. Johnson, residing in Nevada County, 
California : Erastus B.,a resident of Jackson 
Township ; Henry E.. now living in Frank- 
lin Township ; Jeremiah N., a resident 
of Pratt Count}-, Kansas; Jonathan A., 
now residing in St. Paul, Minnesota. Elias 
and Erastus served in the war for the Union. 


'.r.i::. 1, 'i. 
■ :-r:j] IT,.- 



Chauncey C. Horton was niairicd to Miss 
Barbara E. Mines, March 17, 1,869. She 
was a daughter of Robert and Margaret 
(Deeds) Hines, of Sulhvan County, Mis- 
souri. Her fatlier died in that county April 
iG, iSSi, aged sixty-eight years. He was 
a native of Ohio. The mother survives 
and lives in Sullivan Countv. She was 
born in Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Horton 
have hve children living — Edward H., Don 
R'., Evart C, Robert J. and Jesse L. The 
deceased are — Lily M., Henrietta M. and 
three died in infancy. Mr. Horton has 
served as magistrate in his township for 
over twelve years, and about the same 
length of time as assessor, offices which he 
now holds. He owns 200 acres of land on 
section 9, which he has improved, and now 
has one of the best farms in his vicinity ; it 
is especially adapted to stock-raising. In 
politics he is a Democrat. ■ , 

.'pvtCHOLAS HOFFMANN, engaged 
':':L// '^ farming and stock-raising on section 
^%" 33, Madison Township, is a native of 
Prussia, Germany, born on a branch of the 
river Rhine, December 8, 1S40, a son of 
Matthias Hoffmann. Our subject came to 
the United States in 1S53, 'ind after living 
five years in Steuben County, New York, 
he came to Iowa, locating in Dubuque. 
During the war ot the Rebellion he enlisted 
in Company E, Twent3'-first Iowa Infantry 
under Colonel Samuel Merrill, who after- 
ward became Governor of the State of 
Iowa. He participated with his regiment 
in the battles of Hartville, Missouri, Port 
Gibson, Mississippi, Raymond, Champion 
Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicksburg, 
Jacks<jn, Mississippi, and others of minor 
importance, and through the Mobile cam- 
paign, returning to his home without re- 
ceiving even a scratch. July 25, 1865, Mr. 
Hoffmann was married in New York State 

to Katie Kirsch, a daughter of Michael 
Kirsch, deceased. Of the six children born 
to them five are living — Matthew, Hannah, 
Katie, Annie and John. Mr. Hoffmann 
came to Clarke County in the fall of 1S65, 
and has since devoted his attention to agri- 
cultural pursuits, his home farm containing 
120 acres of choice land. He is a member 
of the Grand Arm}' of the Republic. In 
his religious views he is a Roman Catholic. 




§'=^011 N \V. KELLEY, one of the promi- 
nent and successful business men who 
.-r^ have assisted materially in the building 
up of Osceola, is a native of Monroe Coun- 
ty, New York, born near Rochester, Sep- 
tember 8, 1S32. He passed his youth on 
the home farm, and wheii he was seven 
years of age his parents, Libni and Deb- 
orah (Estes) Kelley, moved with their 
family to Michigan, where John W. was 
reared to manhood, and there began learn- 
ing the trade of a carpenter and joiner at 
the age ot nineteen 3'ears, and also learned 
the blacksmith's trade. He left Michigan 
in 1864 and in August of tliat year located 
at Edd3"ville, Wapello Count}-, Iowa, v»-here 
he remained three years. He then came to 
Osceola, Clarke County, and built the Ray- 
mond cS: Kelley Flouring Mills, this being 
the first mill of any importance in the town. 
This mill had a capacity of sevePily-tive bar- 
rels of flour daily, and was operated suc- 
cessfully until the mill and the entire ma- 
chinery were destroyed by fire in February, 
1 88 1. Mr. Kelley, however, had disjjosed 
of his interest ni the mill before if was 
burned, and had engaged in the coal busi- 
ness, and subsequently embarked in the 
hardware business in which he was associ- 
ated with A. S. Johnson for a short 
time, when D. R. Ra\morid bought Mr. 
Johnson's interest. Six month later both 
parties sold out the hardware business, and 

' '.: il 

; I;- 

IlISTOm- OF CLARKE coixjr. 







in 1S79 Mr. Kelley began dealing in lum- 
ber, lime, paints, oils, doors, blinds, etc., 
whicli business he lias since followed, and 
by liis upright and honorable dealings and 
strict attention to the wants of his custom- 
ers he has e^tablislied a large business, 
which is steadily increasing. Mr. Kelley 
was married in Micliigan to Miss Sarah A. 
Rajaiiond, of Adrian, that State, an old 
schoolmate of our subject. This union has 
been blessed with two sons — Elmer E. and 
Fred. Both Mr. and Mrs. Kelley are act- 
ive and earnest members of the Presbyte- 
rian ciuirch. Mr. Kelley is a staunch tem- 
perance man. In politics he is a Republican. 
Mr. Kelley 's parents were both natives of 
Maine, the father born near Augusta. They 
were early settlers of New Yoik State 
w here the father bought a small farm, con- 
taining twenty-five acres, on credit, pa3-ing 
for the same in work out of his shop. They 
removed to Michigan about 1837, where 
the mother died. The father is still living 
in that State, making his hcyne near Adrian. 
He is now eighty-six years of age, and has 
always been a strong advocate of the cause 
of temperance. He had a family of six 
children by his first wife, and b}' his pres- 
ent wife he has three children. 


^^f-AMES S. DANIEL, an active and en. 
terprising agriculturist of Doyle Town- 
ship, living on section g, was born in 
Greene County. Indiana. December 14, 
1840, a son of John Daniel, a native of 
Shelby County, Kentucky, who immi- 
ga^ated to Indiana in an earl)- day with his 
wife, making the journey on hcjrseback. 
James S. passed his boyhood days on the 
homestead farm in hi^ native countv, and 
there attended the rude log-cabin schools 
which were taught by subscription. He 
came to Clarke County, Icjwa, in the fall of 
1856 when h(: settled in Knox Township, 

and has since made his home in this county. 
He was married December 15, 1S61, to 
Enieline \Vorden,a daughter of Jared Vi'or- 
den. He enlisted in the war of the Rebell- 
ion, in Company B, Eighteenth Iowa In- 
fantry to serve three years, and during his 
term of service participated in the battles 
of Poison Spring, Saline Hiver, Springfield, 
besides other engagements. He was be- 
reaved by tiie death of his wife in the fall 
of 1 866, who left two children — James and 
John. Mr. Daniel was again married Feb- 
ruary, 1S6S, to Jennie Rains, her father, 
Allen Rains, being a resident of Redding, 
Iowa. Of the three children born to this 
union two are living — Elmon and Ella. A 
daughter, Stella, died aged seven years. 
Since becoming a resident of Doyle Town- 
ship Mr. Daniel has devoted his attention 
to farming and stock-raisir.g in which he is 
meeting with good success, and is the 
owner of a fine farm of 260 acres of land 
under cultivation. He isamemberof the 
Cliristian church. , ..^ , 

JT'JRANCIS M. KYTE, auditor of Clarke 
;• pi County, Iowa, is a native of the State. 
"^cV of Indiana, born in Washington Comi- 
ty,- near Salem, March 4, 1839, a son of 
Lewis and Catherine (Colglazier) Kyte, 
natives of Ohio, and early settlers of Indi- 
ana, where the father died in 1S51. Mis 
mother is still living in Clarke County, 
Iowa, at the advanced age of ninety-four 
years. Her family consisted of eight sons 
and three daughters, all but one of whom 
lived till maturity, the eldest one now liv- 
ing being seventy-one years rild. F. M. 
Kyte passed his boyhood on a farm in his 
native county, living there until after the 
death of his father, when he was thirteen 
years old. In the fall of 1S52 his mother 
removed with her family to Iowa, and lo- 
cated in Clarke Count}-, where he passed 

, •' _, A r.' kV 


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• ; ' '■'■...'• BIO(,R.\Pl!ICAh SKETCHES. • / 2;? ;*;:*i 

his vouth and cnrly manliood. In July, 
iS6i, lie enlisted in the defense of the l.^iion, 
niiri was assigned to Compan}' F, Sixth 
Iowa Infantrv, and served as Sergeant un- 
til January, 1S64, when he re-enlisted and 
was promoted to First Lieutenant, serving 
as such until mustered out in July, 1865. 
He participated in the battle at Shiloh, the 
siege of Corinth, Missioi Ridge, the At- 
lanta campaign, and in the marcli to Savan- 
nah, thence back to RoUa and Bcntonville. 
After the war he returned to Osceola and 
attended Brj-ant & Stratton's business col- 
lege, and then taught school two years. He 
was elected auditor of Clarke County in the 
fall of 1S69, and served until January, 1S74. 
The next four years he engaged in the 
grocery business, when he was again elected 
county auditor, assuming the duties of his 
office in January, 187S, and has served to 
the present time, having proved himself to 
be a reliable and efficient public servant. 
Mr. Kyte was married in August, 1868, to 
Miss" Nanc}' L. Ke}-, daughter of Nathan 
Key, of Clarke Count}-. They have a family 
of three children — Charles, Laura and 
George. Mr. Kyte is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, Lodge No. "jj, Chapter 
No. 61, and Commandery No. 21. Also of 
the Knights of Pythias. 

^IT'S J- CREW, an old and honored pio- 
'T/Vl "fci" of Knox Township, was born 
H;^* in Northampton County, North 
Carolina, December 16, 1S19, a son of 
Benjamin and Martlia (Vintonj Crew. His 
parents were born, reared and married in 
Northampton County, and to them were 
born twelve children — Henry B., Abner J., 
Sarah, Rebecca, Andrew, William, Thomas 
J., John W. and Mary E., and three who 
died unnamed, and of the abfjve-iiamed 
children seven lived to maturit}-. Our sub- 
ject lived in North Carolina till twenty-two 

years of age, his earl}- life being spent in 
assisting on the home farm, and his educa- 
tion being obtained by stud}- at home. In 
1S42, in company with his parents, he went 
to Belmont County, Ohio, where he was 
married, August 15, 1S44, to Elizabeth 
Burris, a daughter of William Burris. Mrs. 
Crew died January 25, 1850, leaving three 
children — Mary C, John Henry and jNLai tha 
Ann. August 21, 1851, Mr. Crew married 
for his second wife Elizabeth Smith, of Bel- 
mont County, Ohio, a daughter of Spencer 
and Catharine Smith. To this union were 
born nine children, eight still living — Rachel 
j;, Sarah Sabina, George W., Abner L., 
Amanda E., Spencer Lincoln, Ida Levisa 
and Isalena. One son, William T., is de- 
ceased. jNIr. Crew came to Iowa in 1S54, 
and after looking over a large portion of 
this State decidctl to locate in Clarke Coun- 
ty. He made the journey down the Ohio 
River by boat to St. Louis, thence by boat 
to Keokuk, Iowa, and to Clarke County 
from Keokuk by team. He located in 
Knox Township where he entered 240 acres 
of land from the Government, on which he 
has since resided. He first built a story 
and a half log house, in which his family 
found a comfortable home till his present 
commodious and substantial residence was 
erected in 1862. He devotes considerable 
attention to the raising and feeding of 
stock, his farm, vdiich now contains 274 
acres, being well adapted for stock-raising. 
He has a fine orchard on his farm, and goijd 
barn and other farm buildings. He started 
in life without means, but being industi'ious 
and economical he has by his own efforts 
become the owner of his present fine 
propert}', and is now numbered among the 
prosperous citizens (jf Knox Township. He 
has served liis township as trustee, being 
chairman of the board, and lias been a 
delegate to the State Convention at Dcs 
Muints. Mr. Crew is one of tiie most act- 
ive members nf tl;e Methtjclist Episcopal 

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cluirch. and has assisted in building three 
or four cliurchcs in this county. In poli- 
tics he was formerly a Republican, but at 
present atfiiiates witii the Greenback party, 
he being one of the first men in Clarke 
County to espouse the Greenback cause. 

>ff O. SWAN, of the firm of J. O. Swan 
'-*a'| & Co., breeders of fine stock and also 
^^'^ proprietor of the Farmers' Home 
Motel and the livery and sale stable at 
Woodburn, Iowa, is a native of Rensselaer 
County, New York, born March 21, 1839, 
a son of Joseph M. and Polly (Kittle) Swan, 
also natives of New York. His father 
died in 1852, and ids mother in 1SS3, the 
latter being at the advanced age of eighty- 
five years. Their famil}' consisted of two 
children, our subject and a daughter — 
Mary S., no\v" Mrs. Hunter of Yates City, 
Illinois. J. O. Swan remained at home 
until the death of his father and then went 
to live with an uncle, a noted horseman, 
and in his eighteenth j-ear he began to 
drive a coach, thus early becoming famil- 
iar with the care of horses. He followed 
this about two years, and then for two 
years had cliarge of the stock farm of Bu- 
ren Brothers. December 25, 1S60, he mar- 
ried Emil}' Graham, a daughter of one of 
the first settlers of Knox Count}-, Illinois, 
where Mr. Swan had moved Januar}- i, 
1S57. April 10, 1862, he emigrated to 
Oregon, accompanied by his wife and two 
children, making the journey with an ox 
team, being five months on the wa}', arriv- 
ing in Butteville, Oregon, September 15, 
1862. The first winter he drove a team, 
and in the spring went into the Boise 
Mines, in Idaho, where he worked during 
the summers, spending the winters in 
Oregon, until the fall of 18O5, when he 
started back to Illinois, where, between 
Scjtt's Biufl and Chimney Rock they 

were attacked b}- a bod\" of Sioux and 
Cheyenne Indians, and lost nearh" all their 
stock. Mrs. Swan stood guard all night. 
She took a severe cold as did also their 
child, the latter dying, and was buried on 
Plum Creek. Mr. Swan lost all he had 
save a pon}- and a mule and was obliged 
to stop at Ft. Kearney and go to work, 
While there he had charge of the teams of 
McLean & Russell, Government freight 
contractors. In the spring they returned 
to Yates City, Knox Count}', Illinois. In 
February, 1S75, he moved to Clarke 
County, Iowa, and settled on a farm he had 
bought the year before on section 14, Jack- 
son Township, where he lived until the 
spring of 1882, when he moved to a farm 
he now owns on section 26. This farm 
contains 120 acres of land, the greater part 
of which is used for pasture, Mr. Swan de- 
voting his attention to stock-raising, making 
a specialty of fine grades of both horses, 
cattle and hogs. In the spring of 1S86 he 
moved his family to Woodburn and opened 
the hotel, building a large stable where he 
keeps both for sale and hire, a number of 
fine carriage horses. His long experience 
makes him a thoroughly reliable judge of 
horses, and his stock comprises none but 
the very best animals. February 16, 1872, 
Mr. Swan joined the Masonic fraternity at 
Maquon, Illinois, Lodge No. 530, from 
which he was demitted September 6, 187S, 
and united with Unity Lodge, No. 212, at 
Woodburn. He has filled most of the chairs 
in the blue lodge and has served as master 
two years. In 1880 he became a member 
of Chapter No. 63, at Osceola. Until 1876 
he affiliated with the Democratic party, 
but in that year became allied to the 
Greenback party. He was a delegate to 
the first Iowa State Greenback convention, 
and has since then been a member (n tht- 
State central committee the most of the 
time. Mr. and Mrs. Swan are the parents 
of four children. One, Loiichila, born 




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r:»; • 












',♦♦: i . 

i* *i . ■' ' ' • - 

C*- ■ ' ••■•"■ •■ ■;_ nrocicArnicAL sketches. ' ' 2^0 

November g, 1863, died on the plains. Of 
the living, Orson, born Deceniber 9, 1861, 
was married March 5, 1SS5, to Miss Lizzie 
Young, daughter of William Young, a 
farmer of Knox Countv, Illinois; Stephen 
S. was born May 20, 1867, and Ralph was 
born December 18, 1879. ^I^- Swan's pa- 
ternal great-grandfather was a native of 
Rhode Island, and moved with his faniil}- 
to New York before the war of the Revo- 
lutif)n. Three of his sons were soldiers in 
that struggle for independence. One, the 
grandfather of our subject, was a drummer, 
one was a Captain and one a Lieutenant. 
The latter. Pierce Swan, was wounded 
at Yorktown, where Cornwallis surren- 
dered his forces to Washington, thus end- 
ing the war. ''■..-. 

. , - ^.^^.m.3_ 

ROBERT JAMISON has the honor of 
\X being the first settler of Clarke County. 
*^i;\ He still lives on section 19 of Franklin 
Township, at the homestead selected bj-him 
May I, 1850. His selection was made on 
the " Mormon Trace," a well-traveled road 
which was traversed by the Mormons on 
their way to Salt Lake City. Later, the 
"trace" becoming the "California trail," 
emigrant trains made the first market for 
the pioneer settlers who had wisely made 
their homes by the roadside. Mr. Jamison 
says: *' Had it not been for the emigiants 
til Salt Lake and California passing our 
doors, buying all our corn at $1.00 per 
bushel, I hardly know how we could have 
lived." Two Mormon families lived in 
Green Bay Township, and a man named 
Wilson lived in F.>-ankIin Township. When 
Mr. Jamison settled here the two Mormon 
families moved to their "promised land," 
and Mr. Wilson moved back to Lucas 
County, thus leaving Mr. Jamison the first 
permanent settler of this county. A few 
months brought him several "neighbors," 

every man living witliin half a score of 
miles being called a neighbor. Mr. Jamison 
was born in Logan County, Kentuck}-, July 
II, 1816. His parents, Robert and .Mary 
(McWhorter) Jamison, were natives of 
North Carolina. Both were descendants 
of Scotch Covenanters. The families of 
both came to America about the middle of 
the last centur}'. Robert was the youngest 
of seven children, his fathci" dying before 
his birth. AYhen six \-eais of age his 
widowed mother, with her lamil}-, moved 
to Washington County, Indiana, where his 
mother died in 1841. There Robert grew 
to manhood, and in June, 1S45, married 
Christena Kyte, born in ^\'ashington Comi- 
ty, November 8, 1818. Her father, I^ewis 
Kyte, died in Indiana in 1852, and her 
mother, Catherine Kyte, survives, at the 
advanced age of ninety-three years, cared 
for b}' herself and husband. Mr. and 
Mrs. Jamison came to the Hav.keye 
State in 1848, first settling in Monroe 
County, on a claim near Albia. Selling 
that claim, he removed to his present 
home, and in 1850 made a claim of 160 
acres, receiving a deed for the same in 
1853. His farm now contains 380 acres 
of good land, well improved, and under a 
high state of cultivation. It is well stocked, 
and on it is a good orchard. They have 
passed through all the trials, hardships and 
privations of pioneer life, and now enjoy 
the fruits of a life of industry- and frugality. 
He is justl}- proud of Iowa and of Clarke 
Count}-. He has assisted in building up 
one of the grandest States in the Union. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jamison have had nine chil- 
dren, five of whom are living — John H., a 
resident of Oscecjla, has served several years 
as clerk of the court ; Lewis, now living 
in Weldon, Decatur Comity ; Francis M., 
a partner with his brother in the mercantile 
business at Weldon, Iowa; William died at 
the age of four vears ; Catherine, wife of 
James McAllister, died in iSSi, leaving 

'A '1 ,5;,. .i.i )!; 

n/sroi;r of clajuke cocxry. 

three children; Mary and Rebecca died in 
18S5 ; James and Thomas arc still farming 
the homestead. Mr. Jamison was the first 
school commissioner elected in this county; 
served two years on the County Board of 
Supervisors, and has served as town- 
ship trustee. In politics, he was formerly 
a Whig, but is now a Republican. 

?fr;-TT:ILLIAM M. WILSON, attorney 
v,\/\|'; at law at Osceola, is one of the 
l^="&2oS prominent members of the Clarke 
County bar. He was born in Guilford 
County, N. C, near the city of Greens- 
borough, April 23, 1838, his parents, R. D. 
and Ruhama (Spoon) Wilson, being natives 
of the State of N(irth Carolina. Thev re- 
moved with theirfamily to Iowa in the spring 
of 1853, locating in Mahaska County, and in 
1S60 settled in Warren Count}-, this State, 
near New Virginia, where the parents still 
make th.eir home, the father being now 
eightv-one years of age and the mother 
seventy-five. To tlicm Avcre born six chil- 
dren, five sons and one daughter, all of 
whom are yet living. William M. Wilson 
was fourteen years of age when he came 
with his parents to Iowa, and received his 
primary education in the \og school-houses 
of Mahaska County. In the fall of 1S57 he 
entered the high school at Oskaloosa where 

turned to his home in New Virginia. In 
Februar}', 1SG3. he was married to Miss 
Martha Fleming, of Warren County, a 
daughter of Asa Fleming. After his mar- 
riage Mr. Wilson located on a farm on 
which was erected a steam saw-mill which 
he operated in connection with attending 
to his agricultural pursuits, until 1867. He 
then began reading law under Mr. Conklin, 
of Osceola, and also under Judge Chancy. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1869, at 
Indianola, Judge H. W. Maxwell presiding, 
and was admitted to practice in the supreme 
courts in June, 1S72. He began the prac- 
tice of his chosen profession at Osceola in 
the fall of 1869, where he has since been 
actively engaged, and has established a 
large and lucrative practice. Mr. Wilson 
was elected a member of the State Senate, to 
represent Clarke, Lucas and Union counties 
in the State Legislature. He was elected 
mayor of Osceola in the spring of 1875. 
In 1876 he was appointed receiver of the 
First National Bank, of Osceola. In 1880 
he was appointed one of the commissioners 
to appraise and lay off the Fort Ripley Mil- 
itar}- reservation, it having been, by an act of 
Congress, thrown open for settlers. In 1882 
he was appointed by the Secretary of the 
Interior, one of the commissioners to estab- 
lish and locate the United States postotfice 
building, at Council Bluffs, Iowa. In 18S5 
he was elected First Lieutenant of Company 
A, Fifth Regiment, Iowa National Guards, 

he pursued his studies until i86r, returning 
to his home in Warren Countv atthe break- j and December 14, of the same year, was pro- 
ing out of the late vrar. He enlisted in j moLed to Judge Advocate, with rank of 
Company D, First lov.-a Cavalrv, and was ' Major, on the staff of Brigadier-General H. 
immediately sent to Missouri, thence to ! H. Wright, which position he still holds. 
Northern Texas, most of his term of service ' Mr. Wils(jn is a member of the Methodist 
being spent West of the Mississippi River. ] Protestant church. He is a member of the 
He served three years and three months, j Masonic fraternitv, belonging to the blue- 
during which time he participated in many 1 lodge, chapter and commandcry. He is 

severe engagements, including the battle 
of Prairie G!"Ove, Arkansas, and the skir- 
mish at Black Water. He was honorably 
discharged in September, 18^,4, when hcre- 

Iso a member of the Good Templars and 
a lile member of the W. C. T. U.and State 
Alliance, of Iowa. He has six children liv- 
ing, three boys and three girls — the oldest 

**; I BlOGRArillCAL SKETCHES. 261 ?2 

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" 1'. 

gill is married to S. M. Gilbert and now 
resides in Salem, Dakota. At the reunion 
of veteran Union soldicis, held at Crcston, 
Iowa, August 17, 18, and 19, 1SS6, Mr. Wil- 
son was chosen as Colonel of the First Bat- 
talion and commanded with credit. 

[HARLES URY, farmer, section 25, 
Jackson Township, was born in Kana- 
wha Coimty, West Virginia, March 
31, 1S53. IJi^ parents, William and Esther 
Ury, were born, reared and married in that 
State. They immigrated to Iowa, first set- 
tled in Mahaska County, where the father 
improved a farm on the original prairie of 
that county. The mother died in 1869, the 
father soon afterward moved back to his 
former home in West Virginia and now 
lives in Meigs County, Ohio. Charles Ury 
was the second in a family of eight children. 
He lias been dependent upon his own re- 
sources since fourteen years of age. He 
came to Clarke County in 1871 and en- 
gaged in farm labor for F. C. Mills, remain- 
ing with him six years. In September, 
187S, he purchased the farm he now owns 
and occupies. It had been partially im- 
proved, a house was built and seventy acres 
broken. In addition to the home farm of 
160 acres, he owns seventy-three acres 
in two different tracts, thirteen acres being 
in Franklin To'vnship. Mr. Ury has five 
brothers and two sisters living — Samuel is 
in Missouri ; John in Pottawattamie C(-iunty, 
Iowa ; Thomas in Mills County ; George in 
Clarke County ; Mrs. Angeline Schell lives 
in St. Louis, Missouri ; Laura and Frank 
live with their father in Ghio. Mr. Ury is 
politically a Republican. January 24, 1S7S, 
he was married to Mary C. Marvin, born in 
Jackson Township, January 4, iS6r. Her 
father, Runa Marvin, enlisted in the I'hirty- 
ninth lov/a Infantry, in the war of the Re- 
bellion, and died in the service. He was a 

native of Indiana. Her mother, now Mrs. 
Abbylene Gardnei", lives in Jackson Town- 
ship. Mrs. Ur}' had two sisters, Elizabeth 
and Charlotte (both died young), and two 
iialf-sisters, Cora and Floi-ence Mills, both 
living in Jackson Township. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ury have had four children — Albert W., 
Esther A., Herbert E. and Runa E. Mrs. 
Ury inherited about $3,000 from her father's 
estate. She is a member of the Christian 
church. ■ • , - ■ 




fOHN HARLAN is a native of Darke 
County, Ohio, born Januar\- 19, 1S25, 
c-,,- a son of James and Nancy Harlan, the 
former born in Kentuck}', Ma}' i, iSoi, 
and the latter in Indiana, June 2, 180S. 
James Harlan lived in Kentuck}- until 
fifteen years of age, and then accompanied 
his ])arents to Ohio, where he lived until 
185 1. He f(jllowed agricultural pursuits 
in Ohio, and was moderatel}" successful, 
but in 1S51, to better his condition, con- 
cluded to try his fortunes in the West, and 
accordingly, moved with his family to Lee 
County, Iowa, where he lived fifteen years, 
and in 1S66 moved to Van Buren County, 
where he lived about twenty years. His 
wife died May 4, 1SS5, and he soon after 
left Van Buren County and has since made 
his home with his son John in Clarke 
Count)'. John Harkm was reared in his 
native State, and after attaining maniioud 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. In the 
fall of 1S65 he moved to Iowa, and settled 
in Fremont Township, Clarke County, 
buying 160 acres of land, to which he has 
since added twenty acres, and has now one 
of the best farms in the township. He was 
married November 26, 1846, to Asenith 
Hubbard, daughter of Silas and Elizabeth 
(Anderson) Hubbard. Of the six children 
born to them but two aie living — Andrew 
C. and Lafnyette H. Addison Monroe, 

• *!*''*'>'*y:*.':c*T*TW«w:*r*>">"*v»>"v>'*'*;<;4;:0'":*' 

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•'7 ,-•' , -■- ,';1 


HrsmjiV OF CLARKE couxjr. 

Marv Citlicrin,, Rosalie and an infant | he was very badly injured by falling fron. 
danLjliler are deceased. In politics Mr. liar- : a ladder, from the effects of which he has 
lau is a Republican. He has held various ' never fully recovered. Both parents y.-ere 

township offices, and is an cflicient and 
faithful public servant. Mrs. Marian is a 
member of the Christian church. Her 
father was a soldier in the war of the I-le- 
bellion, and served about fifteen months, 
v.'hcn on account of sickness he was sent 
home on furlough, but died twent3"-four 
hours after his arrival. . :^ 

'OSEPH S. MORRIS, one of the rep- 

members of the Baptist denomination. 
Joseph S. Morris, our subicct, received a 
good education in his youth, and at the 
age of eighteen vears began teaching school 
in his native State. He followed that pro- 
fession for nianv terms, teaching several 
winter terms in his present neighborhood. 
At the election upon the ordinance of se- 
cession, he was clerk at Big Bend, Calhoun 
Count}', \'irginia, and cast one of the six- 
teen votes against the ordinance, and sev- 
eral of the sixteen patriots were murdered 
b}' guerrillas within a few days. Mr. Moiris 

'^^\ resentative citizens of Liberty Town 

^^' ship, residing on section 3, was born | was rejected upon ofTering himself as a 

in Harrison Count}-, West Virginia, March I soldier, but was of great service to the 

31, 1S29, a son of C. L. and Jane (Bumgard- I Union as couiier, guide and pilot, and all 

nei") Morris, ihe father being born in the 1 that lay in his power to help the cause of 

same house as our subject, July 29, 1S03, ! the Union he did. Mr. Morris settled on 

and the mothei- a native of Augusta ' his present farm in 1S67, where he o'.vns a 

Countv, West Virginia, born December 31, 
1806, of German ancestry. The parents of 
our subject had a family of four children, 
Joseph S. being the eldest. Marv E., died 
aged eighteen months; Mrs. Naucv H. 
Withers, lives in Osceola, Iowa, and Adam 
T., of Sheridan Countv, Nebraska, who en- 
listed in the Eleventh West Virginia Vol- 
unteers at the age of sixteen years, in 1S63, 
and proved a gallant and efficient soldier. 
He served under Sheridan in the closing 
scenes of the war, culminating with the 
surrender of Lee at Appomattox. The 
family, with the exception of Adam T., 
came to Clarke County, Iowa, from West 
Virginia, in .April, 1S65, the father making 
his home at first in Fremont Township. 
The mother died at Medora, Warren 
County. lou-a, April 5, 1S82, the father still 
living, a resident of Medora. In earlv life 

valuable farm of ninety acres, beside which 
he is the owner of property in the village 
of Medora, Warren County. March 14, 
1867, he was mairied to Susan A. Stacv, 
who was born in Washington County, Ohio, 
July 9, 1S40, a daughter of A. W. Stacy, a 
native of Ohio, who located in Libert}" 
Township, Clarke County, with liis fnmily 
in 1S54, living there till his death in April, 
1 88 1. He was an ardent Republican in 
politics. In religious belief a Universaiist. 
His wife was also a native of Ohio. She 
died on the homestead in Liberty Town- 
ship, February 7, 1874. ?>Ir. and Mrs. 
Morris have nine children ail living at 
home— Walter C, Gertrude .M., Mary E., 
Margaret J. aiKJ Harriet J. (tu-ins), Olive 
B., Robert A., Joseph A. and Austin H. 
Mr. Morris is an active worker in the in- 
terests of the Republican party in Clarke 

he worked at the carpenter's trade, which County, and is one of the leading speakers 
is also the trade of our subject, and while j in this part of the State. Mrs. Morris was 
superintending the erection of a Baptist ! the eldest of her father's family, her broth- 
church at New \'irginia, in tile fall of 1S74, j ers and sisters being as follows: William 

•.vol >>; 

I'M iciliv.i >^ 

;♦•! i; 


H.. of Warren County ; Chai loltc M.^ wile 
of Adam Morris, of Sheridan Couiit.v, Ne- 
braska ; Mrs. Marriet J. Stacy, of Warren 
County ; Caius M., of Liberty village; Sam- 
uel Austin, living in Nebraska; Osmcr 
Miles, of Ord, Nebraska; Mrs. Effic E. 
Twombley, of Liberty Township ; Mis. 
\'csta A. Smitii, of Fremont Township ; 
Joel D., died aged seventeen \-ears, and 
Alvin Luke, living in the village of Liberty. 
The ancestors of the subject of this sketcii 
came to America long before the Revo- 
lutionary war, and several of them are 
favorabl}' mentioned in the history of the 
country, Thomas Morris (United States 
Senator from Ohio) being his great-uncle. 


:Tr,;EMON BENNETT, residing on sec- 
jXjji tion 25, Madison Township, Clarke 
tr^ Countv, Iowa, ^vas born in Putne}', 
Vermont, April S, 1822, a son of Samuel 
Bennett, a native of the same town, now 
deceased, and a grandson of Samuel, a na- 
tive of Rhode Island, of English descent, 
his ancestors being among the earl}* settlers 
of Rhode Island. His grandfather, with 
three of his brothers, served in the Flevo- 
lutionary war, Samuel Bennett, Sr. being 
the only one to retuin alive. Soon alter 
the war closed lie settled in Putnev, Ver- 
mont. He had a family of twelve children, 
his son, Samuel Bennett, liaving been a sol- 
dier in the war of 1S12. Our subject was 
reared on a farm, and received good edu- 
cational advantages, attending the academ)- 
in Townsend, and the Waterville College 
(now Colby University), and later went to 
Dartmouth College, at Hanover, from 
which institution he graduated in 1848. He 
then' read medicine for one year, and at- 
tended lectures at AVoodstock, Vermont. 
He went to Tennessee in 1S49, and was en- 
gaged in teaching in Fall Branch Seminary 
in Washington County, for twcnt3'-one 

terms of five month? each. Hetaugb.t (iuc 
term in Chattanooga, and was teaching 
the Rutherford Academy, at Kingsport, 
Tennessee, when the war broke out, and 
being of Union sentiments he was obliged 
to leave the South at a sacrifice of $4,500. 
He located in Warren County, Iowa, in 
July, i86i,and the following winterraught 
school at Indianola. He then went to Des 
Moines, where he taught school for one 
year, remaining there till 1S67, wlien h.e 
came to Clarke County. On coming to 
Clarke County he settled on his present 
farm, which he had entered in 1S52. He 
lias followed the teacher's profession in 
Clarke County for four terms, and alsi.i lol- 
lowed carpentering for four years. He is 
now devoting his attention to farming, 
stock-raising and dairying, and is now the 
owner of a good farm containing 160 acres 
of well-improved land. Mr. Bennett was 
married in July, 1S52, to Eleanor J. Wiigiit, 
daughter of James Wright, deceased. Tl.ey 
have had seven children, six are still living 
— James S., Lemon, John F., Frances M., 
Mary J. and Ella M.,all being married but 
James and Lemon. Mr. Bennett is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. 

/^'OHN W. STIFFLER, deputy post- 
^■'' I master at Murray, was born in Guern. 
.■^ se}- County, Ohio, the date of his birth 
being October 5, 1859, l^^e eldest son of 
Wesley and Rachel (Neelj Stiffler, of whom 
the mother is deceased. John ^^^, our sub- 
ject, was reared principally on a farm, re- 
ceiving a fair common-school education. Af- 
ter leaving school he taught for three terms, 
beginning in the fall of 1881. His principal 
occupation has been farming, which he fol- 
lowed till January, 1SS6, when he was ap- 
pointed to his present position. He has 
been a resident of Clarke County since 1S68, 
coming with his parents in the spring of 

,s . ,1 

"'/ <; 




that year. Mc was united in marriage 
Marcii 13, 1SS3, to Miss Samanlha A. 
llindcs, her fatlicr, Samuel Hindes, being 
a resident of Madison Township, Clarke 
County. Mr. and Mrs. Stift^cr have one 
child, a daughter named Mabel. Mr. Stifl- 
ler is classed among the active and enter- 
prising young men of Murra/, and during 
his residence in Madison Township held 
the office of constable (or two years. He 
was nominated on t!ie Democratic ticket 
for county surveyor in the fall of 1SS3, but 
was defeated at the polls by 149 votes, in a 
Republican county of 565 majority. lie 
is a member of both the Masonic and Odd 
Fellows' orders. . ■ , 




TH-T^ILLIAM E. MORROW, dealer in 
^^5'Z W agricultural implements, Osceola, 

l'==rj;5:?i' and one of the early settlers of 
Clarke County, was born in Tuscarawas 
County, Ohio, near Fort Washington, Mav 

15, 1846, a son of Thomas A. and Esther 
(Scott) Morrow, the father a native of Bel- 
mont Count}-, Ohio, born September 26, 
1814, and the mother born August 26, 1815. 
in Chester County, Pennsylvania. The 
father is now deceased, his death occurring 
July 29, 18S4. The mother is still living. 
They had born to them four children, two 
sons and two daughters, all of whom are 
yet living. AVilliam E. Mornjw was 
brought by his parents to Clarke County, 
Iowa, when he was but ten years of ao-e, 
they locating in Knox Township. lie 
was reared on a farm, his education being 
received in the common schools of his 
neighborhood, and at the graded school at 
Garden Grove, Iowa. After finishing his 
education he began his career as a teacher, 
following (hat i>role5sion both winter and ■ 
summer till after his marriage when he ■ 
taught only during the winter terms. He 
was united in marriage October 20, 1869, to ■ 

Mary M. Whislcr, of Clarke County, her 
father, Thomas L. Whislcr, having come 
to this county in 1854 from Marion, 
Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Morrow have two 
sons — Francis E. and Robert E. After his 
marriage Mr. Morrow settled on a farm 
where he followed agricultural pursuits 
till 1873, when lit> moved to Osceola, and 
became associated with his father in the 
agricultural implement business. He dis- 
posed of his interest to his father in 1S76, 
who carried on the business until his death. 
In the meantime William E. Morrow had 
spent a year in Colorado, but on the death 
of his father in 1884 he returned to Osceola, 
and took charge of the business in which 
he is still engaged. He keeps a full line of 
everything pertaining to his business, and 
has a well-established trade, his business 
house being located on the vrest side of 
the square. Mr. Morrow is a member of 
the Masonic order, and is a comrade of 
the Grand Army of the Republic. 

-3 -J»:^»^^«igiif-. i- 

^^TT'^ P. SMITH, one of the enterprising 
ykV. and successful farmers of Knox 
^i?^' Township, is a native of Fairfield 
County, Ohio, born June 8, 1S32. His pa- 
rents, Warren and Catharine (Peters) 
Smith, were natives of Massachusetts and 
Virginia respectively. Thev had a family 
of five children — A. P., E. H., Henry C, 
Laura, and one wiio died in infancy. A. 
P. being the eldest child he was obliged to 
assist with the work of the farm during his 
youth. He received his education in the 
schools of his native county. He was 
united in marriage September 5, 1852, to 
Mary Hudgel, of Fairfield Count}-, Ohio, 
a daughter of John and Elizabeth Hudgel. 
They are the parents of eight children — 
Elizabeth C, John M., George W., D. W., 
Thomas, William, Ezra and Eddie. In 1S60 
Mr. Smith came with his family to Clarke 

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County, li)\va, locating in Knox Township 
on cii^litv acres (.)f section 2.[. To this 
lie has added by subsequent puichases 
till he now owns 236 acres 01 highly-culti- 
vated land, witii comfortable house, barn 
anil other farm buildings. He has three 
fine orchards, and his larm is i3ne of the 
best in the township. In co.mectioa with 
his farming he is quite extcnsivelv engaged 
in raising and feeding stock. Mr. Smith 
began life almost without means, but by 
industry and good management has ac- 
quired his present fine property. In pol- 
itics he is a Greenbackci". 

mmp'SES T. JOHNSON, dealer in 
W/iNnU hardware and agricultuial iniple- 
*r::TJ§^ ments for the Osceola Hardware 
Company, is a native of Indiana, born in 
Owens Count}-, August 19, 1S46, a son of 
F. W. and Electa J. Johnson, who were 
both natives of Indiana, the mother born 
near Greencastle. His paternal grand- 
father, David Johnson, was a native of Vir- 
ginia, and his maternal grandfather, Fred- 
erick Barrows, was a native of Vermont, 
and was a soldier in the war of 1812. Our 
subject's parents had a family of twelve 
children, six sons and si.K daughters, seven 
still living, three sons and four daughters. 
-Moses T., the subject of this sketch, was 
but eight 3'earsold when his parents moved 
from Indiana to Clarke Countv, Iowa. 
They settled some tlvc miles northwest of 
Osceola on a farm, remaining there two 
3ears, when the_y remo\'cd to Osceola 
where Moses T. was reared to manhood, 
attending the schools of that town, and 
later entered the State University, at Iowa 
City, where he pursued liis studies for one 
year, after which he spent two terr,is at 
Adrian College, -Michigan. He then re- 
turned to Osceola, and entered hi^ father's 
div-goods store, assisting his father till he 

was twenty-four years of atre, when he was 
married to Miss Samantha J. Ream, of 
Osceola, a native of Pennsylvania. Soon 
after his marriage Mr. Johnson went to 
Montgomery Countv, Kansas, where he lan 
a store at Radical Citv, his father being 
associated with him in tlie business. He 
subsequently returned to Osceola, Iowa, 
and was variously engaged for a time, 
when he embarked in the general grocery 
business which he followed about four 
years. He then disposed of his business 
and settled on a farm where he followed 
farming for two years, when he again lo- 
cated in Osceola. In 18S4 he entered the 
hardware store of the Osceola Hardware 
Compan}- in the capacity of clerk, which 
position he still holds to the entire satisfac- 
tion of his employers. Mr. and Mrs. John- 
son have one daughter named Pearl. Mr. 
Johnson was elected a member of the city 
council in March, 1886. He is a member 
of the Knights of Pythias, an organization 
in which he takes an active interest. In 
1S75 he went on an extended tour through 
California, thence to Oregon, and from 
there to Washington Territory. Mr. John- 
son is associated with his brother, Thomas 
A. Johnson, in raising and dealing in cattle 
in which the}- are meeting with fair suc- 

'-tTTLLIAM MAYTURN is a native 
l/\L *^^ England, born J;inuary 27, 1837, 
l'='^;p?r3 a son of Charles and Charlotte 
(West) Mayturn. In 1S52 lie left his native 
country in company with iiis father and 
sailed f<jr America. Two years later lie 
left his father in the East and started for the 
West. He-topped in\\'hite Pigeon, Mich- 
igan, a short lime, working at anything he 
could hnd to do to better his hnances, and 
then proceeded to Io\^■a in company with 
J. H. Woodbury, who owned land near 











;♦■ « o *' • 


Garden Grox c, Decatur County. lie 
worked for Mr. Woodbury about four 

They came to the 
hope of bettering 
vcars, when lie induced liis father to come i their condition. Thev landed in Castle 

thias, H. P. and Lena. 
United States witli the 

^ '>;>; West, and he then lived with him until his 

v~>:;»5 r.tnarriage. Immediately after his marriage 

-■:<•:;«■! he- went to l-"ranklin Township, Decat\ir 

' ;*.H . 

'- -:<-;^' -^ County, where he had iireviouslv bought 

' '."■•M ■ ^ . 

'■ ■ > •♦j iMoo acres of land. lie ii\-ed there until 

' '.*::<^ 

■':«•"♦-: :'^i868,"Avhen he removed to Clarke County 

• '>;*5 , -^ 

(-♦'■t; ar^md bought the old Hawkeye saw and flour- ; ital of about Ss-ooo to this country. His 

' v'^ •"iTi'g mill at Osceola, which he ran two years. ! fine farm contains 200 acres of wcU-im- 

' '-v^ i^-Ili^ 1S70 he bought a farm (jf sixty acres in [proved land. lie is a thorough,, practical 

i-'ifri^ ^rFremont Township, I0 which he has since l farmer, aud his property- shows, care and 

■ '^-ij; araidded 192 acres, and now has one of the thrift.' He is quite extensively engaged in 

'^''^. 3-b'est farms in the township, all under culti- 

Garden May 29, 1869, and immediately 
proceeded westward. Thev reached Lyons, 
Clinton County, Iowa, June 4, and re 
mained there until September- 17, and in 
October, 1S69, came to ^Voodburn. their 
present home. ' Mr. Hailing brought a cap- 


Both' Mr. and Mrs. Hallinc 

vavation;-with pleasant and comfortable build- | were reared in the Lutheran faith. In pol- ;*':< 

"'-ing.:. improvements. .Mr. Mayturn has 
aialways: taken an interest in the welfare of 
nihis township and has represented his fel- 
-oiow^ownsmen in various official relations. 
-A "At 'present he is acting treasurer of the 
tj town board.' In politics, he is a Republican. 
liHe .was married November. 24. 1S62, to 
MMiss Barbara -Ann Hartman, a native of In- 
duliana," daughter of John F. and Susan 
'-{Outstadt). Hartman. To them have been 
born seven children — Nellie, Willie T., 
O Grace G.,- George, Mary, Byron and Rosa. 
V Willie and - George are deceased. Mr. 
-•^Mayturnand his family are members of the 
^- Methodist Episcopal church, at New Vir- 
^ ginia. 

itics he is a Republican. In local politics 
he mav-bc classed Independent. 


HALLING, farmer, section 11, 

<* John P. and Elizabeth Hailing, and 
was born March 23, iSiS. His father died 
in Germany, pro\-ince Sclileswig Hoistein, 
at the age f)f seventy-eight years. His 
mother died when he was four years of age. 
He married November 21, 185 1. Mrs. 
Hailing was born August 30, 182S. Her 
parents, Matthias and Lena Schmidt, also 
died in. Germany. Tvlr. and Mrs. Hailing 
have had five children — .Marie, John, Mat- 

BO^'LE, an active and enterprising 
business man of Osceola, who is also 
^jy*® extensively engaged in breeding and 
raising stock, was born in Cornwall, Eng- 
land, November 14, 1837. \Yhen. eleven 
years old he was brought to America by his 
parents, John and Mary (Lennox) Boyle, 
who settled in Canada West. After the 
mother's death the father returned to Eng- 
land where he died in 1SS5. L. Boyle, our 
subject, began his career as a cleik at the 
early age of twelve yeais, and was em- 
plo3-ed in that capacity b}' various parties 
tillattaining the age of manhood. In 1S61 he 
came to Iowa from Illinois where he had 
lived a number of years. He located at 
McGregor, where he remained two yeais, 
engaged in the dry-goods faisiness with his 
two brothers. He then returned to Iowa, 
and in the fall of 186S came to Clarke 
County, and engaged in the grocery 
business at Osceola, to which he has since 
f.levoted the greater part of his time. He 
keeps a well assorted stock of family gio- 
ceries, arid by his strict attention to the 

1 M- Jl, 

* »; 

♦ ♦: 
» ♦; 

» ♦. 
♦ ♦; 
< ♦; 




wants of Ins customers, he has built up a | Isaac, of Sac Countv, Iowa: William of 
large trade. Mr. Boyle also owns a good i Warren County, and Mrs. Ellen Michaels, 

farm of eighty acres, and is engaged in 
raising horses of a high grade. He has at 
present twenty head of fine horses, among 
which may be mentioned Little Crow, Jr. 
Mr. Boyle was united in marriage in 1864, 
to Miss Sarah Nickerson, of Canada, and 
to this union have been born six children 
—Jessie, wife of Harry Gifford, of Creston; 
Carrie, Edith and Alice (twins), and Ethel 
and Harry (twins). Mr. Boyle is one of 
the prominent citizens of Osceola, always 
taking an active interest in every enterprise 
which tends toward the public good. 

of Van Wert, Decatur County. Marion, the 
sixth child, contracted disease while in the 
army, and died about thirteen vears later 
of consumption. Matthias Kerr, our sub- 
ject, is a native of Harrison County, Ohio, 
born February 5, 1S39. He remained with 
his parents until twenty years of age, when 
he went to McLean County, Illinois, and 
enlisted in the defense of his country, Julv 
25, 1861, a member of Company D. Seventh 
Illinois Infantry. Illinois bad sent six reg- 
iments to the Mexican war, thus the first 
regiment in the civil war was called the 
seventh. Mr. Kerr participated in the 
hardly-contested battles of Fort Donclson, 
Shiloh and the battle of Corinth in October, 
1S62. His regiment was at and in the 
J 3, Liberty Township, is a son of I vicinity of Corinth in the fall of 1S63, and 

"o— <5-^*^:{'w*^2^-*^ 

ipTv^ijATTHIAS KERR, living on section 

-=-K,-i3^ Arthur and Hannah Kerr, pioneers 
of that township, they being the first set- 
tlers in the northeastern part of the same. 
The parents were born and reared in Penn- 
sylvania, but married in Ohio, and when 
our subject was about live years of age 
they located in De Witt County, Illinois, 
coming thence to Clarke County in the 
spring of 1853, when they settled on section 
3, Liberty Township. Here the father im- 
proved a farm and followed agricultural 
pursuits successfully till his death, having 
at that time a valuable farm of 160 acres. 
He died October 29, 18S2, at the age of 
seventy-two years. He was one of the most 
active and energetic of the pioneers, and 
won the confidence and esteem of a large 
circle of acquaintances. His widow still 
survives, and is making her home with her 
son John in Fremont Township, this coun- 
ty. They reared a family of nine children 
of whom eight still survive — James, a resi- 
dent of Montana since 1S61; John, of Fre- 
mont Township; Matthias, our subject; Mrs. 
Margaret Ann Davison, of Osceola 'I'own- 
ship; Mrs. Isabcli HiLe,of Warren Countv: 

there re-enlisted as veterans, and in May, 
1S64, joined Sherman's forces. I\Ir. Kerr 
was taken prisoner while on scouting duty, 
and for a time was confined in Andcrson- 
ville prison, and the suffering he underwent 
while in that Southern prison pen has aged 
him fast. He left there under special car- 
tel for exchange of sick November 20, 1S64. 
and was discharged on account of disabil- 
ity from Chestnut Hill Hospital at Phila- 
dcljihia, June 15, 1S65. While in Ander- 
sonville he lost part of his right foot by 
gangrene, and now receives a pension of 
$12 per month. After leaving the armv he 
returned to Illinois, and in the spring of 
18G6 married Mary Allen, and immediately 
after their marriage went to Madison Coun- 
ty, Nebraska, Mr. Kerr building the first 
house in that county, wiiere the city of 
Norfolk now stands. Mrs. Kerr died of 
consumption in June, 1S67, aged twenty-five 
years, leaving at her death, one child, Har- 
land, who is now v»-ith his father. After the 
death of his wife Mr. Kerr came to Liberty 
Township where he has since resided. For 
his second wife he married Hannah 1. 


Triiuibo, July 25, 1S6;), a daughter of tlic 
pioneers Jolm and Sopiiic Truinbo. llcr 
parents came from Allen County, Indiana, 
to Liberty Township, Clarke Count}', Iowa, 
in 1S55, and are still living on their old 
homestead on section 2. Mrs. Kerr is a 
native of Allen County, Indiana, the date 
of her birth being January 18, 1840. Mr. 
and Mrs. Kerr have five children — Bertie 
May, Mar)' Ann, Frederick O., Don and 
Bessie Ellen. Mr. Kerr now has a fine 
home on section 3, where he owns 120 acres 
of choice land under excellent cultivation. 
In politics he is an ardent Republican. He 
has served his township as trustee, and by 
his upright and honorable dealings he has 
gained the confidence and respect of all 
who know him. 

^ENRY D. WOODWARD, of the 
\(^h fii'm of C. T. llaskins & Co., dealers 
^/ in lumber and hardware, Murra}', was 
born in Allegan)- (now Wyoming County), 
New York, the date of his birth being Ma}' 
26, i84_j, a son of H<:)race Woodward, who 
was a native of Vermont. Our subject was 
reared and educated in the schools of h's 
native county, and at the age of twenty- 
two years he learned the carpenter's trade. 
He came to Iowa in 1859, locating i'^ Black 
Hawk County. He enlisted in the late 
war in Company A, Fourteenth Iowa In- 
fantry, in which he served two vears and 
eight months, during which time he was 
mosllv on detached dutv. He re-enlisted 
as a veteran in Company K, Se\-enth Iowa 
Cavalry, an^d took p.nrt in UKjst c.f the en- 
gagements with the Indians. Mr. Wood- 
ward was married in December, 1S72, to 
Miss Barbara O. Slireves. a daughter of 
John Shreves, of Greenfield, Adair County, 
lowft, a;id to this union have been born three 
children — Loren .S., Belle O., and John A. 
Mr. Woodward Iclt Black Hawk County 

in 1S71, removing to Adair Countw ■where 
he remained till 1S73. He then came to 
Murray, Clarke County, where he has since 
resided with the exception of two years, 
which he spent in Adair County, and dur- 
ing his residence here has been engaged in 
the lumber, hardware and furniture busi- 
ness. He has been elected to several local 
offices, and is at present a member of the 
town council, and of the school board. He 
is a member of the Grand Army of the Re- 

^mE N R \ H. R Y A N, living on sec- 


tion 9, Doyle Township, five miles 
%^^il/ south of Murray, w^as born in Camp- 
bell County, Tennessee, June 4, 1829, his 
father, John Ryan, being a native of the 
same county. In 1834 the father emigrated 
with his family to New Albany, Indiana, 
where he died in 1835. The same year the 
family removed to Owen County, Indiana. 
Our subject was reared to agricultural pur- 
suits, receiving such educational advan- 
tages as the rude log cabin subscription 
schools of his day afforded, and later at- 
tended the schools of Stilesviile, in Hen- 
dricks Coimty, Indiana. After leaving 
school he taught four or five terms. He 
learned the carpenter's trade when a young 
man, which he followed for fifteen years. 
He located in Lynn County, Iowa, in 1S55, 
and duiing his ten years' residence in that 
county, Nvorkcd at the car[ienter and join- 
er's trade and iielped to build Cornel! Col- 
lege at Mount Vernon. He was married 
January 2, 1S59, 'o Mary C. Eastlack, her 
lather, John Eastlack, who is now deceased, 
having been one of the earl}' settlers of 
Cedtir Rapids, Iowa, whei-e he left valuable 
pri.iperty to his heirs. The}- have eight 
children— Alice E., Adella J.," John II., Joel 
W., Eila F., Charles E., George W. and 
Ilari'is II. Alice is teaching in her second 
yi-ar in the Murray scliouls. -She is a grad- 


















uatc from tlic Cincinnati Conservator)- of 
Music, and is an excellent teaciicr in music 
which she follows during her vacations. 
Adclla married Edward Pierce, of Doyle 
Township, and has one child, Hubert G. 
John H. is also a resident of Doyle Town- 
ship. He married Sarah E. Gaumer, and 
has one child — Boyd E. Mr. Ryan came 
with his famil}' (wife and three small chil- 
dren) to Clarke County, Iowa, in the fall 
of 1865 when he settled in Franklin Town- 
ship. He removed to Green Ba}' Town- 
ship in 1S74, and in the fall of 18S2, came 
to Doyle Township, since which he has 
resided on his present farm. His farm con- 
tains about 200 acres, is well improved and 
stocked. In financial matters he has always 
kept clear of embarrassing debts, and at 
the present time to the best of his knowl- 
ed2;e, owes no man a dollar, and has a com- 
petency of least $8,000, having begun for 
himself as an orphan with but a few shill- 
ings. In politics Mr. Ryan is a staunch Re- 
publican, he having helped to form the 
party in this State. He has served Frank- 
lin and Green Bay townships as assessor 
and clerk for several years, beside holding 
other offices of trust. Mr. Ryan joined 
the Baptist church when eighteen years 
old, to which he belonged for man}' years, 
but at present belongs to no particular de- 
nomination, being rather liberal in his relig- 
ious views. Mr. Ryan is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. 

rj^HOMAS W JOHNSON, an enter- 
V \:> Pi'ising farmer and stock-raiser of 
?^j Madison Township, is a native of 
Tennessee, the date of his birth being- May 
9. 1S25. His father, R(jbert H. Johnson, 
was a native of the same State, and an 
early settler of Illinois, he having brought 
his familv to McLean County in 1S28, set- 
tHn'T in the woods among Indians and 

wild animals. Our subject -aas reared on 
a farm in McLean Countv, Illinoi>, and has 
made farming his lite work. He was united 
in marriage to Miss Eliza J. Rhodes, a 
daughter of Aaron Rhodes, the date of 
their marriage being November 7, 1S47. 
Nine children were born to this luiion, of 
whom six are now living — Mrs. Nancy B. 
Dutton, Mrs. Nora E. Pollock, Francis M., 
Jeremiah R., Stephen A. D. and William 
S. One son, Robert H., died in his twent}'- 
seventh year. Jeremiah R. is an enterpris- 
ing citizen of Madison Township, where 
he is activel}- engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits. Mr. Johnson came to Clarke Comity, 
Iowa, in 1S54, where he has since made his 
home, the Indians being numerous wiicn 
he first settled in the countv. He is one 
of the pioneers wHo have lived to witness 
the many wonderful changes that have 
been made in the county in the past thirty 
years. Mr. Johnson served as a soldier in 
the Mexican war. 

|3r;¥^l ETON ROGERS, farmer and 
jI'V.iI- stock-raiser, residing on section 5, 
^^js* Do3-le Township, was born in Mo- 
nongahela Count}', West Virginia, Septem- 
ber 8. 1822, his fatlier, Archibald Rogers, 
being a native of the same county. The 
father being a farmer by occupation, our 
subject was reared to agricultural pursuits, 
his education being limited tothf; log-cabin 
subscription schools of his day. Mr. Rog- 
ers was married in February, 1845, to Han- 
nah Britt, a daughter of Samuel Britt, and 
of the eight children born to this union 
seven are living — John J., Mrs. Mary M. 
j Chambers, Sarah E., Mrs. Elizabeth Cox, 
I James A.. Mrs. Emma E. Springston, and 
Daniel W. In 1S54 Mr. Rogers removed 
with his familv to Henry County, Illinois, 
remaining there till 1S65, when he came to 
Clarke County, lovra, and has since made 

4r * 

i- <■>■•*• -^v*' V '*■ >"»v* *"♦"«■ >"»v* '<■■«■'«■■*" V ♦' «^ *■*" '^IW *'*■ ^^^ 


his home in Doyle Township, where he 
own? 235 acres of choice land. Mrs. Rog- 
ers died in August, 1S72, and in March, 
187.}, Mr. Rogers was again united in mar- 
riage to Mrs. .Mary A. Perce, a daughter 
of Cyrus Mitts, by whom he has three 
children — Dora M., Herbert M. and Ar- 
thur L. Mrs. Rogers is the owner of forty 
acres of good land. She has two suns by 
her former husband, whose names are: 
Lewis E. and George B. Perce. .Mr. Rog- 
ers has served one year as justice of the 
peace. Me has practiced law before the 
courts of justice for several )-ears. In his 
religious views Mr. Rogers is a Baptist. 

^T-^rVplLLIAM LIKES, one of the early 
W/aV|) settlers of Clarke County, is a na- 
ISi^l^] live of Ohio, born in Guernsey 
County, December 24, 1827. He is the 
fifth of a family of eight children of Philip 
and Providence (Lewis) Likes, the father a 
native of Washington County, Pennsylva- 
nia, and the mother born in the State of 
Maryland. They were married in Ohio, 
and when oui- subject was an infant the}' 
settled in Belmont Count}-, of that State. 
They came to Clarke County, Iowa, in the 
spring of 1853, locating on a farm three 
miles from Osceola, on which tlicy resided 
some four years, when they removed to 
Osceola. They subsequently settled on a 
farm on White Breast Creek, remaining 
tlicrc till their death, the father dying in 
the year 1SG4, and the mother some time 
before. The father was a blacksmith, 
but did not follow his' trade after leaving 
Ohio. \Villiam Likes, the subject of this 
sketch, grew to manhood in Belmont 
Coiuity, Ohio, recci\-ing his education in 
the schools of Scwell'<ville. At tlie age of 
fifteen years he enteied the blacksmith shop 
of his father, \\'liere he begarj learning liis 
trade, which lie followed during his resi- 

dence in Ohio. He was married in April, 
1853, to Sarah C. Ruley, of Belmont 
County, Ohio, a daughter of Thomas and 
Hester Ruley, who came to Clarke County, 
Iowa, in 1S54, both dying in Osceola, the 
father dying in 1SS5, aged eighty-seven 
years, the mother dying some eighteen 
years before. Mr. and Mrs. Likes have 
had eight children born to them — Hester, 
deceased ; Forest Rose, wife of Jasper H. 
Likes; Lilian, died in infancy; Delia L., 
wife of Lee II. Estes ; Nannie E., Violet, 
William K. and Percy C, all at home. Mr. 
Likes came to Osceola about six; months 
after his parents, and in April, 1S54, opened 
a blacksmith shop on the northeast corner 
of the square, and si.x: months later re- 
moved to his shop on Main street, where 
he has since followed his trade, being tlie 
oldest blacksmith in the county. He has 
followed blacksmithing for a period of 
thirty-two years, and is a thorough and re- 
liable man, and during liis residence here 
he has not only establislied a good business, 
but has gained the confidence and respect 
of all who have business relations with 
him. In connection with blacksmithing he 
is also engaged in wagon-making and re- 
pairing. Mr. Likes settled in Osceola 
when the now thriving and prosperous lit- 
tle town contained but ten houses, and has 
witnessed the many changes which have 
taken place in the pas', thirty years. 

'l^, DEITRICK, one of the prominent Iv;^ 

- I ,v citizens of Fremont Town.ship, is a jtjs 

'~~rf ^ native of Muskingum County, Ohio, j©;:^ 

born September 10, 1832, a son of Jacob :«;i« 

and lane (Ilutson) Deitrick. His mother ?,:< 

died when he was but two }-ears old, his :-vi 

father surviving until 1S85. He remained >:^ 

with his father until his majority, and then ;>:< 

learned the millwright's trade, at which he '^'^ 

worked fi\'e years. In iSiS he came to •*"< 


\',i.' I' 

■A iU 

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, I i ' •' 

:•;■■- 1 

►.•i.-C. *>,-*. ,«-.♦:.': 

■"♦^Vy^f >"♦';♦' '<.-. 



Iowa, having previously (.iitcrcd 120 acres was very successful, continuing in the same 

of land in Washington Township, Clarke 
County, which he afterward sold and 
bought the farm where he now lives, at 
that time with n.) improvements save a 
worthless log cabin in which they could 
not keep dry when the rain came, and upon 
these occasions huddled together under a 
large umbrella. I lis land he lias brought 
under a good state of cultivation, and his 
building improvements are among the best 
in the township. He is purel)' a self-made 
man, gathering his property together little 
by little, by industr)- and frugality. He 
has served his township in various offi- 
cial relations and is an cfTicient and relia- 
ble officer. In politics he is a Greenbacker. 
He was married in i860 to Miss Sophia 
Hunt, daughter of Garrard and Elizabeth 
Hunt. They have no children. 

"-^^^LI A. ATKINS, one of the substantial 
'vrj. business men of Osceola, was born in 
"sr-\ Deavertown, Morgan County, Ohio, 
April 17, 1S23, a son of Elijah and Mary 
(Younkin) Atkins, natives of Delaware and 
Virgmia, respecti\ ely, the father born 
April 17, 1797. He followed merchandis- 
ing and hotel keeping through life. The 
parents were among the early settlers of 
Ohio, in which State they made their home 
till death. They had a family of six chil- 
dren of whom their son, Eli A., and three 
daughters are yet living. Eli A. began learn- 
ing the marble-culler's trade at the age of 
eighteen years, which he lollox^'ed about 
four years. He then engaged in tlie mer- 
cantile business at Cmnbcrland, Ohio, re- 
mairiing there till 1S52, when he came to 
Iowa, locating in Henr\- County for one 
)'ear. Mr. Atkins came to Osceola, Clarke 
County, in July, 1867, an.] oj^cneil a niar- 

busincss about ten years, m connection 
with which he dealt ingrain for some time. 
Disposing of his stock of groceries he 
turned his attention to dealing in horses, 
which he shipped to Nebraska and other 
Western States, for six 3-ears. He has of 
late years been engaged in dealing ingrain, 
buying and shipping between Denver, Col- 
orado, and Eastern markets, oats being the 
principal product handled. Mr. Atkins 
has been twice married. For his first wife 
he married Anna Bemis in 1S45, who died 
in 1850, leaving three children — Charles 
O., now engaged in the abstract business, 
at Lincoln, Nebraska; Emer}- B., a grain 
merchant, of Denver, Colorado, and Mary 
E., wife of A. Burbaker, a lumber dealer, 
of York, Nebraska. IMr. Atkins was 
again married in 1852 to Maria J. Agnew, 
a native of, and to this union have 
been born three children — Laura E., mar- 
ried David E. Sayer, banker of York, Ne- 
braska; Frank K., dealer in real estate and 
loan agent at York, Nebraska, and Cora 
D. m.arried W. J. \Vildman, banker, of 
York, Nebraska. Mr. Atkins and his fam- 
ily are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church, of which he is a trustee. 

•'|T1; F. RICKER is a native of the State 
Vrj. of Maine, a son of Tobias and Sally 
'"^i* (Hanuafcrdj Rickcr. When but a 
boy he learned the blacksmiths trade, 
which he followed until the year 1S66. In 
1S55 he came West and lived in Trivoli, 
PeoriaCounty, Illinois, eleven } ears. From 
there he moveil to Neponset, Bureau 
C(mnty, where he bought a farm and car- 
ried it on ill connection with .vorking at 
his trade seven years. In 1873 he came to 
Iowa and bought the farm where he now 
ble-cutter's shop, which he carried on about 1 lives, on section 6, Fremont Township, 
a year, when he sold out his business and i Clarke County. Tiiis farm contains lOo 
engaged in the grocery business in which he 1 acres of choice land, all under cultivation. 

>> :♦. 
:<■ *! 





If .: ■■,1-1 !:. 

>- c';,-R,:,15i-*-*V It--' 


with pleasant and comfortable bnildinjj im- 
provements, lie was married in February, 
1S50. to Miss Olive B. Trull, daughter of 
Dr. Phineas and Nancy (Janness) Trull. 
To tliem have been born two children — 
Charles Bruceand Annie E. Charles mar- 
ried Josephine llortense Storm, and Annie 
is the wife of Marion Redmon. Mr. and 
Mrs. Ricker are members of the Baptist 
church at Osceola. , .-\ ... .- 

Layton never seeks official honors, he has 
filled several local ofTicC'^, and for one term 
acted as justice of the peace. In politics 
he is a Republican. He is a member of the 
Masonic frateniitv. 



^mLEXANDER LAYTON, an cnter- 
,(\: prisinsr acfriculturist of Madison 
•=: r^ Township, residing on section 34, was 
born in Monmouth County, New Jersey, 
his father, William Lavton, being a native 
of the same Slate. The fatlicr being a 
farmer bv occupation, our subject passed 
his 3'outh in assisting with the work of the 
farm, receiving such education as the com- 
mon schools of those times afforded. x\t 
the age of twenty years he began learning 
the blacksmith's trade, which he made his 
principal vocation until 1S78. Mr. Layton 
was married in 1S50, to Margaret Gravatt, 
who died in January, 1856, leaving two 
children — Laura, now Mrs. Boden, and 
William A. For his second wife Mr. Lay- 
ton married Ursula Cook, of Canton, Illi- 
nois, in April, 1S58, and to this union was 
born one daughter, now ^^rs. Lillie Olm- 
sted. Mr. Layton went to Fulton County, 
Illinois, in 1854. locatnig live miles east of 
Canton, where he followed blacksmithing 
for live years, afler which he carried on a 
large repair shop in Canton for nine \"ears. 
He then came to Clarke County, settling 
on his present farm in Madison Townshiji, 
where he carried on a blacksmith shop in 
connection with his farming until 1S7S, 
since which he has devoted his entire at- 
tention to farming and ftock-rai.>-ing, in 
v.'Iiich lie met with success, having now 
320 acres of chsjice land. Although Mr. 

§OIIN KVTE, one of the earlv pioneers 
of Clarke County, was born in Wash- 
' i ington Count}-, Indiana, June 23, 1S26. 
He was reared to farm life, never leaving 
home until he came to the Flawkeye State. 
In 1848, in company with Robert Jamison, 
the husband of his sister Christina, Mr. Ky te 
came first to Monroe Coimty, and in the 
autumn of 1S49 visited this county and 
staked out their claims. Deer and wolves 
were very plenty, and onlj- three or four 
squatter families could be found in the 
limits of the county. May i, 1S50, Mr.- 
Kyte and Mr. Jamison moved to their 
homes in this county and commenced to 
improve their land. Mr. Kyte, being a 
single man, made his home with his brother- 
in-law, Mr. Jamison. Both were poor, and 
earned their first money by splitting rails 
for settlers who now commenced to come 
in. Sod crops raised in 1S50 yielded forty 
bushels of corn to the acre, which was sold 
to emigrants for Si.oo to S'oO per bushel. 
Thus the}' soon became quite comfortable. 
March 31, 1856, Mr. Kyte married Mary 
Jane Bogg, daughter of LeMasters Maitiu 
Boggs, of this count\', and made his home 
on his claim made in 1849. Mrs. Kyte died 
in 1S71, leaving eight children, six of whom 
are now living, viz. — Nancy C, wife of 
Hedding Blair, of Frank'in Town-^hii) ; 
Jerry, who married Miss A.lice Bum- 
gardner, also resides in Franklin Town- 
ship; Charles and Francis M.. residing in 
Oregon ; John M. and Mchssa M. are 
v.-ith their parents: Robert died at the age 
of six months; Tlnjinas B. and Mary Jane 
(twins) died at tlie age of si.v weeks. Mr. 

IV,\'\ |tli'/ 

! —tMO 













^A-^tT^Ci^ jt^ 



Kyte's father died in Indiana in 1S50. His 
mother is still living at tlie advanced nge 
of ninet3--thrce, being the oldest person liv- 
ing in the county. His brother, Francis M. 
Kyte, is auditor of this county; James 
Harvey, another brother, lives in Jasper 
County, Missouri ; William died at Joplin, 
Missouri: all had been residents of this 
county. Mr. Kyte has secured 670 acres 
of land in Franklin Township, all improved 
except such as he has reserved for the 
growth of timber. His first taxes were 
$6.75 ; they now range from $150 to $200. 
He is truly a public-spirited man, and is 
justl}' proud of his efforts in the develop- 
ment and advancement of both the county 
and State. He has served as township 
trustee. In politics he was a Whig, but is 
now a Republican. 

-J- -<:^^$^^^M^i<S-* f- 

0AM ES B. KELLEY, residing on scc- 
^■j tion 36, Knox Township, one of the 
"^ old pioneers of Clarke Connt}', was 
born in Perr}- County, Kentuck)', a son of 
John and Desdemona (Brown) Kelley, who 
were both natives of North Carolina. His 
parents moved to Kentucky when quite 
young, and were there married in Perry 
County, about 181 5, and to them were born 
seven children — Daniel M., James B., F. H., 
Margaret, L. D., Martha and Melinda, our 
subject being the eldest child. When he 
was ten years old his parents immigrated 
to Montgomery County, Indiana, where he 
lived from 1S29 till 1852. He was first 
married August 13, 1840, to Margaret S. 
Kelley, of Ladoga, Montgomery County, 
a daughter of James and Margaret Kelley. 
She died September iS, 1847, leaving three 
children — Alfred, Martha Jane and Mary 
Ann. Mr. Kelley was again united in 
marriage January 24, 185 1, to Rachel How- 
ard, of Montgomery County, she being a 
daughter of Francis and Elizabeth Howard. 

Of the nine children born to this union 
seven are living — L. D., Eda A., Laura 
Belle, F. Jcnnettc. James W., Thomas J. 
and Charles S. John F. nnd William H. 
are deceased. Mr. Kelley settled in Boone 
County, Indiana, in 1851, remaining there 
four years, and in the spring of 1S55 came 
with his family to Iowa by team. He first, 
located in Marion Countv where he was 
engaged in mercantile pursuits imtil tiie 
spring of 1859, when he came to Clarke 
County. His fine farm in Knox Township 
contains 264 acres of land under a high 
state of cultivation, and his substantial res- 
idence, which was erected in 1885, is one 
of the best in his neighborhood. His farm 
buildings are well adapted for the accom- 
modation of his stock and grain. He is 
now devoting considerable attention to 
raising and feeding stock in v/hich he is 
meeting with excellent success. He has 
always taken an active interest in the cause 
of education and religion, and is one of the 
respected citizens of Knox Township, and 
by his fair and honorable dealings has won 
the esteem of all who know him. He has 
served as justice of the peace six years; 
township assessor, two terms, and also as 
a member of the school board. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. He has 
been a member of the Methodist Episcfipal 
church since 1837, and has served as class- 
leader and steward of the same. 

yifTAMES M. RODGERS, the subject of 
''^'i this sketch, was born in Owen County, 
"^f^ Kentuck}-, August 15, 1832. He is the 
third of a family of six children of James B. 
and Elizabeth Rodgers. His father was a 
native of Tennessee, his mother of Ken- 
tucky. He was reared on a farm, and lias 
continued that avocation to the i;)rcsent 
time. His first marriage was with Miss 
Florinda Gray, March 6, 1855. She was 

2 * f f *":*'*5src*.:«'3ri?¥r*'4r<r'^r<>"**:«\'e:«"<-'*;s': 

- ::0 il!: :i' 

278 iiisroRr OF CLARh'K cocvrr. 

born in Woodford Count)-, Kentucky, Au- 
gust 14. 1S36, and died February 21, 1S36, 
soon after llie birtli of tlieir cliild, Oscar, 
who died at tlie iiomc of iiis fatlier June 26, 
1S74. In December, 1S57, Mr. Rodgers 
was joined in marriage with Martha Xix, 
who was born in Tennessee May 8, 1S38. 
At the age of tlirce years she, with lier 
parents, removed to Kentuck}-. Mr. 
Rodgers engaged in farming in Owen 
County, Kentucky, until 1S67, when he re- 
moved to Callaway County, Missouri, where 
he continued his agricultural pursuits until 
1872, when he removed to his present home, 
section 10, Jackson Township. His farm 
contains 240 acres, and is one of the best in 
the township, and the improvements and 
high state of cultivation speak for Mr. 
Rodgers as one of the leading, practical, 
successful farmers of the county. His 
thoroughness as a fai-mer was attained in 
youth under his father, wiio was conceded 
the model farmer in Owen County, Ken- 
tuck}-. Our subject met with heavy 
financial losses in Kentucky during the 

Washington Territory ; Elizabeth, wife of 
James Herndcn, Lucas County, Iowa; 
Clay, Sarah, Hannibal, Luelia and Irvin at 
home. Mr. Rodgers, under all his mis- 
fortunes, continued in the straight-forward 
course as in the past, and his persevering 
industry and upright life have been libo'ally 
rewarded botn as to property and the 
general respect and esteem of the commu- 
nity in which he lives. He was made a 
member of the Masonic fraternit)' in his 
native count}' in Kentucky, and soon alter 
settling in Clarke County he became affili- 
ated with Unity Lodge, No. 213, A. F. & 
A. >L, at Woodburn. Our subject attended 
his father one week prior to his death, which 
occurred in Owen County, Kentucky, Jan- 
uary 6, 187S, aged seventy-eight years. His 
mother died December 30, 1877, aged seven- 
ty-three years; they were members of the 
Methodist church. Our subject has acted 
with the Democratic party politically on 
general issues. He does not draw part}' 
lines in local afjairs, however, but supports 
the man best fitted for the position. Mr. 

war. His residence was destroyed by I Rodgers, as was his wife, is, religiously, 
fire, and his kind and obliging disposi- -Methodist, adhering to the faith in which 
tion caused him to sustain losses by im- 
position ; many whom he considered 
friends, solicited and secured him as surety 
to paper which, in manv instances, he had 
to pay. Aflei- locating in Missouri his mis- 
fortunes came in the form of sickness in his 
family, and while he made his business profit- 
able, his expenditures were great. All 
these misfortunes he met with manlv forti- 
tude, paid cverv obligation of his own con- 

he was taught in youth 

Ij^ F. I'ROWN, one of the enterprising 
' and progressive citizens of Knox 

Township, living on section 35, is a 
native of Ontario, Canada, born near Brock- 
ville, August 17, 1834, the fourth child of 
Obediah and Hannah (Parish) Brown, who 

tracting as well as those for \\-hich he had | had a family of six children — M. M., Lor- 
endorsed, and reached Clarke County with 1 etta, Louisa, B. F., Chloc and Ira L., all of 
$2,000. His misfortunes did not cease when | whom yet survive. B. F. Brown, our sub- 
he located in this county. Here the sad- i ject, was reared on a farm and educated in 
dest of all calamities came to luni, his wife ; the common schools of his native county, 
became an invalid and continued such ! and at Otterbein College, at Westerville, 
nearly eight years, and died December 17, '< Ohio. He lived at b.ome with his parents 
1S83, leaving eight children — James \V., re- ' till sixteen years of age, and in 185 1 went 
siding in Portland, Oi'cgon ; "Lyman, of ! to Crawford County, Ohio, where he 

,7/ ,1, 


, . .' ) 


worked at carpentering and also tciight 
scliool for several terms. July 4, 1859, lie 
was united in marriage to Alniira Molt, 
who was born and reared in Crawford 
County, Oliio, a daughter of J. N. and 
Kachc'l Ann (Black) I Jolt. They have 
seven children — Delia, Edith, Ralph N., 
Dwight M., Lola, Uel and Homer L., all 
of whom have received good educational 
advantages, and three being fitted for teach- 
ers. Edith and Ralph N. are students of 
the college at Hillsdale, Michigan. In the 
spring of 1S61 Mr. Brown removed with 
his family to Clarke County, Iowa, locating 
on his present farm, which was then wild 
land. His farm now contains 160 acres of 
well-cultivated land and his improvements 
are among the best in his neighborhood. 
His house is comfortable and commodious, 
surrounded by shade and ornamental trees, 
a fine orchard, and good out buildings for 
his stock. Mr. Brown is a licensed minis- 
ter and an active member of the Free-Will 
Baptist church, and has^one much toward 
the cause of religion, and also takes an act- 
ive interest in the advancement of the 
cause of education. 


fOSEPH L. TEDROW was born in 
Somerset County, Pennsylvania, May 
-.s. 31, 1835. When he was two years of 
age his lather settled in Athens County, 
Oiiio, and purchased a small tract of land. 
He died the following year, leaving a wife 
and six children. Their names \\-ere : 
Henr)-, Silas, Aaron (died aged thirty-six 
years), Susan H. (now Mrs. Hampton), 
Joseph L. and Freeman. Silasnov^ resides 
in Athens Township, Ringgold County; 
Henry, in Jackson Township, Clarke Coun- 
ty, 'owa ; Susan H., in Mt. Pleasant, lo\va, 
and Freeman, in Athens Count}', Ohio. The 
mother's name before her marriage was 
Barbara Ann Geist. Her husband's death 

left her with a laige family, all of whom 
were too voung to caic for themselves. 
Her small tract of land in the wilderness 
had to be cleared before it could produce 
enough to even feed her family. She t<;i!ed 
with indomitable energy. The bo3S, under 
the pressure of circumstances, accomplished 
wonders. The family were kept together 
and onl}- left the parental roof when they had 
reached maturit}-. The memory of their 
dear mother, who, in poverty and distress, 
diil so much for them, grows moie and 
more dear to each as time rolls on. She 
lived to see all her famil)' happily settled 
in life, with families of their own, and died 
Januar)' 2, iSSo, at the ripe old age of 
eighty years. She was mariied again after 
the death of her husband to Nathan Tucker. 
Their onl}' child, C. M. G. Tucker, is now 
a prominent citizen of Athens County, 
Ohio. Joseph L., the subject of this sketch, 
is a self-made man. Working in youth by 
da)''s work to get clothing and scb.ool 
books, he made the best use of his limited 
advantages. His last schooling was ob- 
tained in the university at Albany, Athens 
Count}", Ohio. He came to Io\\a in 1S55, 
intending to return to Ohio and continue 
his studies until he graduated, but thei'e 
seemed here to open a new life for him. 
He was gradually drawn into land specu- 
lation, and his early dreams of scholarship 
were dispelled and forgotten. He engaged 
in the mercantile trade at Liberty, Iowa, 
with J. W. Hampton, which he continued 
successfully four years, clearing about $8,- 
oco. Several times afterward he visited 
his mother in Ohio. In iS57-'S he entered 
land in Clarke, Ringgold, Iowa and Potto- 
wattamie counties, and when the land 
office was opened at Chariton, he engaged 
there in land speculation, connected ui busi- 
ness with Williams eV Co. and Judge Brain- 
ard. July 28, iSGi, he was united in mar- 
riage with Hester Ann, daughter of Jaci^b 
Proudfoot, of Libertv, lov.a. She was born 
















^ . :/->.! :,,v 


f : iM;r,', ^f-^ 

... /-:•- !■>.' 
... .,: :!.,■-.•;. 

ji/STonr OF CLARKE coiwrr. 

July 22, 1844. They liavc had eight chil- 
dren, only fi\c of whom are living. Their 
names, in tiie order of their birth, are — 
Lillah A., born September 26, 1862; Mer- 
tie R., born September 28, 1S65 ; Addic B., 
born July 20, 1S6S, died September 22, 
1S73 ; Elsie E., born Januar}- 27, 1873; 
Harry R„ born May 6, 1S75; Nellie C, 
born November 19, 1S75 ; Lethe E. and 
Leah E. (twins), born Januarv 8, 18S5 ; 
Lethe E died Fehruarv 17, 1SS5. Mrs. 
Tcdrow is a lady of culture and refinement, 
and has many friends \vhoresj)ect and love 
her for her many noble qualities. Her 
unselfish devotion to her husband and fam- 
ily has aided materially m placing Mr. Ted- 
row on the sound financial basis we now 
find him. Mr. Tedrow has given his chil- 
dren good educational advanlages. Lillah 
and Mertiearetcachersofhigh standing, and 
the former is also a music teacher. He has 
been in active mercantile business perhaps 
longer than any other man in the county. 
He has served the public in that capacity 
thirt)--one years. He was at Liberty five 
years, at Ottawa nine years, first hauling 
his goods from Burlington and fvcokuk, 
and after the building of the C, B. ^'^ Q.R. 
R., from Ottuniwa and other points on the 
railroad. Coming to Clarke County, he 
opened the first stock of goods at Wood- 
burn. He was the first to c-tablish agrain 
market at Woodburn, and has done much 
for the farmers. He now owns one of the 
finest farms in his township. He is a lead- 
ing member of ll;e Mcth(jdist cliurch, to 
which he has given liberallv of his means 
to build up the cau^c. His faniilv are all 
members of that church. Mr. Tedrow is 
a ^L'lSon of long and high standing; is a ! 
member i;f L'nily Ludge, No. 212, at Wood- 1 
burn; PinUilpii.i Chapter, No. G^, at Osce- 
ola, and a charier member of Constantine 
Commandery, No. 23, of Osceola. He has 
taken twelve degree;;, antl held iiianv high ' 
positions of lionor and trust in the order, { 

also in the township and countv. He re- 
tired from business in Woodburn in 1SS6. 
In politics Mr. Tedrow is a Republican and 
has done much for his party. During the 
war of the Rebellion he was a liberal sup- 
porter of the cause of the Union, giving 
over $1,000 to assist the families of soldiers. 
It was his desire to enlist and bear arms in 
the defense of his countr^-'s honor, but was 
persuaded to remain at home, as his fellow 
townsmen thought his services at home in 
the store and postoffice were neededniore 
than he was in the field. 



•OITN G. SNIDER, one of the pioneers 
of Liberty Township, living on the 
^7:;;.' southwest quarter of section 3, was 
born in Stokes County, North Carolina, 
January 25, 1S24, a son of John and Han- 
nah (Cosner) Snider. In 1835 the parents 
removed with their family to Bartholomew 
County, Indiana, residing there till their 
death, the father d3'ing at the age of seven- 
ty-three years, and the mother at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-four years. Of their 
famih" of eight children, four only survive 
— Mrs. Mary Nading, Mrs. Eliza Bruner, 
Curnelius and Joliii G., who was the 
3-oungest child. John G. Snider, our sub- 
ject, v.-as reared to agricultural pursuits in 
Bartholomew Countv. He was manied 
November 17, 1S50, to Miss Sarah Lorts, 
who was born in Bartholomew Count}', 
January 31, 1831, her parents, George and 
Sarah Lorts, being among the pioneers of 
tliat count}', and there the father died, aged 
seventy-three years, her mother still a resi- 
dent of that county. Of the five children 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Snider, four are liv- 
ing — Elizabeth, wife of William Berkins, of 
Lucas County; George, John an'J Frank, 
all living at iiome. A son, Thomas, died 
aged one mojith. After his marriage Mr. 
Snider was engaged in farming and oper- 



li/OG A\l Pill C. ! /^ SKt: TCI/ES. 


ating' a saw-mill in coiinccliini ■with liis 
brother Cornelius, in llartholomcw Count\", 
wlicrc liC I'cinained till he came to Clarke 
County and settled oa his prc;-"nr farni, 
October 8, 1S56. He broi:ylit wiih him lo 
tliis. county a capital of ^2,300. His hrsl 
purchase hcjc was 160 acres ol unimpio\'ei_l 
V land, for which he paid $1,600. His home- 
stead now conl.ains 400 aci'es of land, which 
is kei.n uu'.ler Tine cultivation, beside which 
]ic owns forty acres of timber land. He is 
one of the respected and inihiential citizens 
of Liberty Township, and much of his time 
is given toward advancing the cause of 
education. He takes an active interest in 
all enterprises which he deems foi- the good 
of his township, and has served in several j 
official positions. In pcilitics lie was for- 
merlv an old-line \\liig, but since the or- 1 
ganization of the Republican party he h: 
voted that ticket. 

^|AV]D T, McNeil, an old and hon- 
": 'i|i orcd pioneer of Clarke County, was 
%y bora in Homer, New York, October 
2. iSiS, his parents, Truman and Catherine 
McXeil, being nati\-es of the same State. 
When he was two j-ears old his father died, 
and his mother subsequently married again, 
and moved with her family to Montrose, 
Pennsylvapiia, where o;ir sul'ject remained 
till twentv years of age. He then started 
in life on !iis own account, going to New 
Orlean.T and from thei-e went to ijr.aiulen- 
biirg, Kentuck}-, where he taught scliool 
for one term. He then engaged iri flat- 
boating dov.-n the river to New Orleans, 
and wliile there he first met Miss Ana j. 
Ouigley, to whom he \vas married in Cin- 
cinnati, May, iS.ji. Thcv liavc reared six 
children U) maturity — Augusta, Catlieiine, 
Fannv, Henry, Mary and Cieorge, who is 
in the wholesale hardware store of Chaiaes 
F, Schmidi, of Biirliii:it(..n, low a. Mr. Mc- 

Neil continued for two vcars 
aft^r his marriage, when l;e seltled ii\ 
Hrandenbuig, li\ii:g in that eitv until 1S55. 
He then came wiili his lamih- to low:;, lo- 
cating at I^a Porte, where he opened a dry- 
gOi ids store, .and was ap]iointfd jiostm:,-! er, 
whicii position he filled, perfoiming the 
duties of his office aaui carr_\-ing on his busi- 
ness till 1S63. He then removed to Osce- 
ola, where he carried on a general mercan- 
tile trade on the southwest corner of the 
public square, beccirning v.-ellaiid favorably 
known through ihecountv, and by his hon- 
orable and upright dealings with all, he es- 
tablished a large trade. He was obliged to 
reliic fr(.)m the mercantile business in 1S65, 
owing lo a severe attack of sore e\"cs. He 
theri engaged in the insurance business, and 
later de\'Olei:l his attention exclusiveh to 
life iuiurance, in which business lie is still 
engaged, representing the old and reliable 
North A\'estern Life Insurance Company, 
of ^Iilwaukce. Mr. iMcNeil has filled most 
of the township offices with credit to liim- 
self and satisfaction to his constituents. He 
is a membier of the Masonic fraternity. 
Both he and his vriie are memlicrs of th.e 
Baptist church, of wliich he is clerk. 

.n'AMES A. WOODBURY, a pi ominent 
7 I attorne\' at law^ Cif Osceola, was born 
'r- in Adrian, Michigan, March 16, 1847. 
His parents, James II. and Susannah 
Woodbury, weri.' natives of Massachu- 
setts, born in the town of Sutton, where 
thev ',vere reared and marricfl. They cm- 
igrateri to New York, tfience to Michigan, 
and in 1856 c.ime to I(;\'.'a, being among 
the earlv settlcrsol Decatur County, where 
the\" lived till their rieath. the r.ioiher dy- 
ing ill 1880, aii'l the father in 1885. They 
reared a (aniily ol ii\'e ehili.lren, i'lur sons 
and one ciaiighter — James A., the sub.ject 
of this sketcli : l-»\vi,i;l>t A., who w a> a 


Colonel of tlie Fourtli Michi;;an Infantrv, 
.ind was kilicJ at the battle of the Wilder- 
ness; George, a drut^L^ist at. Garden Grove ; 
William, who was killed in the late war 
while stationed at Memphis, Tennessee, 
and Libbie L., wile of J. L. Yoiinjj, who is 
a member of the law firm of Young' & 
Parish, of Leon. James A. Woodbury, 
whose name heads this sketch, passed his 
boyhood days in his native State, receiving 
his primary education in the schools of his 
native city. He came with his parents to 
Iowa in 1S56, and for a time attended the 
high school at Garden Grove, this State. 
He began his mercantile caieer in partner- 
ship with J. W. Boyle, of Garden Grove, 
with whom he was associated under the 
firm of Boyle tS: Woodbury for eight 3-ears, 
tliis firm carrying on an extensive business. 
The partnership was then dissolved, when 
Mr. Woodbury came to Osceola and pur- 
chased the law office of Stuart Brothers, 
who at that time carried on four offices at 
different points. Mr. Woodbury had previ- 
ously studied law, taking a collegiate 
course in Yale College. Since coming to 
Osceola he has established a high reputation 
in his profession, and is connected with the 
firm of Davis c^ Rankin, 55 & 57 North 
Clinton street, Chicago, Illinois, and is also 
general solicitor for the Chicago Creamery 
Association, wliich carries on business in 
twelve States. Mr. Woodbury is associated 
in his Osceola office with C. W. White, as 
law partner. Mr. Woodbury was united 
in marriage in 1S67, to Florence J. Bar- 
rows, daughter of D. C. Barrows, of De- 
catur County, Iowa. They have three 
children — Lottie K., Libbie and Eugene 
^V. Mr. ^Vo'>dbnry has served as a mem- 
ber of the town council, and also on the 
school board. He v,-as appointed by the 
Legislature one of the trustees of the Agri- 
cultural College, at Ames, Iowa. He was 
one of the incorporators of the Dcs Moines, 
Osceola iV Southern Narrow Gauire Rail- 

road. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, belonging to Lodge No 170, of 
Garden Grove. 



I^-ALLEN H. burrows, only son of 
]rlj\-; Hon. Barclay Burrows, was born in 
tk^ Morgan County, Indiana, October i, 
1S31. A young man of superior intellect, 
his business qualifications were recognized 
at an early age, for before attaining his ma- 
jority he was chosen dcput\' countv au- 
ditor, and as a reward for his merited suc- 
cesses he was elected to the office of 
count}' treasurer, the duties of which he 
discharged with signal fidelity and ability. 
In September, 1S55, he was married to 
Miss Eliza Hussey, daughter of Hon. 
Anthony Husse}', of Dublin, Ireland. Miss 
Hussey, on the death of her parents became 
the ward of her luicle, the Hon. George 
W. Moore, one of the earliest noted pio- 
neer politicians of Indiana. In the year 
1S57 Mr. Burrows removed his famil}- to 
Osceola, Iowa, where he engaged in farm- 
ing, meanwhile pursuing his studies, which 
resulted in his admittance to the bar as an 
attorne}" at law the same year. Here, as in 
Indiana, his business qualifications soon be- 
came apparent, and in i860 he was elected 
clerk of the courts, to which public trust he 
was returned six consecutive terms and after 
having enjoyed the well-earned reputation 
of being one of the best county clerks in 
the State of Iowa for twelve years, he 
asked to be retired from further official 
duties. In 1S6S Mr. Burrows engaged in 
banking, a business to which he seemed 
peculiarly adapted, and which he conducted 
individually until George H. Cowles be- 
came associated with him as partner, in 
1S69. Mr. Burrows was also interested 
in the National Bank, of Leon, and in ad- 
dition to his other business entej-prises was 
for two years editor of the Osceola Rcptib- 

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iuan in which he took much pride, as well- 
he might, for its editoral pages, with sage ad- 
vice and logical conclusions, clothed in the 
purest language, could not carry else than 
the most ennobling influence to his many 
patrons. To his untiring energy and zeal 
Osceola is indebted for the foundation of 
its prosperity, and the magnificent brick 
block on the northeast corner of the public 
square is but one of the monuments of his 
industry. In the summer of 1S73 Mr. Bur- 
rows retired from active business life ow- 
ing to failing health, and dangerous had 
been the dela}-. " The bus}^ hands and 
active brain had taxed their strength too. 
long, and on November 20, 1873, he died 
suddenly, a victim to overwork." Of the 
Masonic order he was one of its brightest, 
lights, and in the Odd Fellows' lodge, a 
true disciple of " Friendship, Love and 
Truth," a member of the Christian church 
active in every charity. Mr. Burrows 
left a wife and three children well provided 
for hnancially, and having endowed each 
child with clear intellectual capacities, he 
gave to them a legacy far better than 
riches. Charles Barcla)-, the eldest son, 
graduated at the Iowa State University, in 
1878, and is now engaged in the banking 
business at Norfolk, Nebraska, where his 
mother resides. He is now serving as 
count}- commissioner, and Madison County 
never chose a more thorough business man 
for the place, and so closel)' is he identified 
with the interests of Norfolk and vicinity, 
that many older and wiser heads — he 
being only thirty years of age — are subserv- 
ient to the correctness of his opinions and 
the solidity of his judgment. Allen Shel- 
burn, the second son, but recently gradu- 
ated from the Iowa University also, and 
that he was a favorite in his class, and was 
of most excellent standing, we judge from 
the outspoken sentiments of his collegiate 
friends, and should he embrace the legal 
profession it is predicted that lie will ful- 

till the promises of his father's youth, be- 
coming a giftetl counselor; his excellent 
moral qualities and undaunted principle 
bespeak for him the love of any people he 
may live among. Miss Maggie, the only 
daughter, received her education at Indian- 
apolis, Indiana, and is to-dav ciinsidered 
one of the most efificient authorities on 
primary education in Nebraska. She has 
taught in the public schools of Norfolk 
but two 3-ears, and the mantle of her fath- 
er's genius has undoubtedly fallen upon 
her shoulders, as her earliest efforts have 
been crowned with remarkable success, 
and her ability to lead in educational inter- 
ests is unquestioned. So, after a life well- 
rounded and complete, Allen H. Burrows 
passed from our midst, leaving a character 
above even the eulogy of gratitude, and 
these living examples to perpetuate his 
memor)' in good deeds and useful lives. 

;:pYRUS IIOLCOMB, farmer, Troy 
>V'^i Township, postotTice, Murray, is a 
"v^i native of Pennsylvania, born in Brad- 
ford County, July 22, 18 14, a son of Hugh 
Holcomb. He was reared to agricultural 
pursuits, and received the benefit of an 
education such as could be obtained in the 
rude, log-cabin subscription schools of that 
early day. He was married February 
22, 1839, to Lydia Himes, of Troy, Pennsyl- 
vania, a daughter of Amos Himes, and of 
the six children born to this union onlv 
one, James M., survives. .\ son, Clinton 
A., died in the service of his country dur- 
ing the late war, and another son. Homer 
A., died at the age of fifteen years. For 
his second wife Mr. Holcomb married Mrs. 
Mar}- A. Kendall, of Granville, Pennsyl- 
vania, who died in less than a \ear after 
her marriage. Me married in May, 
1881, to his present wife, Mrs. Mary M. 
Hand, of Creston, Iowa, who was fonnerly 

!t ♦: 













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from Fcnns\lvania, nnd was a professional 
nurse. Mr. Ilolcunib removed his family 
to Siark Couiitv, Illinois, in the fall of 

left the c lunty about the same time 
They had live children, thice of whom ai( 
vet livinir. Ihe mother died Septeinbc 

1835, when lie came to Clarke County, i 29, 1S42, the eleventh anniversary of her 

Iowa, alone, and selected a h:)me in Trov 
Townshiji. He then returned to Stark 
County, and in May, 1S56, brought his 
faniilv to this counts', locating on his farm 
in Troy Township in the folk)wing Sep- 

marriage, and at the same hour in the tiav. 
The fatlicr died September 26, 1S56. Tlic 
surviving cluldren arc — Benjamin, the sub- 
ject oi tiiis sketch ; Isaiah, a resident of 
Geneseo, Illinois ; Jereniiah R., postmaster 

tember. The country was at that time but l at Woodburn. Benjamm was reared on a 

sparsclv settled, and many were the jiriva- 
tions and hardships which the family expe- 
rienced. William Bell and George \V. 
Banker are the onlv two living in Tro}' 
Township, who settled here as early as 
our subject, and these three brave old pio- 

farm and lived in Wayne County until he 
came to this county in 1S65. May 5, 1859, 
he was united in marriage with Miss 
Hewitt, who was born in Iieland, Septem- 
ber 28, 1S32, and died August 19, 1S63, 
leaving one child — John A., residing- in 

neers have witnessed the man_v changes j Knox County, Illinois. May 3, 1864, Mr. 

that have taken place during the past thirt\- 
years, bringing the countr}- from a wild 
state to thriving towns and well-cultiyated 
farms. Mr. Holcomb has held a number 

Felger married Mrs. Martha J. Bardon, 
^^•ho ivas born in Pennsylvania, March 27, 
I S3 1. She was a daughter of John and 
Fann}- Arbingast. Her marriage with 

of the township offices, among which may j Albert Borden occurred April 28, 1853 

be mentioned those of clerk, trustee, justice 
of the peace. He was a member of the Board 
of Count)' Supervisors several years, and 
was a member of election for fifteen years. 
He is a member of the order of Good Temp- 
lars, and was a member of the Grange 
while it existed. He is a member of the 
Church of Christ and a deacon over thirty 

T^-", EX J A. MIX FKLGER, secti.m 13, 
Jackson Township, v.'as born in 
Wayne County, Ohi(j, July 28, 1S34. 
His father, Ad;uvi I-"'elger, was born in 
Westmoreland Count}', i''enns\l\'ania, Julj- 
3, 1796, svhere he li\ed until thirty-four 
years (jf age. He then immigrated to 
Ohio, walking the whole distance. He 
purchased a tract of knul in W^ayne 
County and ci^mmcnced iinprovements. 
September 29, 1S31, he married Miss 
Elizabeth Ra.sor, who was liorn in West- 
moreland C', Ajjril 10, 181 1, and had 

He died JNIarch 26, 1858, leaving one son- 
John F., now a resident of Jackson Tov.-n- 
ship, Lucas County, this State. May died 
at the age of eleven months. B\^ his second 
marriage Mr, Felger had one child — Alta 
Estella, born June 19, 1874. and died Feb- 
ruary 3, 1S76. Mar}' Matilda, an adopted 
child, was born December 27, 1878. Mr. 
Felger owns a fine farm of 200 acres, well 
improved, and good buildings. It is pro- 
tected by tuic groves planted by his own 
hands. He has one of the best orciiards in 
the county. He also owns twenty acres of 
timber land. When he came to this county 
he was worth less than ,S 1,000. Mr. Felger 
was bereaved by the death of his wife Jul}' 
25, 1 886. She was aged fifty-five 3'ears, 
three months and twenty-eight davs. Slie 
had been a member of tlie Methodist Epis- 
copal church thirty-fi\'e years, and Mr. 
Felger has been a member of the same de- 
nomination for fifteen years. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternit}', affiliating 
with Unit}' Lotige, Xo. 212, AVoodburn, of 


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wiWch he was a charter nicinber and one of 
its first masters. He alsi> was a charter 
nu-niljcr of Good Sliephenl Lodge, No. 
.;>.). Politically, he is a Democrat His 
niwllicr was one of sixteen cliildren, four- 
teen of whom lived to rear lamilies. His 
f.ilhcr was one of fourteen children, thirteen 
lived to rear families. His present wife 
was one of nine children. He has served 
as magistrate and township clerk. 

yfr\TEPHEN A. WEAKLAND. residing 
"^N^ on section 13, Liberty Township, is a 
Tp native of Cambria Count}', Penns^l- 
vatiia, born February 34, 1836, a son of John 
and Mary Ann (Litzsinger) Weakland, who 
were born, reared and married in Penns}'!- 
vania, making their home in that State till 
their death, our subject's grandfather 
jolin Weakland, being the first settler in 
Cambria County. Stephen A. W'cakland reared to a farm life, remaining on the 
liome farm until twent}- 3-ears of age. Lie 
then came to Iowa and began working on 
a faim in Claj^ton County. The following 
ycai", 1S57, he located in Lucas County, 
where he commenced working- at the car- 

fancy. Mr. Weakland came to the Hawk- 
eye State a pooi- bov, but persevering 
energy and habits of iiulustr\- have placed 
him beyond want, and to-day he is classed 
among the substantial farn:;ers of the coun- 
t}- with which he lias been identified since 
1S58. Beside his home farm of 160 acres 
on section 13. he owns sixt}- acres on sec- 
tion 14, and twenty acres on section 11 of 
Liberty Township, and cightv acres of 
partially-improved land in Otter Creek 
Township, Lucas Countv. In politics he 
is independent in local election?, voting for 
the man best qualified for the duties re- 
quired, and in national elections he gencr- 
all}- casts his vote with the Dcmoci'atic 

r^ HEROW W. PARKER, an active and 
-^X enterprising farmer, and the present 
%~> justice of the peace of ISIadison Town- 
ship, residing on section 15, was born in 
Harrison Count}-, Ohio, iVpril 22, 1840, his 
father, Richard Parker, who is now de- 
ceased, being a native of the same count}', 
and a carpenter and farmer by occupation. 
Sherow W. Parker attended the common 
pcnter's trade, and in 1S58 he came to I schools of his native county, v.-here he re- 
Clarke County and bought forty acres on | ceivcd a fair education. He was reared 
'section 24, Liberty Township, which he 1 to agricultural pursuits, which he has made 
iinj. roved. He was married in 1S62 to ; his life's work, and by his persevering 

industrv and good management he has 

Nancy E. Short, who died Februarv i, 
1SS2, in her forty-second year. She was a 
Christian woman, being a consistent iFiCm- 
hcr (;1 the Christian Union church. Her 
p.'irents were among the pioneers of Libert v 
lownship, where her father died. Her 
'ii'ither is still Ii\'ing, making her home in 
Indianola. Of the eight children born to 
Mr. and .\Irs. Weakland seven still survive 
— Jolm W., Joseph C, Oliver C, Simon, 
Mary Ann, Sarah, Gilktte, all living at 
•''line but Joseph C, who resides in Ne- 
bi.iska. A daughter, Adaline, died in in- 

met with success. He was a soldier in 
tiie late war, enlisting in Companv C, 
Fifty-second Ohio Infant rv, and during his 
term of service he was sick at Jetferson- 
villc, Indiana, for five months. He partic- 
ipated in a number of engagements, among 
which were, Perry\ ille, Kentuckv, Ciiick- 
amauga. Buzzard's Roost, Rome, Georgia, 
and Kencsaw Mountain. Mr. Parl:er was 
married -March 20, 1S66, to Miss Li/ctte 
Crew, a daughter of the late James Crew. 
Twelve children have been born to them 












HIS J n in- OF CLAI^KE COL\\Tl\ 

— Katie, Slicrinaii, Charles, Richard, Frank- 
lin, Homer, Albiirtiis, John, Lizetta M., 
Josiah, George and one deceased. Mr. 
Parker located in Fulton County, Illinois, 
in the fall of 1865, living near Canton till 
the fall of 1S69. He then came to Clarke 
County, Iowa, and the following spring 
settled on the farm where he has since 
been engaged in farming and stock-raising, 
his farm containing 156 acres of choice 
land. Mr. Parker has held several offices 
of trust since locating in Madison Town- 
ship, serving as township clerk, road su- 
pervisor, assessor and justice of the peace, 
and for eight or ten 3-ears has been clerk 
of the School Board. He is a member of 
the Grand Army of the l^epublic. 

|rWri|^ILLIAM B. TAI.LMAN, attorney 
tin/ V/'f ^^ ^'^^^' ^^'^^ born at Point Pleasant, 
iTtjjjTrJ Tyler County, West Virginia, Jan- 
uary II, 1S48. His parents were Thomas 
B. and and Frances Tallman, who removed 
with their family in 1850 to Iowa, and first 
settled at Keokuk and shortly after in Des 
Moines Count}-, this State. Here William 
was raised as a farmer's boy ; attending the 
common school until he was prepared to 
enter college, at which time he entered the 
Baptist University, at Burlington, Iowa, 
where he aftsrward acquitted himself with 
honor in the grarluating class of 1R70. He 
then removed with his father's family to 
this comity, and engaged in farming in the 
-summer and teaching in ihe \\'inter until 
1875, at which time Mr. I'allman married 
Miss Emma Bester, of Abingdr)n, Illinois, 
a lady of many accomplishments. In the 
spring of 1S76 Mr. Tallman was elected 
principal of the Woodburn school, at Wood- 
burn, Iowa, which position he held until 
1879, during which time he studied law, and 
in 1S80 removed to Osceola, Iowa, and was 
admitted to the bar in December of the 

same year. He immcdiatelv began the 
practice of his profession, ir. which he has 
been very successful. Mr. Tallman in the 
last few 3ears has been engaged as counsel 
in a number of very important cases in his 
coiuit}- and iiis uniform success at the bar 
has given him a reputation as a lawyer, and 
he is looked upon as one of the rising young 
lawyers of Southern Iowa, and has now a 
large and lucrative practice, possessing the 
confidence of the citizens of his county. 


— 0b§5-<- 


fAMES E. GREEN, a native of Harri- 
son County, West Virginia, a son of 
-,v. Job and Eliza (Stout) Green, was born 
December 28, 1S40. He was reared on a 
farm, receiving his education in the com- 
mon schools. When seven 3-ears of age he 
went to live with his Grandfather Green, 
remaining with him until twenty years of 
age, when his grandfather becoming dis- 
abled they returned to his father's honie, 
and at the time of the breaking out of the 
Rebellion he was engaged in superintend- 
ing an oil well which he was forced to leave 
by the rebels. He was then empIo3'ed by 
the Government as teamster three 3-ears. 
In March, 1864, he enlisted in Compan3- L, 
Third West Virginia Cavalr3-, and served 
over two years. He participated in several 
skirmishes but no important battles, being 
mostl3' engaged on guard duty. He was 
discharged JUI3' 10, 1S65, and after the close 
of the war engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness at Romine's Mills with Robert Davis, 
under the firm name of Green cS: Davis. A 
3-ear later he bought the interest of Davis, 
and continued the business alone until the 
fall of 1S67, when he sold out and engaged 
in buying and shipping stock until his re- 
moval to Iowa in 1S6S. He carried on his 
father's farm five 3-ears and then bought 
fort)' acres, to which he has since added 
140 acres, and now has one of the best farms 





in'lhc county. . His land was wholly unim- 
proved, but he has brought it under a fine 
state of cultivation and erected yood and 
substantial buildings. He was married 
September 4, 1S73, to Miss Mary C. Stickle, 
daughter of Nicholas E. Stickle. They 
have one daughter — Iris L. In politics 
Mr. Green is a Republican. 

one of the oldest pioneers of Clarke 
..^ Count}', residing on section 28, Green 
Bay Township, was born in Greene Count}-, 
Indiana, May 16, 1S27, a son of Oi'cn and 
Mary (Bartnes-;) Williams, the father a 
native of Saratoga Springs, New York, and 
the mother born in Kentucky. They were 
the parents of five children — Sarah x\nn, 
J. S., George B., Nancy G. and Elizabeth 
Ann. Jonathan S., our subject, \\-as the 
second child of the family. He remained 
in his native county till seven years of age, 
when the family removed to Edgar Coun- 
ty, Illinois. After living in Edgar County 
three years, they returned to Greene 
County, our subject being reared to man- 
hood in Greene and Martin counties, Indi- 
ana. He was reared on a farm and edu- 
cated in the common schools of his 
neighborhood. August 30, 1849, '^c was 
married to Louvisa Overton, of Greene 
County, Indiana, a daughter of A\'illiam 
and Nancy (Clark) Overton, her father be- 
ing a native of Tennessee, and one of the 
first settlers of Clarke County, Iowa. To 
this union were born ten children — Gillham 
Bartness, Mary Evalina, Nanc}' Ellen, 
Emily Isabel, Orville Gustavus, Almira, 
Oren Monroe, Viola Louvisa, Jonathan 
Norville and Nora Amy. Emily, Orville 
and Almira are deceased. In September, 
1849, ^Ii'- Williams started with his family 
by team for Iowa, and spent his first win- 
ter in this State in Monroe County. April 

27, 1850, he pre-empted aclaimof 32oacrcs 
where he now resides, and in December of 
the same year his family located on the 
farm which is situated one and a half miles 
north of Weldon. He has improved his 
land and brought it under fine cultivation. 
The log house in which he first settled has 
been replaced by his present substantial 
frame residence, and his barns and out- 
buildings are noticeably good. Hisorchard, 
wiiich covers five acres, is one of the best 
in Clarke County. In politics Mr. Williams 
affiliates with the Democratic party. He 
has served as justice of the peace, township 
assessor and has been a niember of the 
school board. He is a member of Osce- 
ola Lodge, No. "ji, A. F. & A. M. He is a 
member of the Christian church, of which 
he is an elder. During his long residence 
of thirty -six years Mr. Williams has always 
taken an active interest in every movement 
calculated to promote the public welfare, 
and is numbered among the best citizens 
of the county. 

_ ^ _ . rp-^^TU •_*-;-,^ 

"^^EV. J.A. MORRIS was born in Harri- 
- tfy' son County, West Virginia, July i, 
"^^ 1833. His parents, Joseph and Nancy 
(Davison) Morris, were reared in Virginia. 
His father was a Baptist minister ; was in 
the ministry fifty years. He died in Har- 
rison County at his old home in 1863, aged 
eighty-one years. He had a brother, Hon. 
Thomas Morris, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who 
at one time was a member of the Lhiited 
States Senate. His mother died at the 
old home in 18C8, aged nearly eighty 
years. Rev. J. A. Morris was the young- 
est of thirteen children. Three brothers 
and one sister are living — Calvert L., of 
Medora, Warren County, this State ; Will- 
iam N., a resident of Gilmer County, West 
Virginia ; Allen J., of Lewis County, West 
Virginia; Mrs. Harriet Cozad, now living 

■ ;■( I ^■■Ji (,!.,= , -1 

n/sTonr of claukf. couxrr. 

ill Corydon, Iowa. Mr. Morris was rt'ared 
on a farm. A portion of liis time was spent 
in a mill and in carpenter work. Hiscdn- 
catitinal advantages wcic good for tliat 
])criod, and lie early qualified himself for 
teaching. Being a natural student, much 
of his education was acquired outside of 
the school room. In 1S55 he was converted 
to the cause of Chiist, and joined the 
Methodist Episcopal church. He was 
soon after made a class-leader; was licensed 
e.xhorter on the i2lh of March, 1S59; ^^'«^s 
oriiaincd deacon in 1863, and was ordained 
elder in 1870. He was appointed chap- 
lain of the One Hundred and Thirty-eighth 
^'il■ginia Militia during the \var. March 
15, 1S59, '^"^ ^^'^s united in manuage with 
Miss Qynthia J. Read, daughter of Francis 
and Arab Read. She, also, was the young- 
est of thirteen children, and was born in 
Barbour County, West Virginia, August 
17, 1S33. Mr. and Mrs. Morris lived in 
W^est \"irginia until they came to Lib- 
erty Township in 1S64. In that year he 
jjurchased his homestead. He owns 350 
acres on sections 7, Sand 20; forty acres 
of timber being on section 20. The res- 
idence p)ortioii was pui chased of Rev. A. 
W. H. Millard, now deceased. The resi- 
dence of Mr. and Mrs. Morris is one of the 
best in Clarke County. It was built partly 
by himself with a view to comfort and con- 
venience. They have had nine children — 
Louelki is a literary and music teacher, now- 
engaged in Fairview, AVarren County ; 
Michael C, now attending Simpson Col- 
lege, at Indiaiiula; Wailman T., now teach- 
ing in Li'Oerty \illage; Hmeline V., Boyd 
T., Arah May, Rose Altha, and Martha V. 
Anna, the eighth child, an infant, died in 
1S72. While at ail times holding himself 
ready to v.ork in the Master's vine^-ard, 
Mr. .Morris is m-X regularly engaged in 
ministerial labor. His services are always 
to be relied uj)on in the upbuilding of the 
cause, or in an\- otlier good v.'ork. He al- 

ways endeavors to deal justly and fairlv 
with all men, and if he makes mistakes 
they are of the head and not of the heart. 
As a \\riter he is forcible ; as a speaker he 
always commandsaltention. In early day.-> 
Mr. Morris was a Whig, but is now a Re- 

fOHN SHERER, deceased, was born 
in the State of Penns3-lvania, in 1801. 
.^ In 1S05 his parents removed to Holmes 
Count}-, Ohio, where he grew to manhood, 
and was there married to ]Miss Sarah Sills. 
In the spring of 1849 he emigrated with 
his family to v.'hat was then the Far West, 
locating in Osceola, Clarke County, Iowa, 
where he remained till the spring of 1863, 
being the pioneer hotel keeper of that 
place. In April, 1S63, he started with his 
family across the plains for- California, ar- 
riving in Santa Cruz about the end of 
Se])tember, where he resided till he met 
with his death, January 2, 1864. The fol 
lowing notice in regard to the death of our 
subject was written for the Santa Cruz 
Sentijiel. '• Editor Soitincl: — A terrible ac- 
cident occurred in our town on the 2nd 
inst. John Sherer, a resident of this town 
was thrown from his wagon and instantly 
killed. He was descending the Idllin front 
of the Fountain House, when his team, 
four mules, became frightened and ran. It 
is supposed that he 'attempted to put his 
foot upon the brake, missing which he was 
thrown from his wagon upon his head, the 
wagon immediately passing over him. 
Every assistance possible was rendered 
him, but without avail. He was dead. 
■:■:- # ■::■ j^j^ arri\'ed in .Santa Cruz the 
last of September, 18G3, where he has since 
resided, securing the res]icct and esteem 
of all '.vho knew him. Wherever he has 
li\ed long enough to become kiKjwn and 
appreciated, he has won the confidence of 
the community and the love of a large 



circle of friends. In Ohio, for sixteen 
vcars, and in \o\\:\ for se\-eral years lie licld 
the office of justice of tlic peace. Foi- tlic 
last twenty-eight years he and his wife 
were consistent members of the Methodist 
Episcopal chinch, in whicli he for several 
years, both in Ohio and Iowa, hekl llie re- 
sponsible position of class-leader, for \\ hich 
lie was eminently fitted. For the last ten 
j'cars he has been a member of the Masonic 
fraternity. In all the relations of life, 
whctlicr as magistrate, citizen, neighbor, 
friend, husband or fathei", he was a living 
illustration of the beaut}-, simplicity, excel- 
lence and practical utility of the principles 
of the religion he professed. 

' None knew liiin liul lo love liim, 
None named tiiin but fc praise.' 

But the Supreme Rider of tlie univcise 
has called him. from his labors on cartli to 
mansions of rest. The righteous have hope 
in their death. It is well with our brother. 
lie leaves a large circle of friends both 
here and in Iowa to !ii<iurn his loss ; a wife 
who has been the partner of his io\sand sor- 
rows for over fort3'-('ine years, and several 
children and grandchildren. He was this 
day buried by the Santa Cruz Lodge, No. 
38, F. and A. M., ot whicii he was a 
member. The Rev. Waller Frcar preached 
an appropriate sermon from the words : 
'Let me die the death of the righteous, 
and let my last end be Ukc his,' after which 
the lodge passed the following resolutions: 
'WiiF,Ri",\s, It has pleased the Supreme 
Grand Master c)t the universe in His in- 
fmite wisdom, to simimon from the labors 
and cares of earth our venerable brother, 
John Shcrer, therefoix-, Riso/vcJ^ Tliat in 
the death of brother Shei"er, whose pure 
and simple honesty of life endeared him to 
all who knew him, this lodge has lost one 
(A its most worthy members, the fratei'nity 
a just and upriglit brother, society an 
honest and industrious citizen, and Ins 
family a kind husband and father. Risolvcd, 

That we tender t(j th.e berea\ed family of 
our deceased brother, om- heartfelt sym- 
path\- in their heavy ailliction, and our 
assin-ance of om- fraternal regard fiir those 
who were dearest tn him in life. Resolved, 
That we tender to the choir our thanks for 
thcii" efficient assistance in the last sad rites 
of sepuUin-e to our dcf)arted brother. Re- 
solved, That these resolutions be entered 
upon the minutes of this lodge, and that a 
cojjy theieof be furnished to the fariiil)- of 
our deceased brother, and that they be 
published in the papers of the county. 

'D. W. Scovil.Lf,, Secretary. 
'Santa Cruz, January 4, 1864.' " 

PITT, section 11, Knox Township, is a 
V native of London, England, where he 

*^\\* was born October 5, 1S2S, a son of 
William and Ann (Dean) Pitt. \\'hen he 
was about four years of age, his mother, 
then a widow, emigrated with her family 
to America, landing in New "S'ork Cit}-, 
where they made their home for a number 
of yeai"S. At the age of fomtcen years our 
subject began learning the carpenter's 
trade, at which he served an a]>]irLntice- 
sliii") ()f four years. After serving his ap- 
prenticeship he went to Adams Count}", 
Illinois, \yhere he lived for fourteeri years, 
engaged in agricidtuial pursuits. At the 
age of twenty-five yeai s he was mariied to 
Miss Harriet Dunton, and to this union 
were born six childixai, of whom three are 
deceased. The names of those who still 
survive are — Lemuel M., Lillian and Fred- 
erick liugene. In i860 Mr. Pitt went with 
his family to California, where he made 
his home for eighteen veai'S, being exten- 
sively engaged in w iieat raising. In 1S7S 
he located in Clarke County, Iowa, and has 
since resided on liis preser.t faim in Knox 
T(jwnship, wheie he has i2oacres of choice 
land under hnc culti\ ation, a larijeand sub- 


n/sroAT OF CLAUKE couxrr. 

slaiitial residence su<roiiiidcd by sliade and 
ornamental trees, a good orchard, and com- 
modious out-buildings for liis stock. The 
mother of our subject was a daughter of 
Thomas and Mary (Waitc) Dean, natives 
of Somersetshire, England, her mother be- 
ing a member of the j)romincnt Waile 
family of London. ,. ' 

fONATH.AX BEVARD, deceased, 
was born in Frederick County, Mary- 
land, in 1S03. When he was seven 
years of age, his father, William Bcvard, 
moved' to Guernsc}- Count}', Ohio, where 
Jonathan was reared, devoting his time prin- 
cipally to farm labor. In that count}' he 
married Miss Charity Marsh, in 1S33. She 
was born in Guernsey Count}'. About fif- 
teen years after their marriage they re- 
moved to Grant County, Indiana. To them 
were born eleven children — Rachel Ann, 
now the wife of S. T. Brown, of Fianklin 
Township; James Martin, who died in 
Franklin Township, leaving a wife and 
four children ; Jesse, who died in the 
United States sci'vice during the late 
war and was buried at Indianapolis; Mrs. 
Phebe Jane Crawford, residing in Fur- 
ness Count}', Nebraska ; Charles Wes- 
ley, of Lucas Couiit\', Iowa ; Mai'y Ann, 
who died in inf;incy ; Enoch Calvin, also 
died young: Mrs. Matilda Chcir\'lioImes, 
residing in l^ucas County, Iowa; Isaac R., 
living in Franklin Townsliijj; Mrs. .Amanda 
Foulk, now residing in Kan;~as : John F., of 
Frrnikliu Township. Mi". Be\ard came 
to Franklin Township in 1864 and pur- 
chased the pioneer homestead of Abner 
Beagle, on section 26, consisting of 160 
acres of improved jirairic land and f(ji't}" 
acres of timber. .August 2, 1S77, Mrs. 
Bevard died, aged sixty-three }'ears. Ilcr 
husband survi\'e I liC]- but a few years. He 
passed away July 2j, 18S1, aged seventy- 

eight years. Botti were members of the 
Methodist Episcopal clnn-ch, and had lived 
lives of great usefulness. Isaac R. Bevard, 
son of the preceding, was born in Grant 
County, Indiana, April 30, 1S53. He came 
to Clarke County with his parents in 1864, 
and made his home with them during their 
life. He and his brother John F. now own 
and occupy the old homestead on section 
26. January 9, 1S76, Mr. I. R. Bevard 
married Miss Ruth Chcrryholmes, daughter 
of John and Mary Chcrryholmes. She 
was born in Lucas Countv, this State, Oc- 
tober 1 5, 1857. They have three children 
—William C, Oscar L. and John W. Mr. 
Bevard is a member of the L'nited Breth- 
ren church, and in politics, a Democrat. 
It is worthy of mention that his father 
brought a mare colt from Indiana in 1864, 
which now, at twenty-two years of age, is 
still a serviceable mare, with a young colt 
by her side. She is more highly prized 
than any other animal in possession of the 
family. , 

.^^EORGE W.TURNER, an active and 
..I'tT progressive farmer and stock-raiser, 
'^-l of Madison Township, residing on 
section 2, is a native of Missouri, born in 
GentJ'v Crnmty, Mavi7, i8si, his fatlier, 
Joiiii L. Turner, a native (,>f Kentuckv, now 
deceased. Our subject received fair edu- 
cational advantages in his}'Outh, attending 
tlie common schools of Ckirke County, 
Iowa, to which countv he was brought by 
his parents in Marcli, 1853, they settling in 
Madison Towns!ii{.i when the surrounding 
country was in a wih.l state. Here they 
experienced manv of the phases of pioneer 
life, and in thii^c davs their nearest milling 
point was hulianola. The father being a 
farmer, our subject was reared to that vo- 
cation, which he has alwavs follo'wed, and 
his home farm now contains about ninety 


acres of choice land under fine cultiwition, 
with comfortable residence and good farm 
buildings for the accommodation of his 
stock. Mr. Turner was married March 20, Emma R. Johnson, her father Will- 
iam E. Johnson, beings a resident of Clarke 
CoUnty, living in Madison Township. Mr. 
and Mrs. Turner have one son, named Karl. 
Mr. Turner has served his township one 
year as assessor. Both he and his wife arc 
members of the Christian church. 


^UGH M. MULLEN, an aclivc and 
■jY^ enterprising farmer and stock-raiser, 
^(| is a native of Mar)dand, born in Fred- 
crick Count}', February 17, 1830, a son of 
James and ALatilda (Mahon}') Mullen, the 
former a native of Ireland and the latter 
born in Marjdand, of Irish ancestry. The 
father died in Maryland in 18S3. His 
widow still survives, and is living in Mary- 
land in her eightieth year. Hugh M. Mul- 
len, our subject, passed his youth on the 
home farm in his native county, receiving 
a common-school education. He went to 
Peoria County, Illinois, in June, 1852, 
where he learned the blacksmith's trade, 
which he followed about twenty years. He 
was united in marriage October 24, 1852, 
to Mary E. Palmer, a nati\-c of Frederick 
County, Mar\-iand, but at the time of her 
marriage was living in Peoria Count}', Ill- 
inois. They are the parents of one son and 
two daughters — John W., Kittie and Em- 
ma. Mr. Midlen left his home in Peoria 
County, in the spiing of 1S76, coming with 
his family to Clarke County, Iowa, when 
he settled on land on section i, Washing- 
tonTownshi[i. His farm, which now contains 
200 acres <A choice land, he has brought 
from wild prairie to a well-cultivated tract 
of land, all under fence and well impioNed. 
He has a comfoitablc and conunodious 
residence, with excellent farm buildings 

for the accommodation of his stock, his en tire 
surroundings showing the thrift and care 
of the owner. He is a ! borough, practical 
farmer, and in all his undertakings he is 
uniformly successful. He is devoting con- 
siderable attention to the raising of high- 
grade stock, making a specialty of short- 
horn cattle and Clytlesdale and Norman 
horses. Mr. Mullen is a local preacher of 
the Methodist Episcopal church, being 
licensed to preach thi'ee years ago. Mrs. 
Midlen is a member of the same denomi- 
nation. Mr. Mullen has been a member ol 
both the Masonic and Odd Fellows orders. 

:f^AMUEL R. BABB, Hvery keeper and 
iv^^ proprietor of the Osceola omnibus and 
\7:r^ transfer line, was born in Lycoming 
County, Pennsylvania, September 20, 1854. 
His parents, Solomon and Catharine Babb, 
were also natives of Pennsylvania. They 
removed to Stephenson Count}', Illinois, 
when Samuel was five years of age, and 
settled on a farm, wliei'e they remained 
until the father's death, which occurred in 
1S44. Samuel remained upon the farm 
with his mother until he reached maturity, 
receiving such education as the common 
schools of that countv afforded. In 1857 
Mr. married Miss Hannah Dct;;ler, 
a native of Pennsylvania. He continued 
on the farm imtil iSoG, when he went to 
Sh.annon, Carroll Coinitv, Illinois, and 
kept an liotel and liverv. Here he remained 
until June, iS7i,then removed to Ackley, 
this State, and later came to Osceola and 
engaged in his present business. He keeps 
from eighteen to twenty-five horses, and 
his carriages and omnibuses ai'C always 
foimd in excellent condition. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ijabb have had seven children — Clara J., 
Charles IL, Effie A., George F., Addie S., 
Linnic M. and Alfred M. Charles H. died 
in Los AiiLCclos, California, May 5, 1SS6, 


■1/. -:1 

• I: '!! . ,■ I..'!' 

i tM.< l.'.^l.tja;: -.d 

l.!-.n !( 

iii.j..i !^ ■'■'■• 


and was brought home and buried in Osce- 
ola cemetery. He was a member ol ihc 
Knights of Pythias frateniity. Mr. l^abb 
is a member of the Masonic order, also of 
the Knig-hts of I^ythias. He buys and sells 
horses and sh!i)S to Eastern markets. 

ATOHN F. BEVARI), son of Jonathan 
1^,1 Bevard, was born in Grant County, 
"i^i^" Indiana, October 5, 1859. ^^^ ^^''^s 
reared in Franklin Township, always jc- 
siding upon tlie homestead of his parents, 
where he still remains. March 6, 1S84, he 
was united in marriage with Miss Nancy 
Z. Smith, daughter of Rev. G. W. Smith, 
of Franklin Township, \\"ho was born in 
Chariton, Lucas Count}-, Iowa, April 16, 
1865. They liave had two chiUlren — Chris- 
tina, born April 24, 18S5, who died in in- 
fanc}' ; Nellie M., born May 25, 1S86. Mrs. 
Bevard is a member of the Baptist church. 
Mr. Bevard i>oliticaIh- is a Democrat. 

Two children have b?en born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Clark, of whom only one is li\'ing — 
Willie .M., aged tllteen years. Mr. Clark 
j came to Clarke Count\', Iowa, about 1S72, 
when he invested in l.uiJs, and has lived 
here most of the time since that date. He 
brought his family to the county in 1877, 
settling with them in Troy Township, 
where he has since been engaged in rais- 
ing and dealing in line str)ck. FIcisa mem- 
ber of the CongregatioPial cluuch, of Paines- 
ville, Ohio, and a highlv-respected citizen 
of Trov Township. 

PE WITT A. CLARK, engaged inrais- 
ing and dealing in stock, on section 3, 
s;x, Troy Township, was born in Lake 
County, Ohio, March 5. 1S31. His father, 
Harrv Clark, was a justice <jf the peace f<.)r 
many years, and was familiarly known as 
Squire Clark. Our subject received a 
good education, attending the common 
and high schools of Paiiiesville and Kirt- 
land, in his native .Slate. He was reared 
to the avocation of a farmer, and has fol- 
lowed agiicullural par.-nits thiough life, 
being now one of the prosperous and en- 
terprising farmersof Clarke County, wheie 
he owns 640 acres of choice land. Mr. 
Clark was married Octoiier 16, 1S62, to 
IMiss Jennie Wilson, a daughter of Orsijn 
and Huldaii ' .'^^^i'l'^oni Wilson, of v.diom 
the faiiier is deceased. 'I'he mother is still 
living, being now- eighty-four years of age. 

^ENJAMIN F. CHAPMAN, dealer in 
A watches, clocks and jewel'-}', estab- 

7~7^ lished his business at this point in 
1856. Osceola at that tune contained but 
few houses. He is one cif the pioneer laisi- 
ness men. He was born in Zanesvilie, 
Muskingum County, Ohio, March 26, 
1831. His father, S. II. Chapman, was n 
native of Ohio, and a carpenter b}' trade. 
His mother, Lettie (.Morgan^ Chapman, 
was also a native of Ohio, and botii lived 
in that State until their decease. Benjamin 
received his education at the public schools 
of his native city, and at the age of sixteen 
commenced to learn his trade. liaving 
served the usual time he came to Io\>.-a, 
stopping fust at Oskaloosa with a ccjusm 
who was a jeweler. He remained with 
him about eightec!-! montfis, one year of the 
time beiiig under instruction. In June, 
1S36, he came to Osceola, walking from 
Oskaloosa and carrying his tools. He com- 
menced his busines^ the next day, and soon 
found himself as hrmlv established as any 
busincss hrm in (3sccola. His store is lo- 
cated on the north sideof the public square. 
In 1S56 Mr. Chapman mairied Miss Brels- 
ford, of Oskaloosa. Slie was l;iorn in Mus- 
kingum County, Ohio, and removed to Iowa 
witl-i her jiarents w'len but a small child. 

. . ..I, ; I'll ,'U :■'. 

yj/0(V/,M r///c. I L SA'/s tcu/es. 


♦ ♦. 

♦ ♦: 

Tlicv are the parents of llircc children, one 
living — Flora, wife of Elon Gra\es, of Os- 
ceola; Louis h., died at Des Moines, aged 
twentv-six vears ; Carrie is also deceased. 
Mr. Chapman was appointed deputy-post- 
master in 1856 : was elected city treasurer 
three teims. He joined the Masonic fra- 
ternity in January. 1S36 ; is also a member 
c)! tlie Odd Fellows order. 

?^,H1LIP MILLER, an enterjirising and 
y\- , successful farmer of Clarke County, 
«n~" Iowa, residing on section i, Knox 
Township, is a native of Germany, born 
June 4, 1824, a son of John and Catherine 
Miller. Mr. Miller was reared and edii- 
cated in the schools of Germany, remaining 
in his native country till twenty-eight 3-ears 
of age, his youth being spent in assisting 
on his father's farm. Me was united in 
marriage in Juiie, iS5i,to Miss Catherine 
Rose by whom he has had nine children — 
John, Eva, Elizabeth, Catherine, Andrew, 
Philip, Adam, Annie and Norman. Li 
1852 Mr. Miller immigrated to America. 
locating first in Rensselaer County, New 
York, where he spent three \cars. He then 
removed to Galesburg, Illmois. Here he 
worked for the Chicago. iJuilingtcjn & 
Quincy Ixailroad h)r a few years; then 
rented a farm in Mercer County. Illinois, 
and remained there two years, when he 
returned to Ivnox County again and Irn med 
there until November, 1870, when he sold 
his farm, chartered a car, and witli his farm 
implements and some of his stock, came to 
Iowa, landing in Osceola on the morn- 
ing of December 1, 1870. Fie lived in 
Green Bay Townshijj until the spring 
of 1SS2, when he sold his i»roperly in 
Green Ba\' Townshij) and bought an 
excellent farm of 160 acres on sectirjn 
1, Knox Township, and soon after mov- 
ing on this property he bought another 

farm of eight v acres. He has a good, sub- 
stantial residence and two good barns U) 
make himself comfoitable in his old age. 
The D. M., O. c^ S. R. R built their road 
over one corner of his farm in 1SS2, and in 
18S3 built a side-track near his house, 
where Mr. Miller has bought grain since. 
In ^\pril, 1SS6, he put in a store, wliich he 
is having conducted by his eldest son, who 
has been an invalid since 18S3. Tlie station 
is called Philipsbuig, the postofhce which 
was established in June, 1SS6, is named 
Groveland. Being about five miles from 
Osceola, it is \er\' co'.i\'enlent for a good 
manv people in the vicinity to trade and 
o'ct their mail there. 

.^AMES H. READ, grocer, Osceola, 
"t"' established his business at this point in 
>^J 1867. Soon after he formed a -partner- 
ship with J. C. Harrison under the iirm 
name, of Re;id cS: Ilarj-isor.. This partner- 
ship continued until 1S78 wlien he sold out 
and went to Kansas, returning in the fall of 
iSSo, and Jaiuiary i, iSSi, opened up his 
present business. He' is well established 
and carries a complete stock of groceries. 
He is well known to the public, and defies 
competition. Mr. Read was born in Beards- 
town, Illinois, August 2, 1S39. His fatlier, 
FJaywood Read, was a native of Maiiic, 
and' his mother, Ann (Black) Read, was a 
native of Kentucky. They settled in 
Beardstown where his father carried on 
the mercantile trade, and also operated a 
llouring mill. His business was carried on 
very extensively. At one time he was 
elected Mayor of Beardstown. He died 
in California in 1S51, and his wife died in 
Henry County, Iowa, in 1852. James re- 
mained at home until eleven years of age, 
then lived with a farmer until he was ti!- 
teen, then went to Wisconsin pineries, 
workin:: in mills and as a raftsman, and in 

204 Jf/STO/n' (.IF CLARKE COC.X7)'. 

tlic f>ill of 1S59 \^■ellt. t(j Texas and served one 1 llie fall of 1S70, and has since made his 

)-eai-as a cow-bov. In the fall of iS6ohei"e-i home on sect.ic')n 11, Madison Township, 

turned to Illinois, and enlisted as a private 1 where he has 1S3 acres of hne land. In 

in Company K, Fortv-sixth Regiment, lUi- I politics he is a Democrat, taking an active 

nois Infantry, and served until May, 1S63, j interest in that political party, and June 30, 

when he was jiromoted to First Lieutenant, ] 1SS6, he attended the State Nominating 

Tiiird United States Heavy Artillery, and [Convention held at Des Moines. Mr. Ronk 

was mustered out with the rank of Cap- I never seeks official honors, but has served 


tain, April 30, 1S66, having served four and | his township several tei lus as trustee, with 

;^^^>^5*^-^ E- 

0r;^NDREW J. RONK, farmer and stock- 
fr/\\ '"''■'ser, secticjn 11, Madison Township, 
^ji^ was born in Greenbrier County, \^ir- 
ginia, August 24, 1842. His father, George 
W. Ronk, was a native of the same State, 
born in Roanoke C<iunty, but is now de- 
ceased. He being a farmer, our subject 
was reared to agilcultural puisuits, receiv- 
ing such education as the rude log-cabin 

is a membci- of the Masonic fraternit}'. 
-^3 — — — ^-<5r^^3>^ c4^<» 

a half years. September 16, 186G, Mr. 1 credit to himself and his constituents. 

Read was married to Miss Ilannrdi M. 

Wallei", of Henderson County, Io\va. They 

removed to Osceola April i, 1S67. He has 

served one 3-ear as alderman in Osceola. 

He is a member of the Odd Fellows 

order, the Knights of P3'thias, Grand Army 

of the Republic, and Good Temjjlars. 


rpLON GRAVES, of the firm of Graves 
'> H- Brothers, photographers, successors 
"^i to M. Sheridan, was born in Wayne 
County, Iowa, June 7, 1S62. His father, 
J. N. Graves, is a native of Kcntuck}', and 
removed to Iowa in 1856, settling on a farm 
in Ward Township. He is now county- 
assessor. His mother, Eliza (House) 
Graves, is a native of Ohio. Elon passed 
his youth on a farm, and was educated at 
Montezuma, Poweshiek County, this State. 
For several years he was engineer for a 
flouring mill at Montezuma. He then came 
to Osceola and went into partnership with 
his brother in the photograph}- business. 

subscription schools of his neighborhood They are located in the rear of Harding 

/afforded. In 1S61 he went to Canton, Ful- 
ton County, Illinois, where he remained 
about eight \'ears, working at coopering, 
wagon-making and carpentering. He was 
a member of the State militia during the 
John Brown raid in iS6i,aiid was .sent into 
the Confederate arm\-, but after ser\ing 
four months he deserted, and joined the 
Union troops in Illinois, enlistiu,:; in the 
Sixty-seventh Infantr\-, Company F, and 
was appointed Orderly Sergeant. March 
10, 1864, he was married to Rachel Briley, 

Block, and guarantee as good work as can 
be found in the citv. Mr. Graves mar- 
ried the only daughter of B. F. Chapman, 
Florence Graves, in September, 1SS4. They 
have two children — Clarence and Walter. 

-:f^HARLES HOWE, dealer 


I -m 

goods, groceries, boots and shoes, etc.. 

was born in Enfield, Massachusetts, 
October 8, 18 17. His fatlicr, Sylvanus 


and to them have been born eigh.t children i Howe, was of the old Plymouth stock, trac- 
— George W., Edith .M., Daisy G., John A., j ing his ancestry back to Old England. His 
Cecil H., Ora B., Olive U. and Amy P. I mother, Sukey Qoslyn; Howe, was a na- 
Mr. Ronk came to Clarke County, Iowa, in 1 tive of Massachusetls, her father was 

•■^ ■ X 

'>«*,♦.♦ <-. * > y '"fr" V ' 

•>">"«■"♦"♦•■>"♦"*■>" v;<'"y>"<>"*' 

B/0(,/ s/:/-:tc///:s. 

known as Esquire Joslvn, and nas a man 
of great business ability :uid represented 
New Braintrec thirteen consecutive terms 
in the Legislature. His parents had six 
cliildren — Charles, Sumner, George ^\'. 
Elii^a J., Joseph J. and Martha W'.; (our 
now survive. Charles passed his bo\-ln)od 
in Enfield, and was educated in the city 
scliools. In 1S40 he was married to .Miss 
Elsie Cutter, of Enfield. In 185S he ic- 
moved tcj Minnesota, stopping at Clear 
Lake, Sherburne County, where he fol- 
lowed farming. March 8, 1864, he came 
to Osceola. His health being feeble, he 
did but little business until 1878, when he 
embarked in the rneixantile trade, com- 
mencing in a small wa}". He now carries 
a large stock of goods. Mr. and Mrs. 
Howe have had tiiree children — George F., 
now at Jacksonville, Florida ; Flenry \V. 
and Chisie are deceased. 

p C. WATSON, section 8. Jackson 
'j' Township, Clarke Countv. Iowa, 
l*"^;^:?! ® was born in Columbiana County, 
Ohio, February 22, 1S40. His father, 
Hugh Watson, was born in Inverness, Scot- 
land, in iSoo, and died in Dunlap, Michi- 
gan, in 1873. His mcither, whose maiden 
name was Isabella Chish )lm, was born in 
Columbiana County. Ohiij, in 1S14, and 
died in her native countv in 1S47. W. C. 
was the second (jl afamih' of four childix-n. 
His onl}' brother, Alexander, was bf>rn 
Februarv 2, 1S3S, and died while in the 
service of his country, at Bowling Green, 
Kentucky, Februarv 7, 1863. He was a 
member of Companv K, Twenty-third 
Michigan Infantry. His sister, Margaret, 
born in March, 1S42, and Jennet, born in 
.^lay, 1844, are living, the former in Iowa, 
and the latter in Michigan. After tlie death 
of his mother, when eight years old, he went 
to live v,-ith an imcle. V\'illiam Chisholm, 
and with him came to Iowa in 1S61. Au- 

gust 13, 1862, he enlisted in Comjiany A. 
Thirty-sixth Iowa Infantry, but was unable 
to serve his entire term of enlistment, as 
he was taken sick with tvphus fever, which, 
resulted in deafness, and he was liis- 
charged at the general hospital at Benton 
Barracks, St. Louis. February 27, 1S63. 
Froin 1S63 till 1869, he was under the care 
of physicians, trying to regain his health 
and hearing. .Although not successful in 
the latter he has never regretted the part 
he took in saving his countr}- from her 
enemies, and the nation's flag from dis- 
honor. During these rears following his 
return from the war, he made his home 
with his uncle, William Chisholm, in Mon- 
roe Coiuity, Iowa. In December, 1S69, he 
formed a partnership with Isaac Elder, of 
Eddyville, ^^'apello Count}', and engaged 
in farming, and feeding and herding cattle, 
Mr. Elder furnishing $25,000 worth of 
property, and Mr. A\'atson giving his ex- 
perience and time to the manageiP-eiu of 
the work. In April, 1873, he moved to 
Clarke Count}-, Iowa, and bought rn'net}' 
acres of land of Joseph Ileasley, forty 
acres of which had been improNcd. To 
this he has added at different times until he 
now owns 220 acres, 200 acres being under 
cultivation, and twent}- acres timber land. 
He makes a specialty of stock-raising, and 
claims to have as fine herds of high-grade, 
I short-horn cattle, Berkshire hogs, and 
I Clvdesdale horses as can be found in the 
county. Although he has never been well 
since leaving the arnn-, l}cing totally deaf 
; and sulTering constantlv with a j)ain in h.'.s 
J head, lie has been ambitious and has been 
' successful beyond his uKist sanguine ex- 
[ pjectations. h'ew men in his condition 
I physicallv, would think themselves able to 
! jieiform manual labor, but notwithstand- 
ing the thtficulties which are ccjustantly to 
be encountered he has persevered, and sa\e 
the small ]jension given him by the Gov- 
1 ernmen.t, lias supported his familj- and ac- 

■I'-i^-l \f} 

;'. t.-'i/,- ii''i 

insro/n- of clarke covxrr. 

quired a good lionie. Mr. ^Vat<(ln was 
married DoccmixT zi, 1S72, to Maitlm E. 
Mamilton. dnughUr of Alcxancler and Ficc-- 
love Haniilliju, of Monroe County, iowa. 
Tiiey liave live children — Hugh AIex:uidcr, 
WilHam. Matilda, Charles and Jennet; a^cd 
rcspcclively fourteen, twelve, ten. eight 
and six yeais. 

^^OBERT J. LEAVEE, resides on sec- 
tion 35 of Jacksrni Township. lie 
was boin in Knox Countv, Ohio, 

fined most of tlie time in Tuscaloosa, Ala- 
bama, [laving been paiolcd and exchanged 
in I'ehruary, 1803, he rejoined his regi- 
ment. He particijiated in tlie siege of 
Vicksburg, and the following winter 
visited home on veteran furlough. At the 
time General Forrest raided iNIemphis, Mr. 
Lcavcl again becairie a prisoner, and thirty- 
eight days later was exchanged. lie was 
engaged in the siege of Mobile, and his 
regiment, the gallant Iowa Eighth, was 
the first to enter Spanish Fort. He was 
honorablv discharged at Selma, Alabama, 
in Ajjril, 1S66, and now receives a pension 

March 8, 1840. His ])arints, Joseph and j for disability contracted in tlic army. After 

returning to Monroe County, he went to 
Lucas County, and July 2, 1S6S, married 
Miss Martha Wells, daughter of Thomas 
and ALary Wells, who came from Virginia 
that same year ; they now live in the \-il- 
iage of Woodburn. Mrs. Leavel was liorn 
in Marion Countv, West Virginia, April 
20, 1S40. Mr. anrl Mrs. Eeavel lived two 

Harriet C. (Beans) Lea\"cl, were born and 

reared in \'irginia, reuKjving a few years 

latci- to Ohio, where his father was engaged 

in the milhng business many years. He 

also owned a farm which was worked b^■ 

rcnteis. There \\"erc thirteen children 

onl)- four of wiiorn are now living. They 

settled in Momoe County, lo\\-a, in 

1S52, where Joseph Leavel improved a j years in Jackson Township, Lucas Countv, 

farm, and also followed milling. In iSsSthe j then returned to Claike Cou.nty, where Mr. 

family came to Clarke Countv and settled I Leavel engaged in farming. In 1S73 they 

in Jackson Township, where thcv improved ' removed to Hamilton County, Nebraska, 

a farm. The mother died a month later, where they remained twi) ^-cars, then re- 

The father disposed of his property in j turned to their old home in Jackson Tov/n- 

1860, and for a few years engaged ia 1 ship. Tiiey moved to their present home in 
the saw-mill business in Lucas County. ! February, iSSi, where they own forty acres 
He then removed to Way'ie County, j of land. They have had one child, that 
where he now resifles near Humiston, I died in infancy. Mr. Leavel is a member 
and follows bee-keeping. The names of ! of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
the childi-en are— Rebecca, wife of Will- | Davenport Post, -\o. 3S5, at Woodburn. 
iam Johr).son; Margaret, wife of David , In politic^ he is a Republican. 

Ulm ; Jo>ephand Robert J., the subject of i 
this sketch. Joseph was a babe :,t I he time 
of his mothers death, and was afterward j 
adopted by J^hn fjaldwin. September 12, | 

1861, Robeit enlisted in Comj.iany 1, Eighth ! 
Iowa \'olunlcers. He was engaged in the 
battle of Shihi!), in the division of General I 
Prentiss, and with tliat gallant commander ! 
was captured May o, ifc;62, and was held 
prisoner two months apd eight day s, eon- 



W. BEEDE, living on section 29, 
Trov Ti)wnship, was born in 
' Camden, India!:a, the da.te of his 
birtli being January 8, 1333. Hih father, 
Eli Ijeede, was a native of Columbiana 
County, Ohio, and was an early settler of 
Clarke Counts', Iowa, but is at piesent liv- 


iiig in Rinj;gnld County, Iowa, lie fol- 
lowed the c.'ibinet-maker's trade for a 
number of years, but is now engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. \\'. \\'., our suliject, 
remained in his native \o\\\\ till six years 
of age, and in the "spring of 1859 came ^''ith 
his parents to Osceola, Clarke (\)unt_v, 
Iowa, wlierc he lived about eighteen 

months before he went with them to the | Eighty-tiiird Illinois Infanlrv, and durint 
farm. He received a good education, at- t his term of service did much skirmishing, 
tending the High School at Osceola, and ! In politics Mr. Cochran casts his suffrage 
at the college at Oskaloosa, Iowa. He t with the Republican party. He is a mem- 
began teaching school at the age of sixteen 1 ber of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
years, and followed that profession most of | 

Mar\- C. A son, John \\'.. died at the age 
of thirteen years. Mr. Cochran went to 
Knox County, Illinois, in 1S56, remaining 
there till 1S76. when he settled in Troy 
Township, in Clarke Coimtv, Iowa, where 
he has since made his home. During the 
late war of the Rebellion he enlisted in the 
service of his country in Company I, 

the time till he reached the age of thirty- 
years, since which he has devoted his 
entire attention to farming and stock-rais- 
ing, making a specialty of graded stock. 
He removed to his present farm in 1876, 
where he lived alone for three years. He 
then married Cariie A. Lambertson, a 
daughter of R. N. Lambertson, of Troy 
Township, the date of his marriage being 
December 4, 1S79. This union has been 
blessed with two children — Nellie and 

^-'jrir^ilLTON J. COCHRAN, who makes 
' / ' Vi V '^^^ home on section 20, Trov Town- 
"^ii^T^r^ ship, is a native of Ohio, born in 
Allen County, September 2S, 1S28. His 
father, Benjamin F. Cochran, was born 
near Knoxvillc, Tennessee, now deceased. 


^O^.ENRY F. GROSS, deceased, was one 
-fj of the ])ri_iminent citizens of Osceola, 
^, ( having hlleJ man}- positions of trust, 
and gained the confidence of all who knew 
him. He vv'as born in Lehigli Countv, 
Pennsylvania, May 27, 1S40, and was the 
oldest living child. His parents, August 
and Sarah (Messer) Gross, were also na- 
tives of Pennsylvania. His father was a 
millwright by trade, and died when Henrv 
was but six years of age. At the age of 
eleven j-ears Henry wasboiuid out to work 
in a woolen mill, and remained until seven- 
teen years of age, when he went to Ohio 
and worked in a mill two years, then went 
to Medina Countv and commenced manu- 
facturing for himself. In 1S63 he removed 
to Osceola, and soon after established the 
He was a pioneer of -Allen Count\-, Ohio, ' first woolen mill in the county. His place 
liis family being the fifth to settle in that I of business is now occupied by John W. 
county. He was a millwright bv trade, 
and built the old Indian Mill at Wapa- 
koneta, Ohio. Milton J. Cochran, our sub- 
ject, was reared and educated in the 
common schools of his native countv, re- 
maining there til! 1856. He v.-as united in 
marriage April 3, 1S51, to Mi'-s Ciiristena 
Ellsworth, and of the six children born to 
tills union fi\e arc rtill 
Bascom E., Santford \\ 

Kelley for a lumber yan.l. February 11, 
1S62, Mr. Gross married Miss Alm)ia 
Moore, a native of Medina County, Ohi'.i. 
Their two children are Annettie E. and 
Homer C. ?»Ir. Gross was a worthy mem- 
ber of the Protestant Metliodist church, 
having been a member since 1864. flis 
wife, who suivives him, is a member of the 
iving — Isaac V. [ same church, llis wife and children occu- 
, Pascal E. and j py the homestead, which is very pleasant 




jnsTo/n- OF cj.AiiKE coiwrr. 

and comfortable. He was an active, enter- j ers with whatever t!iev need. In 18 — Mr. 
prising- business man. He was at o'.ie time j M3-er manieci Mrs. Lambert, of Winter- 
set, this State. Thcv liave two children — 

associated with Patrick Smith in liuwool- 
cn mill for six years. He tlien purchased 
his partner's interest and carried it on 
alone nntil his death, which occurred in 
April, 1879. 

L. MYER, haidware merchant, 
Osceola, is one of the men who 

l'rS>5T*] ® has contributed largely to the 
business interests of Osceola, as well as its 
financial standing. He was born in Brad- 
ford CounU', Pennsylvania, in August, 
1834. His jjarents were William and Le- 
mi)"a (Satterlee) Myer. ^^'hen he was eight 
)'ears of age his father died, and he was 
thrown upon his own resources at a very 
early age. He received a fair education 
at the district schools. After his father's 
death his mother removed to Illinois, 
where William <rrew to manhood. Beins: 

Ruby, who is in the stoic with his father, 
and Lenuia, at home. He is a .Mason in 
high standing, being a" member of the 
chapter and the comnu'indcry. Politicallv 
he is a staunch Republican, and was a sup- 
porter of Mr. Blaine in 1SS4. He is an 
uncompromising temperance mau, and al- 
ways to be found on the side of law and 
order. And while our country is large 
and the home of the free, he believes there 
is room for only one flag — the stars and 

_5.^^,pi.5_ ■ 

■; kfi and stock-raiser, residing on section 
^'4 33' Troy Township, was born Novem- 
ber 30, 1S30, in Dearborn County, Indiana, 
a son of John Lambertson, who is now de- 
ceased. His father was a native of Dela- 
ware County-, Marvlnud, and an early 
possessed of valuable experience, and the ! settler of Dearborn County, Indiana, locat- 
West opening up newer fields with wider 1 ing there on a heavilv-timbered tract of 
scope, he determined upon change of lo- I land, and there endured all the hardships 
cation. In 1867 he came to Osceola, where I and privations of pioneer life. Robert N. 
he at once embarked in the hardware busi- | Lambertson was reared on the home farm, 
ness on his own account. Osceola at this ; and in his youth attended tlie log-cabin 
time was small, and the country around was [ subscription schools with their puncheon 

sparsely settled. His stock of goods was 
small, but well selected. As the county 
became more thickly settled, his acquaint- 
ance became correspondinglv more ex- 
tended, he was necessarih- obliged to in- 
crease his stock to meet the demand. His 
trade has steadilv increased, and he is now 

floors, slab seats and clapboard roof, in which 
he received the rudiments of an education. 
In April, 1852, he went lo Sangamon Couii- 
t}-, Illinois, making the jcjurney from his 
native county by wagon, he havir.g never 
even seen a railroad till that ','ear. 
F\)ui- months later he went to Peoria, (jf the 

conducting one of the largest hardware ■ same State, and tliC following January be 

stores in Clarke Coimty. His business 

house is a good, substantial brick, 21 x 100 

feet, two stories in height, and situated on 

the east side of the public square. Besides 

his large stock of hardware, he handles 

fai-m implements, thus affording the best 

of opportunities for supplying his custom- 

removed to Stark County, Illinois. He 
v.-as married .March !i, 1857, to .Maria E. 
Stanlc}-, a daugh'.ei' of JmIih Stanlc\'. Tlicy 
have had nine children born to them — 
Frank E., Carrie A., William N., Nellie M., 
James C, Charles, Ro\' and Fannie E. 
While living in Illinois Mr. Lambertson 


rvo>"v'**"VVV"'«"'»>"«;.*;:*"-*.A*»« > + « ***^. **.■^**♦»*♦♦^«.♦ **>>♦.<*.*♦.♦♦.♦,*♦ *>\»">'»*\«"«''>"i*'*v*''<^^ 





worked b\" tiie year for Jacob Emery for a 
period of seven years, and for seven years 
was engaged in farming on liis own account. 
He left Staric Count}' in September, 1867, 
since wliicii he lias made his iionic in Clarke 
Count\ , Iowa. On leaving his native State 
he had but $10.75, and was obliged to drive 
a team to defray the expenses of his piassage 
to^Illinois and his board. He has now 440 
acres of choice land, which he has accumu- 
lated by his own industr}* and persevering 
energy, and l^-da}- he is classed among the 
jirosperous citizens of Troy Township. 
Mrs. Lambertson is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. 

jTSAAC G. SMITH, farmer, section 15. 
;• I Liberty Township, was born in Coit- 
^ land Comity, New York, December 31, 
1823. His parents, Isaac and Catharine 
(Girard) Smith,- were born on Long Is- 
land. His father died in 1S26, and his 
mother in May, 1SS3, aged seventy-seven 
years. There were but two children, Isaac 
being the eldest. Polly M. is wife of D. 
J. Hurd, of Sheboygan, Wisconsin. Mr. 
Smith was married in Cortland County, 
March 2, 1S45, to Miss Sarah A. Gardner, 
born December i, 1823. Her father, Will- 
iam Gardner, died in Cortland County 
--\pril 8, 1882, and her mother died in the 
same county September i, 1S45. Mr. and 
Mrs. Smith lived in Cortland County until 
1855. I'l ll''''t coimtv their two sons were 
burn. In the autimin they immigrated to 
Stark Count V, Illinois, and soon after went 
to Knox County, where their daughter 
was born. In the fall of 1864 they removed 
to Louisiana .Count}', Michigan, where he 
cleared a farm in the woods and lived upon 
it until the spring of 1S73, when they came 
to their present liome. Chester B., their 
eldest son, lives near his |>arcnts in Liberty 
Township. Edgar is at the Muunt Pleasant 

Asylum. Katie is tiie wife of G. E. Pultz. 
Mrs. Smith is a member of the Bajitist 
chureh. Mr. Smith was former!}' a Whig, 
but is now a Reiniblican. 

HESTER B. SMITH, son of Isaac G. 
and Sarah A. Smith, was born in 
■'^i Cortland County, New York, May 
14, 1847. [For particulars of parent's family 
see sketch of Isaac G. Smith.] He lived 
with his parents until 1S73, when he was 
married in Oceana County, Michigan, to 
Miss Harriet Miller, daughter of Joseph 
M. Miller. She was born in Mahoning 
County, Ohio, December 12, 1852. Mr. 
and Mrs. Smith first settled in Michigan, 
and in 1S74 came to Liberty Township and 
settled upon section 15. Since rSSi he has 
owned his home on section 16, where he 
has forty acres; he also owns 100 acres on 
section 15. Their five children are — Maiy 
Alice, born September 30, 1874; Annie 
Myrtle, born October 14, 1S76; Minnie 
Maria, born January 15, 1878; Artlmr Ed- 
win, born August 10,1883; Lew Celia, born 
November 10, 1SS5. AW were born in 
Liberty, Clarke Comity, Iowa. Mr. Smith 
is road supervisor and school director. 
In politics he is a Republican. 


enterprising and prcjgressive citizen 
of Knox Township, residing on sec- 
tion I, was born in Belmont Coiintv, Ohio, 
Maich S, 1S18, a sonof William and Rachel 
(Smith) McNicliols, the father a native of 
New Jcrse\', and tlie mother born in l^ou- 
doun County, Virginia. They \vere the 
pio.iccrs ('f Belmont County, Ohio. Our 
subject was the fifth child in a family of 
nine. His earlv life was passed (ui the 
hoiiie farm, liis education being obt;ur.eci in 

•i '^. 'fi". fi". !4i fii ,-*! .■€■; ."P; i?"! ?*■; if: .-«: .•>! ;■*! .•^, .♦! .<^ !^! '^. it. '9'^,^. j*! .-S:^*^ '^. ^^^. >1 !*: !<! !♦ '<> < ;<• ;<* V 

msrour of ci.arke cov.\rr. 

the coniinor. scliools of his ncigliborhood, 
and at St. Clairs\illc, liehnonl County. At 
the a^e of t\vcnt\- years he began tlicbtiidy 
of medieinc under the prcccijtorsliip of Dr. 
William Sclioolv, of Somerton, Ohio. Com- 
pleting his medleal studies in 1S43, lie re- 
moved to PeimsviHe, Mijrgan County-, 
Ohio, and engaged in the ]jracticc of medi- 
cine, which lie followed with good success 
till 1S73. ^^^ \\\Q\\ came to Clarke County, 
Iowa, and located on iiis present farm in 
Knox Township, \vhich is one of the best ni 
the township. His land is under the best 
of cultivation, and his residence is commo- 
dious and furnished in a comfortable man- 
nci". Dr. McXichols has been twdce mar- 
ried, taking for his first wife Miss Marv 
Nicholson, of Bclnvjnt County, Ohio, in 
October, 1S39. Mrs. McNichols died in 
1850, leaving two children — Adaline Eliza- 
beth and Fraiiklin. Dr. McNichols \'\as 
again married August 3, 1851, to Ketura 
Kirby, of Morgan County, Ohio. To this 
union have been born four cliildren — 
Nathaniel W., t. E., M. G. and C. K. The 
doctor has always taken an active interest 
in politics. In 1856 he represented Morgan 
County, Ohio, at the State Convention 
held at Columbus the year the Republican 
party was organized. The doctor and his 
wife arc members of the Society of Friends. 

v-'T"7r;,ORDECAI IIILF was born in I^it- 
' /iVl '^''^'^^ Countv, West \"irginia, June 
^,rn~ 26, 1847. W'hcn he \vas nine 3-cars 
C)f age he came with his patents, Jonathan 
and Sarah jane (Foglcsong) Flili, t<i ^"an 
Biiren County, Iowa, in 1865 ihcy UKjvcd 
to Mahask'a County, where the motlier 
dieil in !S6.;i. Augnst 30, 1S77, Mordecai 
Hill married Miss h^mma Matlier, daughter 
of Edward Mather. .She was born in jli!- 
n:jis. Mr. Hill Ijccame a lesident of Put- 
nam Countv in 18S0. He owns a homestead 

of 120 acres on section 36, Jackson Town- 
ship. Iji 18S6 he also worked 160 acres of 
rented land o\\ section i, Franklin Town- 
ship. To the ])ai"enls of Mr. Hill were 
boi'n nine children, eight of whom arrived 
at maturity, Mordecai being the eldest. 
The others are — Mary, living in Mahaska 
County; Sarah J., a resident of Marion 
County; Mi's. F.lizabeth Vaineer, also a 
resident of Marion Count)-; iVllius, de- 
ceased ; Jonathan, a resident, of Jackson 
Township; Charles and Mattie (twins'); 
the former lives in Marion County, and the 
latter is the wife of Arthur Metz. INIr. and 
Mrs. Mordecai Hill have had four children, 
three of whom are now living — Delia Fern, 
Carl Esmer, and Mordecai Cl3-de. Violet, 
their third child died at the age of six 
months. Mr. Hill is an honorable member 
of Unity Lodge, No. 212, A. F. & A. M., 
Woodburn, being junior deacon of the 

.<^OHx\ W. HOOD is a native of North 
_'''1 Carolina, and a son of John K. and 
?rf Mahala (Hood) Hood. In 1S33 his 
parents moved to Indiana and located in 
Rush County, where his father bought a 
tract of wild land, which he improved and 
made his home until his death, vdiich oc- 
curred in tlie year 18S1. The mother died 
in 1880. They had a family of nine chil- 
dren, six sons and tliree tlaughters — Louisa, 
John W., James, -\lfied B., Liz/ie C, 
Richart.1 M., Martin K., Amanda and La- 
fa3"ette. \\Micn a young man, in 1S52, our 
subject came to Iowa on a prospecting tour, 
and being pleased with the outlook boug'ht 
and entered claims in Clarke County to the 
amount of 2S0 acres, tlie land office being 
at Chariton. He tlicn returned to Indiana 
and wa:< married to Miss Martha Prine, 
daughter of >rat!'.ew and Elizabeth Prine, 
both (jf whom are deceased, the latter liv- 
ing t(.) the advanced age of ninet^'-two 




U^r XC-^^ 


inOCnAPIUCAL sketches. toi. 

years. In 1S56 Mr. Hootl made a pcrma- 
nent location on his land in Clarke County, 
and at once set about to improve it and 
make a home for himself and family. About 
the time of the breaking out of the late 
civil war he engaged in bu) ing and ship- 
ping stock, an enterpiise he pursued ex- 
tensivel}- and successfully about ten years, 
and then gave his attention to the raising 
of thorouglibred sheep and cattle. He \vas 
the first man to introduce the short-horn 
cattle, and the first to exhibit them in 
Clarke Count)'. For the past fourteen 
years he has given especial attention to 
raising Berksliire hogs, and has always 
kept a record of his stock. lie was als(j 
the first man to make a shipment of stock 
from Clarke County. He is the largest 
landowner in the count}-, his estate number- 
ing 1,200 acres. He is a man of indomitable 
will and energy, one who is sure to make 
a success of any enterjirise he undertakes, 
and is one of Clarke County's staunchest 
and most reliable citizens. He is public- 
spirited, and the success of many enter- 
prises is due to his libei'al and earnest 
support. In politics he is a fiiin adherent 
to the principles of the Democratic party. 
He has a family of four sons — J. B., Mc- 
Ilenr}", Weldon J. and \'an A. One son. 
Train, is deceased. 

fOIlN PIPER, an active and successful 
agriculturist of Ward Fownship, was 
-.<. born in Frederick Cmmty, Virginia, 
near Winchester, the date of his birth be- 
ing June 10, 1820. When he was si.K years 
old he was taken b}- his parents, Elisha and 
Elizabeth Piper, to Morgan County, Ohio, 
who removed to Muskingum Comity, 
Ohio, four years later, the father d>iiig in 
the latter count}- when our subject was 
f(nirtcen 3-ears of age. John Piper was 
reared 10 manliood on a farm in Mn.--kin<rurn 

County, receiving his education in the com- 
mon schools. After the death of his father 
he began working on the farm, which he 
followed till attaining his majority. He was 
then x-ariously engaged for a time when he 
went to the State of Illinois, remaining 
theie foui' yeai'S. In 1856 he became a 
resident o( Clarke Covmt}-, Iowa. In 1854 
he was married to Martha A. Mock, a resi- 
dent of Edgar County, Illinois, daughter of 
George and Lucinda Mock, from North 
Carolina. The}' have eight children — Lu- 
cinda E., Mary E., Elisha M., John H., 
Mattie A., George W., lona V. and Emma 
V. In the fall of 1S56 Mr. Piper removed 
to his present farm on section 15, Ward 
Township, Clarke County, \vhere he has 
720 acres of choice land. Since coming to 
Clarke County he has been succ(?ssiully 
engaged in farming and stock-raising, mak- 
ing a specialty of caltlc and hogs. He has 
some specimens of short-horn cattle on his 
farm, and 100 head of Poland-Cliina hogs. 
Fie is an iu'lustrious and enterprising citi- 
zen, and dui'ing his long residence in the 
count V has won the confidence of a large 
number of friends and acquaintances. Be- 
ing an early settler he was several times 
chased by prairie fire. The most serious 
one being the 5th ol November, iS6i. While 
gathering corn he saw a smoke some dis- 
tance west, the prairie being on fii'c. About 
10 o'clock he and neighbor Smith went 
out to protect themselves, and in a short 
time neighbor Crooks came in to assist them. 
After noon Mrs. .Smith, thinking there was 
no danger, stru'ted to take them some pro- 
visions as thev had gone without their 
dinner. \}>\ this time seeing thev could af- 
fect nothing by back firing they gave it up, 
and all started for Mr. Crooks', which was 
nearly a half mile south. After traveling 
some distance Mr. Smith concluded he 
would go home, which was east one half 
mile, and told his wife to gr) to Mr. Crooks'. 
Before reaching Mr. Crooks' [ilace they 


were cut off by tliis western fire, but 
seeing a place some twenty leet squai-e 
where the sod had been taken off, Mr. 
Piper .stopped tliere and tried to persuade 
the otlieis to stop too, but they went on 
and were burned. Mrs. Smith was found 
on the ground. Mrs. Crooks died that 
niglit, and Mr. Piper was burned pietty 
badly. ' ' 

J. ARNOLD, the third child of Bar- 
nard and Nancy f'- (Utterback) Ai'- 
nold, was born November 2},, 1S22, ! 
a native of Morgan Count)", Indiana. His I 
parents were both natives of Kenluck}-, and 
were among the first settlers of Moigan i 
County, Indiana. Ten children were Ijorn 
to them — Agues, Noel, Janies, lilizabeth, | 
Grandison, Willis, Eliza Jane, Nanc)-, ]'>cn- j 
jamin and Mary. J. J.y\rnold wasbronglit 
up on a farm and received his education in 
the primitive log-cal)ln subscription schools 
of that early day. He subsequently en- 
gaged in building flat-boats, and carr^^ing 
produce down the Ohio and Mississippi 
rivers, which he followed for several 3-ears. 
He was married at the age of twenty-four 
years to Ellen Starks, who was born and 
reared in Kentuck}-. By this marriage he 
has one daugiiter — Melissa Jane. In the 
fall of iS-jO, his family, in coinpau)' with liis 
father's family, started for Iowa with an ox- 
team, bringing with tliem some cattle and 
horses, but on account of sickness in his 
family our subject spent the winter at La- 
con, Illinois. He came to Clarke Count}-, 
Iowa, in the spring of 1S50, and located on 
land which his father had entered frum the 
Government the year previous. Here he 
built a log house aiid began to im]_)ri)\c his 
land on which he has since made his hume. 
Here his wife died in 1S53, and in 1S36 he 
was again marrierl to Lnnisa On", lornieii)" 
of Knox Cf^iunty, Ohio, ;i daughter of Rev. 

John Orr, a prominent minister and circuit 
rider of the Methodist church.. Thev have 
five children li\ing- -h'rancis B., Seigel, 
Mar)-, Benjamin and Nina. Mr. Arnold is 
a worthy and consistent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. He has 
served his township as trustee, and has 
been a meu":ber of the School Board for sev- 
eral terms. He has always taken an active 
interest in the advancement of education 
or religion, and has assisted bv his means 
and influence in building churclRS and 
school-houses. Quiet, iniassuming, iPidus- 
triousand strictly honorable in all his deal- 
ings he has gained the confidence of all 
with whom he has business or social inter- 
course, and b)" his genial disposition has 
made n"ian\" friends. 

ICIIARD L. CHEW, living on sec- 
tion 31, Doyle Township, was born in 
Floyd Coimty, Indiana, March 29, 
1845, a son of Kichard A. and Jane (Mc- 
Cutchen) Chew, the fatlier a natnx- of I'loyd 
County, born August 1,"^, 1S17. The}" were 
the parents of fourteen children, of whom 
riine still survive — John W., Samuel E., 
Allen W., Lawson S., George H., Hannah 
R., Frances S., Emma J. and Richard L., 
our subject. The father came with his 
family to Clarke Count v, Iowa, in the fall 
of 1S54, and has since made his home in 
Doyle Township, where he has eiglity-six 
acres of land under excellent cultiwition. 
He has alwavs followed agi'icultural pur- 
suits, lie is a member of the United 
Biethien church. Richard L. Chew, whose 
name heads tiiis sketch, was also reared to 
agricultural pursuits, which he has made 
his life work. He has li\'ed in Clarke antl 
Decatur comities with the excepti(jn of 
three Acars in St. Clair Count}', Missouri, 
and the lime spent in the late war, since 
all' nit nine years of age, he liaving come 
















\\ ■;.■ il-,! Jii) 

■ ' t, 


,t i ..••.L'.,u!il .ii"-.> 

i.., ... !.,..r! 

'I ■.' Il'l, ,' ) !.:t\ 

with his parents in 1S54. He enlisted in 
Company I, Filth Missouri Cavalrv, being- 
in that company's service about eleven 
months. October 26, 1S65, he was married 
to Margaret Shoe, a daughter of Chris- 
topher Shoe, who is living in St. Clair 
Count}', Missouri. Of the five cliildreu 
born to them but two are living — Frances 
A. and Albert A. In connection \\ith his 
general farming Mr. Cliew devotes some 
attention to stock-raising. He is meeting 
with good success in his farming, and has 
a good farm of 130 acres, where he resides. 
He has served his township as trustee. He 
is a member of the Methodist church. Fie 
is a member of the Masonic fraternity and 
the Grand Army of the Republic. 

jiioc,;:. \ruicA l sa'J:Tc//j:s. 


;.^PHRAIM DELOXG, one of the 
W-li ^''^'b' settlers of Clarke Countv, now 
"c^i residing in Washington Township, is 
a native of Ohio, born on a farm near New 
Philadelphia, in Tuscarawas Count)-, Jul)- 
14, 1 8 14. Ilis parents, Solomon and Mar- 
garet (McKinney) Delong, were natives of 
Oiiio, the mother being of German and 
Irish ancestry. Our subjecl's father was a 
soldier in the war of 1812. His great- 
grandfatiier, Solomon Delong, was one of 
tlie pioneers of Ohio, removing to that 
State from Pennsylvania in a verv earlv 
day. Kphraim Delong was reared and ed- 
ucated in his native State, remaining there 
till reaching maturit\-. He was married in 
1S36, to Hannah F.ngler, a native uf Clarke 
County, Ohio. To Mr. and Mrs. Delong 
iiave been born nine cliildren — h'enton 
L., Almira j., deceased; Margaiel A., 
wife of Fredeiick Hunt; Marv E., wile 
of Robert Becktcll, of Osceola ; Fll^n, wife 
of Marion Collier; Nancy A., wife of A. C. 
I-orney, oi Osceola: jaspe- N., married 
Ivebecca J. Bradshaw ; Leonard L.. niar- 
'ied Frances Forman, and Epl.raim M., 

died aged four years, and Ruth A., wife of 
Frederick Forney. After his niarriage 
Mr. Delong leased a heavily-timbered farm 
which he cleaz-ed, and also cleared looacrcs 
for different parties. He remained on this 
land till the spring of 1S53, when he re- 
moved his family to Monroe Countv, Iowa, 
li\ing one year near Eddvville. In March, 
1S54, he came to Clarke Coe.ntv, Iowa, 
going thence to Madison Countv, Iowa, 
where he resided till 1874. Fie tiien sold 
his farm in Madison County, when he re- 
turned to Clarke County and settled on a 
farm on section i j, Washington Township, 
containing ic>o acres of p^iairie land. Mr. 
Delong lias made farming the principal vo- 
cation of his life, although he has engaged 
in various enterprises. He has met with 
good success in his agricultural pursuits, 
and has his farm on section 13 mider excel- 
lent cultivation, besides which he owns 
thirty acres of timber land on section 25 of 
the same township. In politics Mr. Delong 
afliliates with the Greenback pariv. While 
a resident of Madison Countv he held the 
office of justice of the peace, and served 
three years as township trustee. 


— =--C^^G 

.ffUDGE JAMES RICE, the oldest mem- 
ber of the Clarke Countv bar, 
born near Shelbvvillc, Shelbv Couiitv, 
Kentucky, October 29, 1820. His fatlier. 
Jacob Rice, was a native of Penns) Ivania, 
and married .^Jary Cooper, a daughter of 
\Viiliam Cooper, Esq., v.dio was an early 
settlerof Kentucky. Jacib Rice died when 
James was eighteen months old. The 
mother reinoved with her fatnilv to Indi- 
ana, locating in Montgon-iery Countv, 
where she remained until her death, whicii 
occurred in January, 1875. .She was the 
mother of seven children — fourbo\s and 
three girls: two now sur\-ive. Judge l^ice 
[jassed hi-. bo)-h.ood in Indiaria, I'ecciving 

~ *-^--^-.<'..*ifi-..*ifr.:ti:*:-f,Mli-/<i:ii'fi^,Si<^^ 

■/. ,..1 


Hisroar of ci.arke couxTr. 

his education mostly in tiie common 
scliools, and later attended the high 
school at Wavcland. lie taught school 
throe terms, and then engaged in farming, 
in the meantime reading law. He entered 
the law department of Asbur)- Univcrsily 
at Grecncastle, Indiana, where he gradu- 
ated in 1S57. Me then came to Osceola and 
commenced the practice of iiis profession. 
In iS6i he was appointed count}' judge to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation 
of jerry Jenks. In iS62-'64-'G6, he was re- 
elected to the same office ; by an act of the 
Legislature this office was then abolished. 
He then continued his law practice. In 
1 87 1 Judge Rice was elected to a seat in 
the Legislature, a position which he filled 
with satisfaction to his constituents. In 
1846 he married Miss Mary G. Hufstedler, 
of Farke County, Indiana. Their children 
are — Isaac N., Thornris C, William E., 
James A., Julian H. and Mary M. The 
judge and his wife are members of the 
Presb3-terian church, of which the Judge 
has served as elder for t\vcnt\-eight years. 

/PT-QSIAH COON, one of the old and 

f honored pioneers of Clarke County, 
who is now deceased, was a native of 
Ohio. He became a resident of Clarke 
County in the fall of 1S54, when he settled 
south of Osceola, rcmo\ing to Do3-le Town- 
ship in the fall of i8;6. He then settled 
on section 26, where he followed agricult- 
ural pursuits till his death, and wliere his 
widow still resides. He was unitetl in mar- 
riage to Rebecca Reasoner, and of tlie 
twelve children born to this union only 
se\en are now living — William, Garrett, 
Mary, As!)foid R., Aaron, Iviry and Lil- 
lie. Ml'. Coon, w.isa member of the United 
Brethien church at tlie time of his death, 
which occurred January t, 1S74 As a 
husband and father, he was kind and alTec- 


tionate, and as a neighbor, always read}' to 
help those in need of assistance. He was 
one of the respected citizens of Doyle 
Township, having by his honest and up- 
right dealings ^von the confidence of all 
who knew hini. 

:'5^ I IRISTOPHERC. PERDUE, farmer, 
section 22, Liberty Township, was 
born in West Virginia, October 11, 
1841, the youngest of ten children. When 
he was six years old his father died, and at 
the age of eleven his mother died. He was 
then piactically thrown upon his own re- 
sources. August 9, 1862, he enlisted in 
Companj H, Eighty-third Regiment. His 
brother Daniel was in the same company. 
He was engaged in the third battle of Fort 
Donelson in February, 1S63. In that battle 
Daniel was shot through the body, and 
only through the careful nursing; of his 
brother was his recovery made possible. 
He was honorably discharged July 5, 1865, 
and returned .to Warren County, Illinois, 
and afterward came to this county. Isaiah, 
member of the Ninth Iowa, died in Ar- 
kansas. Thomas, in Thirty-second Iowa, 
now lives in Nebraska. Christopher worked 
on rented land until he purchased his pres- 
ent home in the sjiring of 1869. Augu'^t 
29, 1866, he was married to Miss Nancy 
La Follette, daughter of William La Fol- 
lette, who settled in Liberty Township in 
1855. Both parents are deceased, the niothcr 
dying in February, 1868, and the father in 
February, iSSi , aged sixty-one veais. Mrs. 
Perdue was born in Boone County, Indi- 
ana, September 21, 1849. Mr. and Mrs. 
Perdue have had nine children — James W., 
Francis M., Ella May, Clarence E., Hattie 
v., Giles C, Susan A., Martha J. and Mary 
E., twins. Ella May died at tlie age of two 
years. Mr. Perdue commenced here on 
wild land. He first purchased eighty acres. 

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B/OGRA PI/IC. 1 /^ 5A'i' TC/IKS. 

and now owns 1S5, i:?o under Gultivation. 
He has held every position of public trust 
in the township except justice of the peace. 
In politics he is identified with the Green- 
back party. 



fOHN XP:WS0ME has been a resident 
of Clarke County since 1S6S. His 
.-^ home is in the northeast quarter of 
section 2, FranklinTtownship. He has a fine 
stock-farm of 215 acres.consisting of upland, 
meadow and timbei" land, on the main 
branch of Whitcbreast Creek. He has 
made nearly all of the improvements since 
he occupied the place. Mr. Newsome was 
born November 13, 1S34, in West Riding, 
Yorkshire, England. His parents were 
James and Rebecca (lUingworthj Newsome, 
who reared a family of ten children, all of 
whom are living and prospering. All ex- 
cept the eldest, William, are living in the 
United States. James Newsome, in early 
life, was a weaver by occupation, and his 
son John, the subject of this sketch, was 
reared to the same calling. He embarked 
from Liverpool for the United States on the 
"City of ]\fanchester," March 21, 1854, 
reaching Philadelphia May 10. Near this 
point he engaged wcjrk in a cotton mill for 
a short time. In June, of the same ye;ir, he 
went to woi-k in a woolen mill at Rockdale, 
Delaware County, Pennsylvania, where he 
remained until he volunteered in defense of 
his adopted countrv, luiclcr the first call of 
President Uincoln for volunteers. He en- 
listed in tlie Anderson Guards, Philadelphia, 
April 16, 1S61, and would have started for 
Washington, D. C, on the c\'ening of the 
19th, but for the attack of the Baltimore 
mob on the Sixth Massachusetts Volun- 
teers and lliree companies of their regi- 
ment, who were unarmed and got back 
to Philadelphia with great difficult}'. They 
were eventually mustered into the United 

States service on May 25, as Comjian\- B, 
Twentv-sixth Penns3dvania Volunteers, un- 
der Colonel Small, for three \ ears or during 
the war. August, 1S61, Comjiany B was 
detached to guard Go\'crnment stores, in 
Washington, D. C. In the spiing of 1S62, 
when Gcneial McClellan was about to start 
on the Peninsula campaign, Sergant New- 
some wrote a petition which all the now- 
commissioned officers signed, asking to 
take the field with the regiment. The peti- 
tion failed, but a second petition, Jaiuiaiv, 
1S63, wasgranted bj- General Hooker, who 
formerly commanded their brigade, and 
was then commanding the Arm}' of the 
Potomac. The company met its baptism 
of fire at Chancelloj-sville, losing very 
heavily. Sergeant Nc\\'some wasv\'Ounded 
in the right thigh and taken prisoner. He 
was exchanged and rejoined his regiment 
the following September. In the move- 
ments of the army, before the close of 1S63, 
Mr. Newsome boie an honorable part. He 
re-enlisted as a veteran in Jaiuiary, 1S64. 
While on furlough, March 10, 1S64, he was 
married at Rockdale, to Miss Elizabeib 
Mnrphv, who was born in Philadelphia, 
December 25, 1S36. She was a daughter 
of Moses and Elizabeth Murphy. Rejoin- 
ing the Army of the Potomac," he was 
mustered in as I^ieutenant of his compan}', 
in April, 1804, and from tliat time until the 
27th of May, took i^art in the battles under 
Grant. June iS he was honorably dis- 
charged at Philadelphia. During the raid 
of General Early on Washington, Lieuten- 
ant Newsome again tendered his services, 
but was not accepted owing to disease con- 
tracted in tlie service. Mr. and Mrs. New- 
some continued to live in Rockdale until 
186S, and then came t<j Clarke County. Mr. 
Newsomc's record has been, in all respects, 
an honorable one. 'Phey have four chil- 
dren — Frank, Bertln, Rebecca E. and 
Mabel. James IL, a twin brothei, died at 
the age of three months. The parents of 

..1, IriqA- 


*::♦: -soS liisiour of clarke couxrr. 

>rr. Xcwsnmc came to the United States 
in 1S36. Tiiev died in Uiiinn Township, 
Lucas Countv. Of their sons and dauL;ii- 
ters hving- in the United States, lieside? 
John, there are James, Samuel, Daniel, 
Mrs. Sarah Gore, Mrs. Rebecca Gore, le- 
side in Delaware Gounty, Pennsylvania: 
Wiiglit, Mrs. Ann Perkins and Mrs. Mary 
Maloncy live in Lucas County. 

S^IIO>L\S C. FUXSTOX was born in 
^ y,J Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 
^j June 1, 1824. Mis (ather, Andrev,- 
Fuuston, was born in Ireland and of Prot- 
estant faith. He came to the United States 
in iSoS, then a young man, and settled in 
Pennsylvania. In Allegheny Count}' he 
was married to Poll}' Crawford, also of 
Protestant-Irish birth. To them were born 
five children, two died young; the others 
are — Sarah Ann, Thomas C. and Robert, a 
a prominent farmer of Fremont Township, 
with whom his sister, Sarah Ann, resides. 
When Thomas C. was ten years of age tlie 
family mo\'ed to Coshocton Comity, Ohio, 
where tliC}" made a larm out of the wilder- 
ness. The father died in 1S54. In 1853, 
Mr. Funston imrchased 360 acres of Gov- 
ernment land at second hand, and com- 
menced improvements. He returned to 
Ohio in the fall of 1S55, and afterward set- 
tled up'On section 12, Fremont Township. 
In 1SG2 he married Miss Elizabeth A. Bo- 
den, dauglitei" of Robert Boden, who set- 
tled in Fren)ont T'jwnship in 1.S57. Tothem 
wereboin li\e rhildien — Emi'iia. now tlic 
wife of Homer hVjlger; Frank, Elsie, I^ob- 
ert and fJ-ssic. Mr. Funston built a fine 
residence on section 7. Just before its 
completion he met w itli a great alllicticm 
in the loss of his wife, who died November 
9, 1SS4. He m(.)\cv.i into his neu- house 
three fia}s aftei- his wile's death. Mr. 
Funston owns i.iO'j acres of land, am.l his 

brother Sgo acres. They give their entire 
attention to stock-raising. In 1S86 tlieir 
stock consisted of 220 head of cattle, 175 
hogs and twenty horses. Mr. Funston lias 
serx'ed as a member of the Boaid of Super- 
visors of this comity. Politically he has 
been a Republican, but at the present party 
ties have but little hold on him. He may 
be classed as an Independent. He is a 
member of Osceola Lodge, A. F. & A. M., 
No. J'! ; Pintalpha Chapter, No. 63 ; Con- 
stantine Commandery. No. 23. He is 
ranked among the wealthy citizens of the 

^f^ F. HALL, one of the prominent and 
\ \'f\, successful citizens of Clarke County, 
'"^ "^ residing on section 31, Green Bay 
Township, was botn in Monroe County, 
Indiana, November 28, 1834, a son of War- 
ren Flail, a native of Kentucky, and Cyn- 
thia (Parks) HalL They were the parents 
of nine children — Sarah Ann, B. F., W. N., 
John W., James I\L, Samuel L,, Albert T., 
]Mary Ann and Sarah ]NL Our subject re- 
mained in his native county till seven years 
of age, when his parents removed to Put- 
nam County, Indiana, where lie resided 
nine years. He was reared on a farm, and 
received a common-school education in the 
primitive log school-houses. In 1S51 he 
went to Decatur County, Iowa, locating 
four miles southeast of the present site of 
Leon, where he lived until iSGo. He was 
married December 14, 1855, to Miss ]Mar- 
tlia Ann Walton, of Decatur County, she 
being a daughter of H. L.Walton. They 
have three cliildicn — Edward P., Charles 
E. and Delia May. In 1S60 Mr. Hall 
bought iGoacresr.f his present farm, which 
was at that time uniiriproved. He has 
since added to his original purcliase, till 
his farm now contains 545 acres of choice 
laud, with comfortable and commodious 



residence, nnd ^ood barns and oiit-build- \ National Guards, the date of his enlistment 

ings. This is one of the best stock farms 
in Clarke County, and is located two and a 
quarter miles west of Weldon. Mr. Hall 
is a self-made man, having by his own good 
management, combined with his industr}' 
and habits of ecoiKimv, made his property, 
and has now a competency for his declining 
years. lie is a consistent member of the 
Cliristian church, and a jespected citizen 
of Green Bay Township. In politics he 
casts his suffiagc with the Republican 

H. STEVENS, an enteriirising 
id successful farmer and stock- 
sr| ® raiser of Green Bay Township, 
residing on section 36, is a native of Maine, 
born near Bangor, his parents, William and 
Cynthia (Oaks) Stevens, being natives of 
the same State. They had a lamil)' of ten 
children — Eunice, William, Lucy, Frances, 
C3Mithia, Nanc}-, Lorenzo, Augustus, John 
F. and William H., our subject, wh.o ^vas 

being June 16, 1863. He participated in 
the raid against Morgan in Oliio, and had 
a skirmish with that bold rebelleadcr. Jan- 
uar)- 15, 1S64, he re-enlisted in the three- 
years' serx'ice, in Compan\- A, Second 
West Virginia Cavalry, and was at the 
battles of Cedar Creek and Winchester. 
After being in the sei vice about eighteen 
months he was honorably discharged at 
Wheeling, West Virginia, Jidy 4, 1865. 
lie then returned lo Meigs County, Ohio, 
wlicre he followed farr.iing and carpenter- 
ing till i86y. lie then came to Green Bay 
Township, Clarke County, Iowa, and lo- 
cated on his present farm, which at that 
time was entiiely unimproved, where he is 
still engaged in general farming and stock- 
raising. His farm now contains 265 acres 
of as good land as can be found in the 
township, well improved and under high 
cultivation. He has a good residence, sur- 
rounded by shade and ornamental trees, and 
commodious faini buildings for his stock. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stevens are consistent mem- 
bers of the Free-Will Baptist church. In 

the youngest child. When al.iout four 1 politics he is a Republican. He is a member 
)'ears of age he was taken by his parents j of Jacinth Lodge, No. 443, A. F. tt A. M., 
to Philadelphia, they residing there three j and is one of the representative men of 
years, and in 1840 the family removed to , Claike Coimty. 
Meigs County, Ohio, where oursubject was 
reared to manhood. His earl)- lile was 
passed on alarm, and his education was re- 
ceived at the public schools. He was united 
in marriage September 28, iS;8, to i\Iiss 
Martha Hogue, who was born and I'eared 


^r?;|DGAR BELL, geneial farmer and 
rl-, stock-raiser, living on section 3, Knox 


Township, was born in Markham, 

in Meigs County, Ohio, a daughter of i Canada, June 17, 1845, the si')n of William 

James and Christina (Fatteison) Ilogue. 
Her parents were natives of Scotland, 
being born near Edinburgh. The\' reared a 
family of seven children — William, Alexan- 
der, Margaret, James, Jane, John and Mal- 
tha. Mr. and Mrs. .Stevens have thi'ec 
sons — Harvey E., Delmont D. aud Jamci 
F. During tlie late war Mr. .Stevens en- 
listed in Company D, Filleenth Ohio 

and Mahaki A.(Tomlinson) Bclhtlie former 
a nati\-e of Yorkshire, luigkiud, and the latter 
a native of Canada. They were the parents 
of twent}--! wo eliildien, of wh-in our sub- 
ject was the hftcenth cldM, \Vhen he was 
nine years cjf age lii^- parents removed \vith 
their family to Mercer County, Illinois, 
and there he was reared. His }Outh was 
passed in working on the liome farm, and 















his education was received in the common j then passed the follgwini^ winter in Mis 

sciiools of his neighborhood, and at Mon- 
moutli Academy, lih'nois. He left Mercer 
County in 1875, coming- thence to Clarke 
County, low.'i, and locating on his farm in 
Knox Township, where he has since fol- 
lowed farming and stock-raising'. Mr. Bell 
was united in marriage December 27, 1S69, 
to Miss Alice M. Emary, a daughter of F. 
J. Emar)-, Sr., who is now deceased. Two 
sons, William M. and Frederick N., have 
been born to this union. Mr. Bell is num- 
bered among the successful and enterpris- 
ing citizens of Knox Township, and being 
strict!}- honorable in all his dealings, he has 
gained the confidence of all with v.'hom he 
has business or social intercourse. He has 
served his township as assessor with credit 
to himself and satisfaction to his constitu- 
ents. He has a good residence surrounded 
by shade and ornaniental trees, and com- 
modious barns and out-buildings for the 
accommodation of his stocl:. Idis lawn is 
the fmest in Knox Township, and in fact 
the entire surroundings betoken the thrift 
and good management of its owner. In 
politics .Mr. IBcll affiliates with the Repub- 
lican party. He is a member ol Osceola 
Lodge, No. ■;■;, A. F. & A. M. 

dLLIAM T. FARLEY, one of the 

pioneer settlers of Clarke Countv, 
i--j^ was born in Morgan County, 
Ohio. June 25, iSrg, the eldest child of John 
and Margaret iCahcrti I\arley, the parents 
being iiaiivcs ol IV-imsylvania, the father 
born in Washington County, and the 
mother in Gi-eene C<ainty. Thev came to 
Ohio when young, and when our subject 
was eight yeais old went to Tennessee, 
where liiey remained abtnit five vears. In 
the spring of 1833 tliey removed -.viih their 
family to .NIonroe County, Indiana, where 
they made their home till 1830. They 

souri, and in the spring of 1851 settl 
Clarke Count)', Iowa, where the father died 
in 1S59, aged seventy-fi\-e vears. The 
mother survived till 1SS4, dving at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-two vears. William 
T. Farley, our subject, was united in mar- 
riage in November, 1S41, to Ann J. Curr)-, 
a native of Ireland, but at the time of her 
marriage living in Monioe Count}-, Indi- 
ana. They are the parents of the follow- 
ing children— Eliza M., wife of I. M. Cook, 
of Oxbow, Nebraska; Martha F., wife of 
J. C. Headier, of Salem, Dakota ; Joseph 
I H., living in Clarke Count}- ; Susan A.. 
j wife of J. M. Campbell, of Nelson, Ne- 
braska; John J., of Marquette, Nebraska; 
W. I., of Aurora, Nebraska; Elbert S., 
died aged sixteen years ; George H., of 
Melrose, Dakota, and Jennie De Arc, wife 
of George W. Lane, of Osceola, Iowa. In 
: the spring of 1S31 Mr. Farley came from 
j Indiana to Clarke Countv, Iowa, with his 
parents, his wife and four children, and a 
I brother. On coming here he settled on 
I section 5, Osceola 'I'ownship. where he 
entered a tract of 240 acres from the Gov- 
ernment, paying Si. 25 per acre. The first 
three months he lived in a rail pen wuh 
clapboard roof, the size of the pen being 
but ten feet square. By the end of three 
months their rude log cabin, 16x18 feet, was 
ready for occupancy, and there his familv 
spent many happy days, experiencing all 
the pleasures as well as the privations of 
pioneer life. Their princijial meat was 
venison, turkey and squirrel. The nearest 
mill was at Des Moines, and the nearest 
postoffice was Indianola. During his long 
residence hei'e Mr. Farlc}- has witnessed 
the many changes that have taken place, 
and has seen the country made up into 
thri\ing towns and well-cidtivated farms. 
His own land is now under thorough culti- 
vation, and his present residence and farm 
buildings are comfortable, commodious 

1 : 1 !.'. J 
■ .1 i 


and convenient. Me was the first justice 
of the jjcace of Clarke County, after its or- 
ganization as a county, and has also served 
as township trustee. He takes an active 
interest in the cause of education, and 
helped organize the fii'St school district in 
the count}", and has served man}- years as 
school director. In politics he was form- 
erlv an old-line Whig, but is now a staunch 
]\epublican, and in 1SS4 was a strong sup- 
porter of J. G. Blaine. He takes an inter- 
est in the temperance cause. 

fERRY JENK.S, one of the oldest pio- 
neers of Clarke Count)', is a native of 
_,^ Massachusetts, born in Belchertown, 
Hampshire County, March 10, iSiS, ason 
of Jeremiah and Susan (Peny) Jcnks. liis 
father was born in Spencer, Massachusetts, 
and is of English origin. His ancestors 
being extensive manufacturers of cotton 
goods. The mother was a native of New 
England. The\- had a family of ten chil- 
dren, seven sons and three daughters, all 
of wliom grew to maturit}'. Jerrv Jcnks, 
our subject, passed his youth on a farm, his 
father at that time being engaged in agri- 
cultuial pursuits. He received his primar}' 
education in the schools of his native vil- 
lage, and later received instructions in 
mathematics from a private tutor. After 
attaining manhood he was in the emiilov of 
a lumber firm in Georgia for a time. In 
1S41 he came to Ohio, and for about four 
years ran a saw-mill in Jackson County. 
He was married in 1S43, t-t) Mandane Burt, 
a native of Ohio, aiKl of the seven children 
born to this union only three are living — 
-Ada O., wife of Jefferson Daniel, of Clarke 
County, Iowa: Artluir P., living at lnjme, 
and Edward, who married Amelia TindcU, 
of Ottumwa, and is ai<o a resident of Clarke 
County. In 18.^5 Mr. Jenks removed to 
.Monroe County, Iowa In the fall of 1850 

he caiuc to Clarke County, and entered by 
land warrant 900 acres of land in Ward 
Township, for which he paid about 60 
cents per acre. .Vfter making his land 
ent'.ies he returned to his home in .Monroe 
C'ount}', and in the following sjiring, 1S51, 
he removed with his family to section 13, 
Ward Township, Clarke County, one mile 
west of the present site of Osceola. He 
now owns 1,000 acres of choice land all well 
improved, and under fence, ^\ hich he has 
acquired by years of arduous toil and ]ier- 
severing enci-gy. In 1S51, at the organiza- 
tion of Clarke County, Mr. Jenks was 
elected count}' surve_yor for a term of two 
years, and at the expiration of his term was 
re-elected, serving in that capacity in all 
four years. In 1S55 he was elected judge 
of Clarke Count}-, and at the end of two 
years was re-elected. He was again elected 
for the third term, but before this term ex- 
pired the office had been abolished. He 
also served as assessor of Ward Township 
for one term, and in all these offices served 
with credit to himself and to the satisfac- 
tion of his con.stituents. In politics Mr. 
Jcnks affiliates with (he Republican party. 
He is a consistent temperance man, and a 
respected citizen in the township where he 
has made his home for the past thirty-five 
years. His son, Arthur P., graduated in 
the class of 1S70, from the Iowa State Uni- 
versity, at Iowa City, and in 1S74 was 
elected county superintendent of the 
schools of Clarke County, to serve one 


J.r-l the early settlers of Liberty Town- 
~:i ship, was Ijorn in Harrision, now Bar- 
bi.iur County, ^\'est Virginia, October 29, 
1S22. His father, Thomas Proudfoot, was 
born in Fauquier County, Virginia, Febiu- 
ary 20, 1S03, and in iSoS accomjvamed his 
parents to Harrison County, and there grew 



Tr :*■) 



!* •55 




* * *i'<>.'<~.?'?.:c^<**?*!C'^<'.5r«T*'*!'*>::*>"*':<^*::*.>'¥ 


1, :, -..f n;/ .1! 

,Oli.' -' l'.> ■' /!(■ II •'■ 

r i !(*■ ^'V 

> .♦; ■■' 

;j*; 312 n/STORT OF C/.AIiKB COUXJV. I 

to manhood, and late in tlie year 1S21 mar- 
ried Miss Elizabeth Robinson, who was 
born in I'eniisvlvania, November 28, 179S. 
Jacob I-'roiidfoot was reared in his native 
count}-. I lis father was a farmer, miller 
and blacksmith, ami in his youth he be- 
came familiar wiih all three, vocations. 
Se]>tembcr 14, 1843, 1^^ was married to Miss 
Cyrenc Van Scoy, a native of Randolph 
County, West Virginia, born March 3, 1S26, 
daughter of William \'an Scoy, now a 
resident rif ^'irginia Tow nshi]i, Warren 
Count}', fowa. In 1S55 Mr. I'loudfoot came 
to Iowa, and spent the first winter in War- 
ren County, and in April, 1S56, located in 
Liberty Township, Clarke County, and 
opened a blacksmith shop. He soon bought 
some land, and combined farming with 
blacksmithing. He now owns eighty acres 
on section 6, Liberty Township, and twenty- 
three acres of timber land in Squaw Town- 
ship, Warren County. He also owns twen- 
ty-three lots, with a pleasant residence and 
blacksmith shop, in the village of Liberty. 
In politics Mr. Proudfoot was reared in 
the Democratic faith, but his devotion to 
the Union caused him to uphold the ad- 
ministration of Abraham Lincoln, and he 
lias since affiliated with the Republican 
partv, and has been prominent in- its coun- 
cils in Clarke County. In 1875 '^<^' ^^'''s 
elected a member of the Sixteenth General 
Assembly. He has served eleven years as 
magistrate of Liberty, and several years as 
a member of the County Board of 'Super- 
visors. He has been postmaster at Liberty 
about fourteen years. He has always been 
much interested in the public affairs of his 
country and .Stale, as well as the local af- 
faii'S of iiis county and village, and has 
never failed to ca^t liis ballot since 1S56. 
He and his wife iiave been active members 
of the Methodist Episcopal church about 
forty-seven years. They have a family of 
seven children — Hester Ann is the v, ife of 
J. L. Tedrow, of Woodburn; Leah is at 

home ; Overton T. is a rcsidciit of Libertv ; 
William D. lives in Walla Walla, Washing- 
ton Territorv ; Samuel N. in ^'icksburg, 
Mississippi ; Charles F., of Liberty, and 
Aaron Y:, of Indianola, Iowa. Mr. Proud- 
foot's parents came to Iowa with their 
younger children, and made their home in 
Squaw Township, Warren County, where 
the mother died Februarv 10, iSSo. The 
father now spends liis time with his chil- 
dren, going from one to another, as he 
wishes, each giving him a hearty welcome 
whenever he chooses to favortheir homes 
with liis presence. ■ - ; . 


a prominent j*';4 

'■ r,l pioneer and enterprising farmer of 
'"if" Osceola Township, was born near the 
town of Bethel, in Clermont Count}, 
Ohio, the date of his birth being November 
7, 1S22. His parents, William A. and Eliz- 
abeth (Steyers) Lanham, were natives of 
Kentucky and Ohio respectively. They 
were married in Ohio, the father having lo- 
cated in that State when about eighteen 
\'ears of age. They remained in that State 
till their death, and to them were born 
nine childi"en. Elias A., our subject, was 
reared on his father's farm till reaching his 
majority, his education being received :n 
the common schools of his neighborhood. 
At the age of twenty-two years he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth P. Frazee, of 
Clermont Comil}-, Ohio, and of tiie eight 
children born to this union only three are 
now living — Ceny A., wife of James H. 
Wilson, living in Missouii: Mary M., wife 
of Henry V. Grippin now li^•ing in Nebras- 
ka, and William A. married Helen L. 
Peck, and is living in Dakota. After his 
marriage Mr. Lanham removed to Iowa, 
h.'cating in Lee County, he remained 
till the spring of 1S52. He then came to 
Ckiike County and settled on his present 


*•' !r 

I. , ,, 


,'■ ,1 



farm, a part ul which he t-ntcrcd from the 
Government. His farm is located on :>ec- 
lion \2, OsccoLa Township, and contains 
160 acres of valuable land under fine culti- 
vation, and the log cabin, in which he spent 
the first two \ears of his residence here, 
lias now L,iven place to liis present comfort- 
able and commodious d vvellijig. He has al- 
ways followed agricidtural pursuits, and is 
still engaged in general farming and stock- 
raising, devoting considerable attention to 
the raising of hogs and high-grade cattle, 
and on his farm he has erected a good barn 
and other farm buildings for the accom- 
modation of the same. Both Mr. and Mis. 
Lanham are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and respected members 
of societ}'. 

^ifSRAEL COX, an early settler of Clarke 
?;] County, and a prominent farmei" and 
^ stock-raiser of Ward Township, was 
born near South Perr\',in Hocking Count}-, 
Oliio, May i, 1828, the second son in a fam- 
ily of eight children of Covington and Effa- 
mie (Camp) Cox. His father was a nati\'e 
of New Jersey, and a son of Philip Ct).\, 
and his mother was a native of the State of 
Pennsylvania. The parents were married 
in Ohio, being earl}- settlers of Fairfield 
County, Ohio, which was afterward di- 
vided, a part being called Hocking. Both 
parents died in Hocking Count} at ad- 
vanced ages. Israel Cox grew to nnan- 
hood on a farm in Fairtleld Countv, Ohio, 
receiving a common-school education in the 
rude log-cabin school-houses of that early 
day. He was married in 1849 ^'•^ ^H'^s Eliza 
J. Barnhill, a daughter of David Barnhill, 
an early seltler of Clarke Countv. In the 
(.'ill of 1S55 Mr. Q<^\ came with his family 
to Clarke Coui-it\-,] for four }-ears 
cariied on farming (ju Simth Squaw Creek. 
He theii rem.iiveil t<> his lu-escnt farm on 
section 1, Wa.rd Town^hij), where he has 

since followed general larniing and stock- 
raising, in which he is meeting with good 
success. Of late vears he has made a spe- 
cialty of short-hoju cattle, and horses oi 
the Norn-ian and Chdesdale breeds. He 
now owns in this countv i,2C/Oacresof land, 
his home faim on section i containing jC-o 
acres under high cullivation, and all the 
surroundings betoken the care and thriit ol 
the owner. -"•;-■ ■ ■ - 

TfHOMAS GREGG, one of the brave 

^>,|,^ old pioneers, who has been actively 
rpj identified with the growth and ad- 
vancement of Clarke County for n-iany 
years, is a native of Jefferson Coimty, 
Ohio, born December 17, 1814. His father, 
Andrew Gi'egg, was a natixc of Ireland, 
I cominc: to America in an earh' day, and 
I settling in the then woods of Ohio, when 
the i^rincipal inhabitants of that State were 
Indians. Our subject was ;-eaied on his 
father's pioneer farm, fie having such edu- 
cational advantages as the primiti\e log- 
cabin subscription schools of that earl}- day- 
afforded. He was married October 6, 1835, 
to Isabella Shepherd, her father, Joseph 
Shepherd, being a native of Ireland. Eight 
children have been born to them, of whom 
five are still living — Mrs. Elizabeth Otis, Cy- 
rus, Wesley, Mrs. Isabella Kennedy and 
}»Irs. Hattie Wadsworth. Mr. Gregg went 
to Peoria County, Illinois, in the spring of 
1836, when Indians and wild animals were 
numercjus. Peoria was then called Fort 
Clarke, and in the nov.- thri\-ing town there 
were then but four hriuses. He removed 
to Lee County, Iowa, in June, 1S43, '"""^^ i" 
the fall of 185 1 came to Clarke County, 
settling where he has since resided, in 
Doyle Township, and her? he endured all 
the hardships and pi ivalions incident to tiie 
iile of a pioneer, but thrijugh all these \\- 
cis.-itudes hi^ wife has been a faithful help 









'it it. 







- •■*--*"*--*-i*"*^>/*i.*;>i.»!.*;.*'>L*!l«/:>.>^v.;«i;*;;«LA>.'»/»;>];^^^ 


V'T ■ -.!■• 



meet, Ii;iving done nobly Iier part townrd 
building u]. a home f.isiicr familv. When 
tht-y first came to the count)' no imjuove- 
ments had been made, not a fence to be 
seen tlirougdi the surrounding counfrv. 
Indians and wild animals were the princi- 
pal inhabitants, and at one time our subject 
saw 700 Indians together. Their wheat 
had to betaken to Oskaloosa to be ground, 
which was eighty-five miles from their 
home, Mrs. Gregg going herself to Oska- 
loosa, at one time bringing home with lier 
three geese, which were the tirst geese in 
Clarke County. Mrs. Gregg would often 
work in the field to help her husband. For 
three weeks the family lived on coin bread, 
Mrs. Gregg gratingthe corn on a tin grater. 
Some of their neighbor? lived tv,-o weeks 
without tasting bread. Mr. Gregg built 
the first church in Clarke County^ and in 
it the first school was taught. A few days 
■ after Qoming to the county the wife of liis 
neighbor died, and her cofTm was made by 
hewing slabs out of a tree. The first man 
who died in their neigborhood had a simi- 
lar coffin made for him, but it being too 
short his feet projected about a foot. Mr. 
Gregg has met with success through life, 
having by his own efforts acquired over 
400 acres of good land. He still owns 
140 acres, he having given tlie rest to his 
children. Both he and his wife are de- 
voted members of the United Brethren 
church. j 

0OHX DIEIIL, of Osceola Township, ' 

■|!J, ^^'"^^ ''^*-"'''' '"^'''"' Eaton, in Bieble '\ 
>^' County, Ohio, February 27, 1S35, a | 
son of Jacob and Xancy (Xiood) Diehl, who ' 
were natives of Peiinsvlvania and Ohio, re- 
spectively They liad a family of ten '■■ 
children, of whom six- still survive, )ohn I 
being the fifth child. His father went i 
to Ohio in his youth, and was married ■ 
near Gern-.antown in that State, the mother ' 

i dying in her native State in 1S52. The 
I father subsequently married again, and 
1 moved to Illinois, where his death occurred 
j "• 1S73. John Diehl was reared on a farm 
j till his fifteenth year, v.hen he began learn- 
j ing the blacksmith's trade, which he iol- 
I lowed until coming West in iSGo. Mr. 
j Diehl has been twice married. His first 
I wife, Lydia A. Boadle, was a native of 
j Montgomery County, Ohio. She died at the 
I ageof twentj-four years, leaving one daugh- 
I ter, Mary. Mr. Dielil was again married 
, in 1859, to Sarah A. Carnahan, of Darke 
County, Ohio, a daughter of John and 
Sarah (Adams) Carnahan. They have four 
children living— Charley B., Minnie E., 
Dellie V. and John Richard. In 1S60 Mr. 
Diehl left Ohio, coming to Clarke County, 
Iowa, when he located on his present farm 
on section 4, Osceola Township, on the 
Knoxville Road. In July, 1S61, he enlisted 
in Company F, Sixth Iowa Infantr)-, in the 
three years' service, and was ir. the Fourth 
Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. He par- 
ticipated in the siege of Vicksburg. Jack- 
son, Mission Ridge and Lookout Mount- 
ain, after which he was transferred to Bat- 
tery D of the Fourth Missouri Artillery, in 
which he served six months, when he'^was 
detailed head blacksmith in the Fourth 
Division, in which capacity he served till 
he was honorably discharged at Daven- 
port, Iowa, in July, 1864. Soon after his 
discharge he recruited a company, of which 
he was appointed First Lieutenant, and 
later promoted to Captain, but his com- 
pany did not go into active service. Since 
his return from the war Mr. Diehl has de- 
voted his attention to agricultural pursuits, 
m which he has met with success, and is 
now tlic owner of 400 acres of choice land, 
which is well imj. roved and under fine cal- 
ti vation. He is now classed among the pros- 
perous and enterprising citizens of Clarke 
County, most of his property being made 
by his stock-raising, he having been very 








'<.->■>♦■-> ;•.. 


successful in the raisings of cattle and hog-s. 
Mr. Dichl has been president of the Clarke 
County Agricultural Society, and lias 
served his township as trustee. He is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and a 
comrade of the Grand Army post, of \\hich 
he is at present senior vice-commander. 
Me and his wife are members of the Chris- 
tian church, attending I'nion Chapel, and 
are respected members of society. 

^^ILLIAM HOGUE, deceased, was 
•f-ti/vF^ born in Vallev Forge, Chester 
l'=8>5?^ County, Pennsylvania, September 
21, 1818. lie v.'as the eldest of seven chil- 
dren of James and Christina (Patterson) 
Hogue, his parents being natives of Scot- 
land. When a young lad his parents went 
to Hocking Valle}', Ohio, where he lived 
until twelve 3a"ars of age, when he accom- 
panied his parents to Meigs Count3s they 
locating on Leading Creek, where he was 
reared on a farm, receiving his education 
in the common schools. He was united in 
marriage February 4, 1846, to Lucinda 
Bailey, of Meigs County, Ohio, a daughter 
of Robert and Elizabeth (Hysellj Bailey, 
and of the five children l)orn to this union, 
four are yet li\^ing — Viola C, Emma, Lucy j 
^L and Ida ^fa3^ A d.-\ughter, Emeline, | 
died at the age of fourteen vears. .-\fter his | 

modious, and the out buildings for the ac- 
commodation of his stock arc noticeably 
good. In his chosen a\ ocation, that of a 
farmci', ^^r. Hogue was highlv successful, 
and surrounded himself and !amil\- with all 
the necessar}- comforts of life. In jjolitics 
he was a Republican, and was elected on 
that ticket to some of the township offices, 
all of which he held to tiie satisfaction of 
his constituents. He was a consistent 
member of the Presb\-terian church till his 
death, which occurred September 17, 1882. 
He was a kind and affectionate husband 
and father, and left a widow and four chil- 
dren to mourn his loss, his death being a 
source of universal regret. He was a good 
citizen and neighbor, and by his fair and 
honorable dealings secured the confidence 
and respect of all who knew him. 


JOSEPH KELLEY, deceased, was born 
■|;'.;l in Morgan County, Ohio, Jul}' 30, 1824. 
\^' He was left an orphan at an early age, 
and therefore received but limited educa- 
tional advantages, his youth being spent in 
assisting with the work of a farm. In 1S51 
he came to Clarke Countv, Iowa, where he 
entered a tract of land containing 600 acres, 
to which he added at different times till he 
owned nearly i,ooo acres. He \\'as married 
in 1855 to Miss Harriet Stiirman, who was 

marriage Mr. Hogue purchased a farm in i born in Coshocton County, Ohio, in 1S3S, 

Gallia Count)-, Ohio, on which he li\-ed 
until 1867, when he moved to Iowa and 
settled with his famil_v in Green Bay Town- 
ship, Clarke Countv, on the farm which is 
still occupied by his family. He improved 
this land, bringing it from a wild state to a 

she being ne.\t the youngest in a family of 
tweh-e children of James and Eliza Stur- 
man, who moved from \'irginia t<j Coshoc- 
ton County, Ohio, and from there to Madi- 
son Couiit\', lov/a, in 1S49, \\here the}- 
died. .After his marriage Mr. Kelley settled 

well-improved and finely-cultivated farm, , on a farm of iGo acres on section 3, Ward 

this being one of the first farms improved ; Tcjwnship, which is still occupied by his 

on South Prairie. The homestead contains } widow, and where he died in September, 

210 acres of as good land as the township : 1870, leaving seven cliildren — Mary E., 

affords. The fine two-stor)- residence, j wife of Anderson Burt; Charles A., Sarah 

erected in 1SS5, is comfortable and com-', A. (engaged in teaching schooki, Lettie M., 

( -uij 


n/STOKy OF ci.A'ih'F coi'xir 

Nevada, Francis M. and \'iola M. Mr. 
Kfllcy was an industrious and Ciitcrprising' 
fai'mer.and by liis excellent business manage- 
ment was very successful in his ai^ricullural 
j)ursuits. He was a kind and affectionate 
husband and father, and as a citizen and 
neighbor lie was held in high esteem for 
his manv manly qualifies. lie was always 
interested in every entei'prise which he 
deemed for the public good, and for a time 
served efhcicntl}- as clerk and also as asses- 
sor of W.ird Township, giving satisfaction 
to his constituents. He was an active mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
serving as steward from the organization 
of his chuixh till his death, and also held 
the position of class-leader. His widow is 
a member of the same denomination, and a 
respected member of society. 

^I^ING P. TAYLOR was born in Ilart- 
\ / v' ford County, North Carolina, No- 
'Tjp* vember 26, 1S16, a son of James 
Taylor, who was born near Richmond, 
\'"irginia. I^Iis father was a soldier in tlie 
war of the Revolution, being severel}' 
wounded at the battle of Brand} wine, from 
the effects of whicli he died in 1S17. Our 
subject went with his mother and brother- 
in-law to Jefferson Count}', (^hio, in 1S34, 
where he lived till the fall of 1S51. He 
then removed to Guei"n^ev County, Ohio, 
and in 1S64 went to McDonough Count\', 
Illinois. He came to Clarke Countv, Iowa, 
in 1872, settling on Irs present farm on sec- 
tiitn 2, lli'\lc 'l"owiiship, wheic he has since 
followed ta.rming and stock-raising. Mr. 
'J'a'v lor has been twice m.irried. Mi'; first 
wife was Sai'.ah j. llagan, whom he mar- 
ried in 10-I9. ^1"-' died in .May, iS:;2, leav- 
ing one sori — William, who is now a resi- 
dent of Murray, lor his seccHid wife he 
maiaied .Asenatii Cox, in .March, ifi5;, and 
t ) this union iuivc been born three eliil- 

d)'en — -Judson J., Mary and Ida, Judson 
beitig superintendent of the schools of 
Clarke County. y\r. Taylor is classed 
among the prosperous farmi'rs of Doyle 
Township, where he has a valuable farm 
containing 290 acres. He is a member of 
the Baptist church. 

.:7^^EORGE W. VAUGHT, an old pio- 

'. I,,^7>. ncer who has been identified with 

"Ai' \ 

'\z-^ the growth and advancement of 

Clarke Count)- for over thirty years, is a 
native of Clark County, Indiana, born 
December 12, 1S2S. His parents, William 
and Elizabeth (Giltner) Vaught, were na- 
tives of Virginia and Penns3d vania, respect- 
ively, and to them were born fourteen chil- 
dren, of whom our subject v,'as the second 
child. He passed his earl}- life in working 
on the home farm, his education being lim- 
ited to the log of those early 
days. For several years he was engaged 
in flat-boating on the Ohio River, freight- 
ing wood and hay to the Louisville market. 
At the age of twenty-one years lie came to 
the then Territory of Iowa, locating in Jef- 
ferson County, and a short time later rc- 
moved to A]ipanoose Count}', where here- 
sided until 1S54. He then ccmic to Clark'!^ 
County, Iowa, and located on Goverinnent 
land in Green Bay Township. August i i, 
1S62, he enlisted in Company D, Thirty- 
ninth Iowa Infantry, and' at the battle of 
Parker's Cross- I\oads he \vas shot through 
the left arm at the elbow. He was then 
confined in the hospii'rd six months, anti 
frf)m the ho-piial was sent to Memphis, 
Tennessee, but being unfit for active duty 
in the field ori account of his wound, he was 
placed on dutv in tlie Pro'v'Ost-.Marshal's 
guard, where he served till his discharge, 
jVugust II, 1R63, iu^t three ye;irs from the 
date of his cnlistruent. He then returned 
to his home in Clarke Countv, reniainin;' 



ihcrc till he rcninvcd lo his picsent [arm . 
in 1S79. His laini is I'lratcd on sccli'.>r. 30, i 
Green Ba)- 'J'ou'nshii). and ciMitains fig"!u v- i 
five acres of choice land under aliigii stale j 
of cultivation, adlh condorlablc house and \ 
(arm buildings lor stock', a hue orchard, e(c. 
Me is still cng;agcd in general farming and ; 
sl'-ick-raisiuL;;, in which voca!ii:)n he lias met 
with success. Mr. \^aught was married at 
the age of twent_y-two years to Miss Mel is- ; 
sa S. Sherlow, of Appauviose Count\-, Iowa. 
Thev have sc\-en children li\ing — So- 
jihrona, Leonidas, Savilla. Dora, EUswoi'th, \ 
Libbic and Isabelle. In jiolilii.'S Mr. \'aught : 
is a Republican. He is in religious faith a 
mcmbeit)f the Methodist Episcopal church. 
During his long residence hei"e he has tak- 
en a dee] I interest in exerything connected 
with the welfare of tlie township, and has 
beconie widelv knoviii and universally re- 
spected throughout the county. 


^^O.SEPH L. BALDWIN, a successful 
_3| f'lrmcr and stock-rrdser of Osceola 
<^ Township, is a native of Monroe Coun- 
ty, Iowa, born in March, 1858, a son of 
Joseph and Marrict Leavel. His mother 
died when he was but thiitcen months old, 
and he was shortly after adopted bv John 
and Parthenia Baldwin. He passed his 
youth on a farm, and received his educa- 
tion principally in the common scIkjoIs of 
his neighborhood, being" reared lo man- 
hood in Clarke Count\'. He wasunitecJ in 
marriage January 19, 1881, to Lillie White, 
daughter of B. E. and Iv'iza A. White, resi- 
dents of Middlcport, Oiiio. His family 
now conf-ists of two childi en, a son and a 
flaugliter — Clarence and Clara. Mi". Bald- 
win is classed among the most pi"(j-per()us 
young agriculturists ol his ncighlioi hootl, 
ij'-'ing no'.v the o-.vncr of a line farm of 240 
aci-cs, widch is hjca.ted rm section r.'j (jf 
Osceola Town^iiip. His land is all under 

e.vccllent cidtivalion. ids residence is com- 
ftirtable and comm(:>dic>us, and his fine new 
stable and other farm b'uiklings well adapt- 
ed for the accommodation (^f his stock. In 
conncciion with his general farming he is 
devoling considerable attention lothe rais- 
ing of stock, mukdng a specialtA' of 
thorough-bred short-horn cattle. Mr. Bald- 
win lakes an active interest in all enter- 
prises wdiich he deems lor the good of his 
township or county. He has held the ofiice 
of highway commissioner and has served 
as school director, and is at ].iresenl serving 
as super\isor with credit lo himself and 
satisfaction lo his constilucnis. 

/fTOSEril N. GRAVES, an early settler 
'X of Clarke Comitv, is a native of Ken- 
Vt^^ lucky, born near Warsaw in Gallatin 
County, May 2G, 1830, a son. of James C. 
and Catherine (Chrisenberr\-) Gra\-es, v.dio 
were pioneers of Boone County, Kentucky. 
Josepdi N. Graves lost his mother when 
but two years of age. In 1841, wdien elev- 
en veais old, he was taken by his father to 
Livingston County, Missouri, where he 
grew to manhood. On attaining his major- 
ity he went to Adams County, Illinois, 
where he began working on a farm, and in 
1850 was there married to Miss Eliza 
House, of Aflams Count v. Eight cinldren 
have been born to this imion — William M., 
died fr(;m the effects of a fall from the cu- 
pola (jf Osceola ek witor : Cliarles A., de- 
ceased; Mar}- J., deceased; John C. and 
Elon, living in Osceola; Martha E., de- 
ceased; Ada and James. Mr. Gi'aves fol 
lowed farming in Ad:tms County, Illinois, 
till 1854, when he returned to LivingSK^n 
Ci'Untv, and in the fail of tlic same year 
came to Clarke C<jurity, Iowa. On com- 
ing to Claike County lie entered 160 acres 
in Ward Townshii>, and improved eighty 
acres ol his land. Ide suijs'.fprently d;s- 




I:; : ^; ! 



posed of this land and icmoved lit tlic 
farm wlicrc lie lias since made his home. 
lie is an industrious citizen, and during- 
his residence in Ward Township has won 
the respect of all who know him. 

,?T^ON. B. BURROWS was born in 
k{\\ North Carolina, Februarv S, 1803, 
'""^^X and died at the residence of J. J. W' il- 
Ic}', of Villisca, Iowa, June 6, iSSo, at the 
age of seventj'-sevcn 3'ears. He left his 
nati\'e State at an car!}- age, moving to 
Ohio, thence to Morgan County, Indiana, 
where he married ]Miss Rachel Coffin, who 
died at Osceola, Clarke County, Iowa, 
many years ago. He resided in Morgan 
Count)', till 1856, and during his residence 
there was county auditor for several terms 
in succession, and was known not on!}' at 
home, but lhi(jughout the State, as a 
shrewd and influential politician, whose 
opinions were highly respected and whose 
ability on the stump and at the polls con- 
tributed largely to the success of his party. 


nni graduallv to the end, sur- 
rounded by all his children, who spared 
nothing that affection and ?nedical skill 
could do for him. Mis remains were in- 
terred by the side of his faithful \\-ifc of 
former years. Mr. Burrows was a man 
alfectionate at home, somewhat austere in 
public, but with a responsive heart when 
once touched. Living as he did during the 
most momentous times ol his countr3-'s 
hislorj-, he was familiar with its men and 
alTairs, and with a remarkable memory of 
events, names and dates, and gifted with 
an original and clear style of recital pos- 
sessed b}' few, his discourse was alwa3-s in- 
tensely- interesting. He was an honorable 
and intelligent citizen, and his death 
caused universal regret throughout the 


,^OHN BALDWIN, one of the pioneer 
'^,\ settlers of Clarke County, who is nou- 
^" deceased, was born in Adams County, 
Ohio, in the year iSiS, a son of Stephen 
He moved to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, in j and Elizabeth (Foster) Baldwin. His 
1S56, and shortly afterward came to Clarke j mother died when he was about three 
County, where for a number of years he j years old, and at the age of twenty-two he 
was chairman of the county board, and j was left fatherless. He was reared to man- 
represented the county in the State Assem- j hood on his father's farm, and followed the 
bly in 1868. He was an active business ' avocation of a farmer till his death, In which 
man all his life, till within the last few he was very successful, owing to his indus- 
3-ears, v.dicn failing health compelled him ■ triiuis habits and excellent management, 
to adopt quieter habits. His home was at ' After his father's death he came to Iowa, 
Osceola, the residence of his daugliter, and located in Wapello County, where he 
Mrs. J. M. Ball, and a daughter-in-law, 
Mrs. Allen H. Burrows, but jiart of liis 
time he spent in visiting his daughter, Mrs. 
J. J. Willey, of Villisca, and a daughter in 
Wahoo, Nebraska, Mrs. Reese, whose hus- 
band is now supreme judge of Nebraska. 
For several weeks previous to his death 
Mr. Burrows had been aflictcd with a 
disease of the stomach, and this, combined 
with the weakening effects of old age. 

\\as marrierl in 1S49 to Parthcnia Collier, a 
daughter of Richard and .Mary Collier, 
both of whom were born in Kentuck}-. 
Her father died at the age of seventy-six 
years, but her mother still survives, being 
now in her eight v-secoud vear. After his 
marriage in 1 f enry County, Iowa, he settled 
on a fai'm in ^Vapcllo Count}-, on which 
he resided till the spring of 1S5 i. He then 
came to Clarke County and entered 160 

7/ .! 

I. L 



acres of land on section 25, Osceola Town- 
ship, and became one of tlic most cntcipris- 
inrr jincl successful agTicultuiists of his 
ncig"hborhood, owning' al the time of his 
de.ith 500 acres of ch'jice land. Me died in 
February, 1SS3, leavin;^ a host of fiiendsto 
niourn his death. He cast his first vote for 
Harrison and was idcnl died with that party 
all his life. He was a consistent member 
of the Methodist Episcopal chui-ch. His 
widow, who still resides on the old home- 
stead in Osceola Township, is a member of 
the Christian ch.urch and ai-c?pected mem- 
ber of society. 

'"■\ W' '"^'-' respected pioneer of Clarke 
i=rj>iri County, Iowa, is a native of New 
Brunswick, born March 15, 1S33, a son of 
William and Eliza (jMcClaske_\) Gardner, 
the father born in the State of Maine, and 
the mothei- a native of Ireland. Our sub- 
ject was six 3"cars old when his parents 
went to Maine, remaininij there four^-ears. 
They then removed witli their fami!}.- to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and a short time later set- 
tled in Ripley County, Indiana, where 
William H. lived for ten years. He v,-as 
reared on a farm and received but limited 
educational advantages in the subscription 
school'; of those carh- days. In 1S53 he 
came to Clarl-cc County, Iowa, and entered 
forty acres of his present farm from the 
Government, which he immcdiatelv com- 
menced to improve, building a log house 
and maldng other improvements. He was 
married November 20, 185S, to Angeline 
Danncr, of Doyle Tovi'n'ihip, Clarke Coun- 
ty, a daughter oi Samuel Dannci'. Tlie}- 
have seven childi-en — Elmer, E\"a, Cliarlcy, 
Lizzie, Willie, Eddy and Frank. All the 
children are receiving good educational 
advantages, and Elmer, Charlie and Lizzie 
are at present students (jf the college at 

Battle Creek, Michigan. Mr. Ga-dner has 
met with, good success in his general farm- 
ing and stock-raising, and has added to his 
original tract of forty acres until his farm 
now contains 470 acres of weIl-ini|:)ro\'ed 
land, and under a good state of cullivation. 
His log cabin of pioneer da vs has been re- 
placed by his present comfe)rtable and com- 
UKidious residence. In his political ^■iews 
Mr. Gardner is a Republican. In hisixlig- 
ious faith he is a Seventh Day Adventist. 
Ml'. Gardner has been a resident of Clarke 
Count}- for over thirty years, and has taken 
an interest in cvei\-thing connected with 
the welfare of his township, gradurdly ac 
quiring a pleasant home and liecoming 
widely and well known as a progressive 
farmer. Although he began life without 
means, he has by his perse\-ering industry 
and gi;)od management, acquired a compe- 
tency, and is now classed among the self- 
made men of Clarke County. 

^•OHN S. YOUNG, one of the repre- 
"|.- I sentatiye citizens and an honored pio- 
^' neer of Clarke Coimty, lovv-a, residing 
on section 24, Liberty Tow nship, was born 
in Greene Count}-, Indiana, Noven-iber 15, 
1S19, ason of Jacob and Martha (Storm) 
Young, the father a native of Maryland, 
and the mother born in \'irginia, but reared 
in Kentuck}-. Thcv were married in In- 
diana, and were among the early settlers of 
Greene County, that State, where they made 
a home in the wilderness, living th.ere till 
their death, the mother dying in 1S51, and 
the father about eight years later. The 
father was of German descent. The ma- 
ternal grandfather of our subject, John 
Storm, was a soMier in tlie war of the 
Revolution. John S. Young, whose name 
hcafls tills sketch, was the eldest of a fami- 
ly of ten cliildren, seven sons and thi-ec 
daughters, as follows — ^^'illiam went to 









' * *'*''f^.V.V.Vyf.V.V'<i.V.'<f.V.'tf,V,V'^^^ 


3^<j ' J//sro/:y of cocwrr. 

Missipsij)}!! in 1S40, and died tlicrc in 1844; 
Joscpli \V. was a soltlicr in the Mexican 
wai", and also served in the v>'ar of the Re- 
bellion, being Capiain in Uie Xine!,y-sevenih 
Indiana Infaturv. and was killcil at the bat- 
tle o[ Lookont Mountain : l^ittlclon paitic- 
ipatcd in t\venl\'-seven battles durini; the 
late war without iiijuiy, but died at home 
of disease conti'actcd while in the service ; 
Henr}' C. also died of disease contracted 
while in tiie service ; John M. died of 
tyjihoid fe\"er about the commencement of 
the war ; Mai'Un died in infanc}' ; Mrs. Ann 
Floyd, of Greene C^'ounty, is the only mem- 
ber of the famih- besifle our subject who 
still survives; Mrs. Elizabeth Carmichel 
died in Lucas Ciiunty, Iowa, and Melvina 
died in early childhood. John S. Young 
was reared to farm life, and with the ex- 
ception of one year in the mercantile bus- 
iness he has always followed that ax'oca- 
tion. He remained with his pajents till 
twenty-one years of age, and until he was 
twenty-six years of age he devoted his en- 
tire eai'nings to their support. He werit 
to Mississippi in September, 1840, return- 
ing to Indiana in Mav, 1841. Februarv 6, 
1S4.1, he was imited in marriage to Mary 
Beem, who was born in Owen County, In- 
diana, October 14, 1820, a daughter of 
Neely and Leah Beem, her father dying 
when she was cjuite young, in Owen 

ting in Otter Creek Township, Lucas 
County, where he lemained until tlic 
spring of 1869. He then sold his farm of 
240 acres, liuying the l.irm wiiich he no^v 
o\vns and occupies in Liheriy Township. 
He has met with good success in his agri- 
cultural pui'suiis, and besides his home 
farm, which contains 160 acres of valuable 
land, he also owns forty acres of timber 
land in the same township. Inpolitics Mr. 
Young is identified with the Republican 
party, althipugh in earlier years he was an 
old-line Whig. He and his familv are 
Methodists in their religious belief. Mr. 
^'oung has experienced all the trials and 
hardships incident to the life of a pioneer, 
locating in the count)- among the early 
settlers, and has witnessed the many 
changes tliat have taken place, having 
dowQ his part toward building up the 
material interests of this part of Clarke 

County, and her mother dving in the same , and there the mother died in the fall of 

FT B. LANE is a native of New Jersc}', 
■', ( born April 8, 1S30, a son of Richard 
^■^^ and Annie M. (Holmes) Lane. The 
lather was lost at sea when our subject was 
but eight months old, and the mother sub- 
sequently removed with her seven children, 
three sons and four daughters, to Highland 
County, Ohio, where he grew to manhood. 

countv in 1856, Mr. and .NL's. Voung have 

eight children living — Mrs. Adalinc Fierce, 

living with her parents ; Joseph T. of Lucas 

County, Iowa; Emma, wife of ^Varon I^3'nn, 

of Adair County; \\'illiam E., living on a 

farm near his fatlier's liomestcatl ; Mrs. 

Cornelia Marquis, a widow, living near her 

parents: Mrs. Alicia Hamilton; Mrs. Lucy 

Hamilton and Love, all living in Montana. | township offices, a 

Cornelius died in infancv. Mr. Young 1 

lived on his farm in Greene Count\' until ' 

1856, v.'hcn he sold his propertv in Indiana i 

and came Nvith his family to Iowa, loca- I 

1S52. In 1855 he came to lov/a and en- 
tered 160 acres of land in Clarke County, 
which he partly improved, and then sold it 
and bought his present fai'm, which con- 
sists of sixty acres of finely-improved land. 
He has a |)leasant home, and is one of 
Fremont Township's jirominent and in- 
Huential citizens. He has held various 
las proved a reliable 
and cafiable public servant. Mr. Lane was 
maiTied in Iowa to Miss Eda, 
daughter of Aaron Harlan, and to tliem 
ha\c heen born seven children, three sons 

luocuArniCAL sKurciiim. 

and four dauE^hters — W. E., Miriam, Ce- 
lesta, Xanc_y, Catherine, GcoigeW., Slcjihcn 
A., Rhoda, and Clara Stella. The latter is 
deceased. Mr. and Mis. Lane are mem- 
bers of the Christian church. In politics 
lie is a Grcenbacker. 

Tr^^R. JESSE EMERY, a resident of Mur- 
1 P;i| ra}", was born in Mercer Connty, 
t^ Pennsylvania, August iS, iSii, a son 
of Conrad Emery, who was a native of 
Norlhumberland County, Tennsvlvania, 
and of German descent. He was icared 
on a farm, his father being a farmer b}- oc- 
cupation, and his education was received 
in the common schools, and at Cannons- 
burg vSeminary, in Washington County, of 
his native State. He began reading medi- 
cine at home, and by diligent study he 
became well versed in the knowledge of 
his profession, which he has followed suc- 
cessfully at intervals for thirt3'-three years. 
He left his native State in 1819, going with 
his parents to Wa3'ne Count}', Ohio. March 
28, 1833, he was married to jMargaret 
Pounds, a native of the same countv as her 
husband, and a daughter of Thomas Poimds. 
Five of the seven children born to the Doc- 
tor and Mrs. Emer}- arc living — Sarah J., 
Conrad, Thomas, Elizabeth and Elijah. 
Those deceased are — Hannah, who mar- 
ried and left at her death five children, and 
James, who was killed by a log rolling on 
him, when nineteen years of age. Doctor 
Emery left Wayne County, Ohio, in 1835, 
removing to Kno.K (now Stark) Countv, Ill- 
inois in 1S35. In 1853 he came v>"ith his 
family to Clarice County, Iowa, when he 
settled in Do vie Township, and in 1855 he 
and David Newton laid out the town of 
Ilopevillc. He came to Murray in 1876 
where he has since made his home. \\'hen 
the Doctor first made his home in Clarke 
County, the Indians were the principal in- 

habitants. He was then obliged to <go to 
Eddyville to mill, ninety miles distant, and 
during the first five yc;irs spent here, he 
went to nurlington to do his tiading, 
whicli was 160 miles from his home. Me 
would go to that city but once a year, get- 
ting sufficient to last a year. In i860 he went 
to the Rocky Mountains, home 
the same year, and while there held the 
office of justice of the peace a short time. 
While living in Illinois he served as con- 
stable. During the late war he servetl in 
the Uni(jn army sixteen months, being a 
member of Company I, Fifth Missouri In- 

-K? -<E^I?5- ?>- 


f|HO.MAS JOHNSON, a pioneer of 
).y Claike Countv, living- on section 20, 
rt Madison Township, was born in 
Flanover (now Prussia), Germany, the date 
of his birth being June 9, 1825. FJis liithei", 
John Johnson, immigrated to America, and 
settled in Clarke County, Iowa, several 
years ago, living here till liis death. 
Thomas Johnson, v/hose name heads this 
sketch, left his native countr}' in 1S45, and 
after coming to America made his home 
most of the time in Sangamon County, Ill- 
inois, till 1856. He returned to German)' 
in 1852. and married Miss Elizabeth Acker- 
man, a daughter of F. Ackerman. Nine 
children were born to them, of whom seven 
are living — Hilka, Matilda, John, Annie, 
Gretta, Frank and Rosa. Hannah died 
aged twenty years, and Nanc)- died at the 
age of seventeen years. Mr. Johnson came 
to Clarke County, Iowa, in 1856, and has 
since been a resident of his present farm. 
When he first settled in the count v ^vild 
animals abounded, and Indians were the 
pi'incipal inhabitants. He was then (ibligcd 
to go to Indianola to luill. a distance of 
thirty miles. He began life for himself 
entirely without me;uis. On landing in 
America he could not obtain work till the 


following spring, and until that time \vns 
in debt for his hoard in St. Louis. lie lias 
always followed agricultui'al pursuits, in 
which he h.ns prospered far beyond his 
expectations, and now owns 5?^ aci'cs uf 
choice land. In connection with his gen- 
eral farming he devotes considerable at- 
tention to stock-raising, and has at present 
on his farm 125 head of cattle, besides 
twenty-six calves, and between sixty and 
sevent}' hogs. Since residing in the town- 
ship he has served as trustee, besides hold- 
ing other local offices of trust. lie is a 
member of the I'rotcstant Methodist 

;^UGH R. DUKE, of the village of 
''-W\ ^^^"^odburn, was born in Clarke 
■Hg// Count V, Vii'ginia, November 28, 1S36. 
His parents, Thomas and Sidnev (Johnsoti) 
Duke, were born and reared in ^"irginla. 
Mis grandfather was one of the patriots 
who served in the war for American inde- 
pendence, and his father seivcd in the war 
of 1812. Me v.-as in the garrison at Fort 
Henry, fialtimorc, at the time of its bom- 
bardment by the British foixes. In 1853 
the family removed to Logan County, 
Ohio, wliere the father died in 1S55, aged 
sixt3'-three years. Hugh, being the eldest 
child at home then had charge of the famil}-. 
The}' moved to Jefferson Countv, Virginia, 
and lived on rented land. July iS, 1861, 
Hugh enlisted in Company K, Seventh 
Iowa Infantry, in defense of the Union. 
Mis first action was at llie battle of Foit 
Donelson ; next in the terrible tU'j days' 
battle at Sliil'.>h, and later the siege of 
Corinth. Me was in the battles of luka 
and Corinth in 1862. In Middle Tennessee 
the regimeni was doing liard duty until the 
relief of Gc'ieral Thomas' arm}' at Chatta- 
nooga. T!ic regiment then joined the 
]-'ifteenl h Corps, under command of General 
Logan, and became a part of Siicrnian's 

grand army in its campaign against 
Johnston's arm}- ; and at, Atlanta, in the lie- 
roic camj^;iign followed, the Seventh 
boi"e an hon.orable pai't. In the battles 
that occurred between Chattanooga and 
Atlanta the Seventh alsol>orean honorable 
part, being nearly sixt}' da\s under fire. 
July 22 the regiment was engaged at At- 
lanta where General McPherson was killed; 
Sergeant Duke saw him fall and carried 
from tlie field. It was at the battle of 
Jonesboi'O ; followed the banners of Sher- 
man to the sea; up through the Carolinas, 
and in I he line of the grand leview at 
Washington. ^V'hile at l*etersbu)"g, Ser- 
geant Duke was permitted to visit his 
sister, JNIrs. Emil}' \V)"itt, at Sutheidand 
Station, Dinwiddie Coimly, A'irginia. He 
I was honorabl}" discharged Juh 22, 1S65. 
I The service of Sergeant Duke ^^■as honor- 
' able in the highest degree. He ^vas in the 
I hospital at Bird's Point, in October, 1863, 
tvi'o weeks ; participated in all the battles 
of his regiment, terminating only ^\■ith the 
surrender of the rebel General Johnston's 
army. He returned to Jefferson Count',", 
and June 13, 1S67, was united in marriage 
with Miss Mary Frush, daughter of George 
Frush of Clarke County. She was born in 
Guernsey County, Ohio, Atigust 3, 1S41. 
In 1870 Mr. and Mrs. J3ukc went to La- 
Bette County, Kansas, intending to remain, 
but being unable to get a good title to the 
railroad land upon wdiich they had settled, 
they went to the northwestern part of the 
State and located a soldier's warrant. Af- 
ter the lo'^s of several successive crops by 
grasshoppers, Mr. Duke abandoned all 
hope of living in Kansas and returned to 
Jefferson County. In 18S1 he removed to 
the village of \^'oodburn. He owns ninety- 
three acres, all within the corporation of 
A\'oodburn. Me is a member and Adjutant 
of Davenport Post, No. 385, G. A. R., and 
both are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church. They have live children living 

; I ,],,-. 

(■ ,1-,. ,■_,, .,, 


■.♦;.*,.«;.*.]fV,«.^*.;«,<,';it:i«, t'.ii'.^.p.itiJ'Vi 

if'\*;si*;>i;*.>!.<'^*,>;.<>^*i!v;;*;;«;,<: ♦;.♦;;«:;«,;<•>;;*,;<>;.*;■»;>;.<.»:.«;.«•;> 



— Orin D., Elmtr E., Mary E., Ida May and 
Clyde Ot ho. RosciiC J. died of croup in Ecb- 
ruarVjiSSi.agcd two years and thicc-montlis. 
Mr. Duke's mother died in 1874 in Jeffer- 
son County, aged scvcnlv-foiir -\-cars. One 
brother, Tiiomas, and sister, Euiilv, live in 
Virginia. Two brothers, iJavid and Will- 
iam L., li\'e in jefTerson County. A sister, 
Mrs. Saradi Johnson, lives in Woodbnrn, 
and Mrs. Mary Jane Dicnncr lu'cs in Kan- 
sas. In politics Mr. Duke is a Republican. 


0"ILLIAM E. HARPER, recorder of 
\r Claike Count}', was bom in Kos- 

^:sS ciusko County, Indiana, near the 
city of- Warsaw, November 9, i?44. He 
was the tliird of seven children, four of 
whom are now living. The father, James 
Harper, is a native of Indiana. The mother, 
Deliiah (Mason) Harper, was also a native 
of Indiana. They immigrated to Clarke 
County in 1S57, and settled on a farm, 
where they remained many 3-ears. They 
tlien moved to Osceola, where the}- still 
reside. William E. passed his bovhood on 
a farm, and I'cceived such educational ad- 
vantages as the common schools of that 
day afforded. At the outbreak of the 
civil war, when he was but eighteen years 
of age, he entered the service as a private 
scildier, enlisting in Compau}- D, Eighth 
Regiment, Iowa Cavali^}', and served faith- 
fully two years in the AVcstern army. He 
took an active piart in the Atlanta cam- 
paign \vitli his regiment, also m the last 
campiaigii of the war: he with his regi- 
ment in 1S65 was with General Wilson's 
cavalry cijrps wiien they made their 
famous raid toward Mobile, Selina, Tus- 
kaloosa and other points, after which he 
returned to Georgia, where he was mus- 
tered out Augrist 13, iS6t. After being 
honorably discharged, Mr. Haijjer returned 
to Clarke County, and engaged in agricult- 

ural ]iursuits. Septenibei' 26, 1865, he mar- 
ried Miss Einarilla, d.aughter of G. N. Til- 
lotso'.i, c)f Claike County. They ha\et\\o 
children — Eevi S. and Addie L. In 1S73 
Mr. Harpier left the farm and moved to 
the city, where he accep)led a clerkship in 
a store. In iSSj he was the Republican 
nominee for county recorder, and was 
elected by a large majority. So well did he 
discharge the duties of his office, that in 
1SS4 lie was re-elected. Mr. Harper is a 
member of the Knights of Pvtiiias and of 
the Grand Ainiy of the Republic. He is 
well known, and by his genial manner has 
won many friends. 


;BISIIA SANDERS, farmerand stock- 
: raiser, living on section 5, ' Knox 
ti.Tr- Township, was born in Perry Count}-, 
Ohio, April 2, 1S4S, a son of Jesse and Ep- 
sey (Battin") Sanders, the fatlier being a 
native of Georgia, and the mother born in 
Coluinbiana Countv, Oliio. They were the 
P'aients of nine children — Benjamin, ]Ma- 
tilda, Simeon. Myrom, Clai-inda, Jesse, 
Jolm, Sarah and Abisha. Abisha spent his 
youth on a farm, his education, being 
obtained in the common schools. He en- 
listed in the defense of his country at the 
early age of fifteen years, lie being one of 
the youngest soldiers m the compan}'. He 
joined Company B, Tentfi Ohio Cavalry, in 
Eebruary, 1S63, and participated in many 
engagements, and was with Sherman in his 
granrl march to the sea. He was in Gen- 
eral Kilpatrick's command. He was hon- 
orablv discharged at Cleveland, Ohio, 
in August 1 065, when lie returned to 
his. lionic in Perry County, Ohio. Octo- 
ber 21, 1S60, he was married to Phebc 
Travis, of Perrv Count \-, and they liave 
eleven children living — Matilda, Albert S., 
Stella A., Eflie Alice, Carrie Irena, Ora 
Centennial, (3rle P., Vernon !'., Charlotte, 






aiui ;iii i;il;iiit iinnaiiicd. 

Lor, I 131, lino, aiui an i;il;iiit iinnaiiicd. Mr. 
SaiuicTS has bc-.-n a rcsidcr.t ol CUuko 
Coiintv. It)\\a, since tliu snring of 1.S78, 
when he locate;! in\ his picsent farni in 
Knox 'rownshin. His farm contains 200 
acres of as good land as can be found in 
Clarke Counlv,and isallu.idera high stale 
of cultivation. M)-. Sandeis is a nieniljcr 
of the Grand Arniv of tlic Repuldic, be- 
longing to Post Xo. ij<9. In jiolitics he is 
a J\eput)lican. 

TT^'VR. CALVIX IJLYTHE, oncof Clarke 
"1 J Counts's leading physicians, resides 
'■r-< in the \-illage of Woodbui'ii. lie lias 
been a resident of Clarke County nineteen 
years. Me was born at Marrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania, August 25, 1S32. His father, Cal- 
vin Blythe, .Sr., was born in Adams County, 
Penns)•l\^^nia, and his mother, Patience Au- 
gusta Elliott, in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, 
the latter died when Calvin was six months 
old. She was a member of that family of 
Elliotts of whom Commodore Jesse D. Elli- 
ott, U. S. X., was a distinguished member. 
His father was a lawyer by ]jrotession, and 
a leading man of the State; served \n the 
Legislature two terms; as judge and ci:)l- 
lector of port, at Pliiladelphia inider Presi- 
dent Tvler"s administration. His death 
occuire! in i?,\'i. The lollowing from 
the I'hila le![)liia Lcd_;cr shows the esteem 
in ^^'hich lie was helrl b}' the public: 

'■ DKAIlt OF IIOX. CAiA'IN UI.^'TME." | 

" We record the decease of this gentle- \ 

man with deep legret, for he was one of ' 

the niost aiiiable, courteous am! unassum- j 

ing genlleaien of our aciiuainlance. lie : 

served wi:!i ilistinctiori on the Canada 

frontier dm iiig the war of 181.?, has been i 

a member ^A o".r .St.ate Legislature, sec- | 

retarv '.>! the Co:ninon\rea!th, altoiaiey- 1 

genera!, pr.-Li'h. nt, judge, collector of i 

the port of Philadelphia, and held be- 
sides \-arious honorar\' positions of trust. 
He died at the resilience of his brother 
Ezra, in Adams County, whither he had 
repaired in consequence of his failing 

Dr. Calvin ])!ythc reniained iri Harris- 
burg until tic was ten years of age, then 
went to IMiiladelpliia where he grew to 
manhood. He studied medicine at New- 
ark, Ohio, am! graduated in tlie medical 
deiiaitment of the Univcrsit}- of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. He commenced his 
practice in Wapello Countv, Iowa. Since 
that time he has devijled all his time and 
energies to his profession, and lias been 
remarkably successful. The doctor is a 
member of the order of A. F. & A. I^L, and 
affiliates with Unity Lodge, Xo. 212, at 
^Voodburn. He is a dealer in drugs and 
medicines, keeping the only drug store at 
Woodlnirn. John E. Blythe, the onl)- 
brother of Dr. Blytlic, served in the marine 
service of the Uiiited States Government, 
on the steamer Somerset. He died in tlie 
service in 1S64. • ' .. 



ff-AMES HUMISTOX, one of' Wood- 
burn's active business men, was born 
at ^Vallingford, X'ew Haven County, 
Connecticut, August 16, 1S35. His par- 
ents, Charles and Luc)- (Bronson; Hum- 
iston, were natives of Connecticut, iiis 
father died in that State in 1842. His 
widcjw and her four cliildren, James, John, 
Ann E. and Lucy A., emigiated to Iow:i in 
1S45, six months before its admission into 
the union, and settled up'in a far. a in 
Louisa Countv. James left home v.dien 
eighteen vears of age, and learned llie tin- 
ner's trade at Wapello and Muscaiine. In 
1S57 he eslablished himself in the !iard- 
warc business at Wapello. One \-.'\\' later 
he was carried by tlie gold fever to Cali- 


I//Sr07Cl' OF CLARKE COl'XTi'. 

Cutcluv.i, bv whom he Iins hnd one cliild. 
Mr. Huff returned to Clarke County in the 
fall of iSSi, settling- on the old homcsiead, 
on section 21, Doyle Township, where lie 
has 100 acres of choice land, and has since 
been successfully engaged in hisagricnltural 
pursuits. He is a member of the Christian 
church. He also belongs to the Giand 
Army of the Republic. While li\-iiig in 
Ringgold County he held the o^^iCeof con- 

'VrTT.T; T. >fATHEWS, one of the cutcr- 
r\ \\) prising- and successful jiionccrs of 

l=4>-i?^'* Clarke Count}-, living in Gi-een 
Ba}' Township, on section 24, was born in 
Muri-ay Count}-, Tennessee, Jul}- iS, 1X27. 
His parents, Chai-ncall rmd Sarah (Shinall) 
jNIathews, were both natives of \'irginia. 
Eig'ht children were born to them, as fol- 
lows — Marv Ann, \V. T. (our suljject"), 
Elizabeth, Jackson, Elisha F.. Geoige, \ 
Charles and John Felix. The j-iarcnts re- 1 
n-ioved to ^Vas]lingto^l Couiiiv, lllirKjis, j 
when our subject \\ infant, and there 1 
he was reared, his vouth licing passed in ; 
assisting on the farm and in attending the i 
cojiimon schools. In July, 1S47, he enlisted \ 
in tlie Mexicai-i war, in Compan\- FI, Sec- | 
end Illinois Infantry, and after serving one 
3-ear was honorably dischai-gcd. He was ' 
married December 13. 1849. to Catherine ! 
Logan, of Washington Couni\-, Ulinuis, 1 
and to this union Vv-cre bnrn Sivcii children i 
— Martha R., Hiram W.. Ilaniei F.. Lewis ! 
E., C. C, George M. and ]-'rank;e L. Mr. 
Mathc--vs came to Iowa in 1S51, loc.iting in 
Poweshiek Countv, where he remained 
about four s'ears. I11 i,S55 he crnne with : 
his family Ui Countv, InrN-ing iSo 
acres of la;id. on v\-'iiieh he re-ided three 
yeais. He llien eveiianged his land iur ' 
mill ]-)r(jir;rt}- on section 24, Green Lav 
Townsliip, Nshcre lie operateel a mill for 
four years. .Mr. M.itliews enlisled in the . 

late war .\ugust 13,1862. in Con-ipanv D, 
Thirty-ninth Iowa lnfantr\-; and jiarlici- 
j-ialcd in the eng.igcinents at Pa.rker's Cross- 
Roads, Snake Creek' Gap, Litllc Ogecchee 
River, Columbia, Lcntonvillc. near Golds- 
borough, besides a numbe;- of skiiniishes. 
During the war he was app.iinted First 
Lieutenant, and ser\-ed as such till his (.lis- 
charge at Clinton, Iowa, June ;, 1S65. He 
then rcturjicd to Clarke Comity and set- 
tled C)n his present farm, whei-e his wife 
died October S, 1869. He was again 
lu-iitcd in marriage June 23, 1S74, to Mrs. 
Catlic)-inc (Rainy) Meachum, and of the 
two childi-en born ti") lUiiononlv one is 
living — a daughter, Minnie L. Mc>lh- is de- 
ceased. Mi-. Mathews lias met v.'ith suc- 
cess in has geiieral farming rmd stock-rais- 
ing, an.d is now the owner of his hue farm 
which contains 230 acres of highly-cuUi- 
vated land, with good residence, well fur- 
nished and commodious, barn and out- 
buildings. Mr. }^Iathews was elected 
countv siipervisor in. 1S76, ;md served 
three years to the best inte]-ests of Clarke 
Covint\-. He has also filled the ofhces of clerk 
an.d trustee of Green Bav Township, and has 
beena memberof th.e ScIiocjI Board. lie is a 
u-iember 0! Jacinth Lodge, No. 443, A. F. 
it A. M. of ^^^ek^:'n. He is a member of 
the Methodist Ejiiscipal church, b-eing 
class-leader and trustee of the same. In 
politics he is a staunch Republican. 

■n.^I-^IOR J. MOORE, one of the ;nost 
'. p' enterprising and successfid raisers of 
''i-r. thorough-bred cattle, and a public- 
spirited citi/:en of Wasliington Township, 
is a native of Delaware, bori-i Xovc-mber 
16, iS52.a son of Enoch .and Hannah Mooi'e. 
When t-ivo years oi age he was t;iken bv 
his loarents to Chc'-ler Countv, Pennsvl- 
vania, and there his boyl'.oijd davs were 
j);issei-l on a farm, aij'J in attending tiie 

/S^^- ^^' ■-/, /^^- 



ciMnmon scliools of his neighborhood. Ho 
llicn attended Eaton Institute- throe and a 
half years, after which lie cnlcjcd the State 
Normal at Millersvillc, Peinis\l\'ania, where 
he ]:)iirsued his studies tor two years. After 
fniishing his education he began teachin:;" 
school and followed the leachor's pn_>fcs- 
sion successfully for two years. Me then 
became manager for a coal and lumber 
yard, and later was cmploj'cd as ticket and 
freight agent, bookkee]:)er and telegraph 
operator bv the Wilmington & \A^cstern 
Railroad Company. He then began trad- 
ing in stock, shipping from the soutlicrn 
and middle States to eastern cities. His 
father being an extensiye shipper and trader, 
imbued him with the same enterprising 
spirit, and for three 3'ears he dcyoled his 
lime to this enterprise. In the spi'ing;- of 
1876 he came to Clarke Count\-, Iowa, and 
liking the count)"y he determined to settle 
here permanently. He th.en began farming' 
and )-aising cattle, and fiom time to time 
added to his original small farm till he now 
owns 592 acres of choice land, located on 
sections i, 2 and 11. He is now devoting 
his attention to raising short-horn cattle, 
and has on farm some line thorough 
brcds,hisherd numbering seyent3--five head, 
most of them being recorded, and some being 
imported. He is also engaged in raising 
fine horses of the Norman grade, and for 
this cntei"))rise Mr. Moore dese)-ves nnich 
credit. His cattle-sheds arc extensive, and 
afford the best of shelter for his cattle dur- 
ing the winter months. He is a thorough, 
practical farmer, and has on farm all the 
latest improved machinery. Nearly- all of 
the grinding and shelling of his corn is 
done bv. a la)"ge wind iriill which he had 
built on the top of his granar\-. Mr. Moore 
was united in niarriage in Chester Counts', 
Pennsylvania, in 1878, to Miss Lucv Ben- 
nett, a flaughtcr of Charles Bennett, a resi- 
dent of that county. I'lieyai-e the parents 
of two children — Lucv ^V. and Leoiia. yiv. 

Moore has always taken an active interest 
in every enterprise calculated to promote 
the public welfare. He has always taken a 
pronnnent position in the communit'i', and 
has gained the confidence and respect oi 
all who kno\v hnn. 

JT*r:'f: B. H. HUTSINPILLER, one of 
\-}\\\\'\ the active and eiiterprising busi- 
['^^"w^'-j ^ ness men of Osccijla. is a native 
of Kentucky, born in Hardin Count}', Feb- 
ruary 6, 1S26. At the age of three 3"ears 
! he was taken by his parents, Jacob and 
Susan (l5-anger) Hutsinpiller, to Monroe 
I County, Indiana, and some five years later 
I removed lo Brown County, Indiana, wliere 
I the father died in 183S. Tiic father having 
! gone security foi' his friends, at his death 
I his property was all swept away, and his 
j family being left m limited circumstances, 
broke up housckeciiing and became sepa- 
rated. The niotlier returned to Monroe 
County, v.diere she died three 3-ears later. 
Our subject lived with an uncle till attain- 
ing the age of nineteen 3-ears, when lie 
began life on his own account. He went 
to La Porte, Indiana, whcie he worked on 
a farm for $10 per month, remaining on the 
same farm for twenty moinhs. He then 
returned to Monroe County, and during 
the winter attended school. In the spring 
of 1847 lie went to (J'-cenbrier County, 
Virginia, where he was emplo3-cd on a 
farm, receiving foi" his services §12 per 
month. He went lo schoiil in that count}- 
about six monilis. He then began driviiig , 
a six-horse team cm James River Tuin 
Pike for Hem-\- Buiger, v,hich he contiri- 
ued till the fall, w hen be \\'as employed on 
a farm for one year, receiving §15 per 
montli. By tin's lime he liad accumulated 
§325, and in tluj udnter of !85c>-'5i hecame 
"W^est, locating in \'an Buren Couiitr, 
I(j\\a, where he taui-ht school for one term. 


i* .«•! 
I* >. 




;♦>: ■ 










i iuT 


aiir'y:^..-! rf-'VH 

.■■^; ^ -^ -V -. * - - A * -- ^ y^^^^ 

'^ 33; lifSTOin- OF CLARKE COIXJ r. g*j 

He then went to Illinois, wlicic he taui^ht 
one term uf scIimoI, wheri lie returned to 
Virginia and inariietl 1-llizalx ih Biiri:;er. 
Tliev arc the j'arents of six ehiidren — 

was born. Both lather and mother died 
in that State. l-~reeborn AV. ijrew to matu- 

rity in his native State, rect 

;!i edii- 

Henrv A., 


I cational advautag-es as tlie common schools 
R., llarvev 1-^., Lucy M. I of that early day afforded, lie was reared 

iej a teaciier; Edmund K. running a small 1 to agricidtura! i)ursuits, his father being a 
•<s store at l^eslic; Mngcrie M. (wile of Elmer farmer by occupation. lie was married in 

Reeder, o! Custer County, Nebi'aska. 
Soon after liis niarii.igc Mr. Mutsiniuller 
returned to Monroe Cmmty, Indiana, where 
he settled on a tract of hmd (in which he 
resided ten years. In the fall oi 1802 he 
came with his f.amily (o Clai-ke Comity, 
Iowa, and made his home in Knox Town- 

I !iis nineteenth year to Electa Barrows, a 

j native of Indiana. They haye six children 

] living — Matlie, wife of Adam Kerns; ISIo- 

: ses T., Thomas A., Freeborn \V., Cord S., 

' Viola, uife of John Ream. After his rnar- 

I riage Mr. Jolmson settled on land which he 
brought from a wild state to a well-improved 

ship till the fall of 1S76. He was then j farm, on which he resided till thespringof 
engaged to take charge of a store ff)r an j 185.1. He then moved to Clarke County, 
incorporated joint stock compan\-, which I Iowa, and entered a tract of land conlain- 

position he has since filled with much 
credit to himself, giving entire satisfaction 
to his emplo3"ers, and by his strict atten- 
tion to business has gained the good will 
of his customers. iSIr. Hutsiiipiller still 
owns his farm in Knox Township, which 

ing 200 acres, four miles northwest of Os- 
ceola, and at once began improving his 
farm, which \vas then entirely unimproved. 
His first house was made of rails, the roof 
being covered witli hay, but later he built 
a more comfortable ixsidence out of hewed 

acres of choice land, nine j logs, in which he lived until 1S57, when lic 


acres of which is timber land. Mr. Hnt- 
sinpiller has served Kn(jx Township as 
clerk, and has been treasui'cr of the School 

traded a part of his farm for a stock of 
goods, moved to Osceola, where he carried 
on a general mercantile business for twenty 
iJK Board, and mayor of the city of Osceola, j years. At the same time he also dealt 

Both he and his wife aic members of the 
Presbj'terian church, of which he has been 
elder for the past fourteen years. 

Tfj^'REEBORX W . JOILXSOX. a promi- 
iri nent agriculturist ami an earl\- settler 
*^,.;" of Clarke Count^', is a nali\e of Indi- 
ana, born near S[)encer, in 0\ven Countv, 
October 7, 1821. His father, David John- 
son, was a native of \'irginia, born in 1782, 
of English descent, an 1 his nnvdier, Pat 

(Cutler) Jnhiisfin, was birn 1 
New Vin'k, but removed to \"irginia before 
her marriage. Siie died when our subject 
was a child. After tlieir marriage the 
parents went to Ohio, and later removed 
to Indiana, wlieve tliesubjc-ct of this sketch 

,-ely in stock, and at one time drove 
over 100 head of fat cattle to Chicago. In 
18S0 he retired from active business life, 
since which time he has lived somewhat 
retired, but still owns considerable stock. 
His present fine residence v.-as erected in 
1S60, this being the first brick house in Os- 
ceola, and the second which was built in 
Clarke Countv. Mr. J(jhnson came to 
Clarke County with limited means, bet 
being a man of great energy and persever- 
ing industry, he has by his own efforts 
in the State of ' gained a good competency for his declin- 
' ing years. He is an ardi. nt temperance 
I man and a strong advocate of law and 
'■' order. Both he and Ids v/ife have been 
1 members of the Methodist Protestant 
i church for the pa'-t forty-seven year.s. 

M. i 

')ji ^ 

;•■ -S-V V>"^ Vv'' V*''i''.?:*"'( 

icivf -#«t.<'-?:;2-* j»»: .*; 

lilOGR. 1 1\>!JCAL SKE TCJiES. 

Tiicir son, I'lcJerick, enlisted in the I'ni ■)ii 
arinv in 1S62, a member of Ciniii'aiu- F, 
Sixth luwa Infantry. He received a -iva 
shot wound at the battie (>i Mi^■;il)nar_v 
Ridge, from the effects of which l\e died 
in iS6S. He was a si-iceial favoidte with 
all his acquaintances, and ids death was a 
source of universal re<ircl. 


fy\J. CLAIR POWELL, one of the en- 
/.' "^■JX terprisin;^" and prosperous farmers of 
; ■■'S?i,l^ibcrty 'J'ownshiu, residing on sec- 
Ition 35, was boiai in Marion County, Indi- 
'ana, Janiiaiy 31, 1842, a son of Lewis B. 
■ and Jane (Smith) Powell, llis pa.rcnls ^^■erc 
born a;id i"eared in the State ot Virgirua, 
living tiiere till after their m irriage. ']'he_v 
were earh' settlers of ALirion Countv, In- 
•diana, where they made a home out of the 
;dense forest, both dying at their pioneer 
home. Tlieir familv consisted of four sons 
•and. four daughters, of whom our subject 
_Avas,the seventh child. Only two besides 
!our subject are now livijig: Mrs. Frances 
■^Morcin, living in Hiawatha, Kansas, and 
John 13., the youngest of the family, living 
in Grundy Coimty, Iowa. St. Clair Pov.-ell 

■ was- united in marriage in June, 1S6.:, to 
Miss Savilla Shinn, in Henry Countv, llli- 

■ n(jis, and to this union were liorn two 
dren — Meirlck, wlio died at tlie age of thir- 
teen years, and Adclla. In August, icSG^, 
Mr. Pov/ell enlisted in Companj- I, One 
Hundred and Second Illinois Infantry, and 
in November, 1862, was broken down by 
a forced march of his regiment, going to 
the lelief of Frankfort, Kentucky. After an 
attack of bilious lever he rejoined his regi- 
ment, but failing hcaltli necessitated his 
discharge at Gallatin, Tennessee, in Marcli, 
1S63. Mr. Powell located in Grundy 
Countv, Iowa, in 1865, bu\ing inojjL-rtv 
tliere with the intention of irn];i'0\ing 
and making a home, but his wife's healtli 

failing made a change necessary. He 
then sold his property a-vd went to Coffc}- 
Comity, Kansas, Avherc his wife died in 
October, 18^7. Mr. Powell then veUirned 
to Grundy County, Iowa, with his two 
chili-lren, wi)ere he j'emained till cnniing 
to Clarke Countv, Io'.\a. in March, 1S71. 
He has brought his land from a wild state 
to a well-cultivated farm, and has m.ade 
all the iniproxcmtaits v,in his j^lace. Not 
a tree had been planted nor a fuj-row 
turned. Now his buildings are sheltered 
by a fme maple gro\-c, raised from seed 
planted twelve years before, the frees being 
now fully twenty feet in height. His fine 
farm contains 400 acres of as good land as 
can be found in the tou'nship, and the prod- 
ucts of the farm are used for feeding his 
sti")ck,his attention being devoted to stock- 
raising. Sep'tember S, 1872, Mr. Po\\ell 
mrnried ior his second wile INIiss Maria J. 
Barnes, and- to them have been born seven 
children — William J., Lottie M., Annie B., 
Charles, Frank E., Bertie and Hattie. In 
politics Mr. Powell is an anient Repub- 
lican. He is a member of Unity Lodge, 
No. 212, A. F. 6: A. M.. of Woodburn, and 
is a highly-respected citizen of Liberty 

.-"T'AMES F. SWITZEP.. the eldest son of 
.Samuel and Maroa,-et (Lowerv") Swit- 
r-<^' zer, is a native of Wyandotte County, 
Ohio, born August 12, 1846. When he was 
five 3-ears old his parents removed to Des 
^loines Count V, Iowa, and there he was 
educated in the schools of that county, re- 
maining witii his parents luitil reaching his 
majority. He was marrierl in his twenty- 
fourth year to Sarah J. Crawf(jrd, a daugh- 
ter of William Crawford, of Des Moines 
County. They have seven chihlren living 
— Ida, Eddie. Maggie, John, Jessie, Alonzo 
and Ada A. After his marriage Mr. 








///.Syvv-.r OF CLARio:: couyrr. 

S\vit;--cr lived on a farm in Dcs M^iincs j till December, 1S79. when he removed lo 
Count\' liir oric year. v.'Iien lie came lo , Mnrrax, wlieie lie has since built up a laigc 
Clarke C'~'unt\'. He !i\ecl four _\ ears in | and lucrative practice. Being- unusLiallv 

Osceola Township, and in 187.! removed 
to the fruTii in Washington Townsliip, on 
section 26, where he has since resided, lie 
has been \-ery successful in !iis genera! 
farming, and Ijesides liis home farm, which 
contains tifty-fivc acres, he owns .'mother 
farm in t!ie same townsliiji. on section 34. 
His farm is well stocked with cattle and 
horses. In' conncctiem with his larming 
pursuits l;e has run atliresliing n.acliine for 
several years. Mr. Switzcr has held the 
oflice of assessor of Washington Township 
for five years with satisfaction to his con- 

skilled in the kmiwkdge of Ids i>rolessiijn, 
he has been a successful praciiiioner, iiis 
services being c;dled ujjon both day and 
night. The doctor has served cificientlv 
as a member of the town council. He be- 
longs to both the Masonic and Odd Fellows 


ILLl.-VM P.. F. EMARY, of section 
\r; 3, Knox Township, is one of the 
'[~ -rr-j enterpi'ising and successful citizens' 
of Clai-ke County, where he has made his 
home since i S6S. 1 Ic is a native of Sussex, 
England, born April 22. 1852, a son of F.J. 
and Martha Emar\-. They liad a family of 

?:fT^AMUEL L. LANDIS, i>hysician and \ six children-^Xewtnn H., Alice Maud, F. 
^^S\ surgeon, residence Muri-ay, is a native I .!•, William B. F., Susan Amelia, and Walter. 


)f ^^'est Virginia, born in Augusta | Our subject was an infant when his parents 
County in December, 1837. His fathci', ] came to America with their famih- ; ihey 
Samuel Landis, was among the pioneers of 1 immigrated in July, 1S52. The lamily first 
Clarke County, locating in Doyle Town- ! located in Mercer Covmty, Illinois, remain- 
ship as eady as 1856. Ide subsequently I ing there till 1S6S, when they jcinoved to 
removed to Westerville, Decatur County, Clarke Ciuinty, Iov,-a, and settled in Knox 
Iowa, vdiere he lived till his death. Samuel ! Township. W. B. F. Emary was united in 
L., our subiect, passed his on the i marriage Fel)ruary 8. 1875, to Henrietta 
home farm, his father being- engaged in ! Hennesey, a daughter of John and Ellen 
agricultural pursuits, and received good j Hennesey, of Clarke County. Five chi 

educational advantages, attending- Asbur}- 
Coilege, at Greencastlc, Indiana. He came 
\vith his father to Clarke County in the 
spring of 1856, the rest of the familv fol- 
lowing in tlvi fall of the same veai-. jmie 
19. 1S66, lie was united in marriage to .Mar- 
garet E. f-v.nery, a daughter of Dr. Jesse 
Emerv, oi .Murray. The\' have thi-ee chil- 

dren have been born t') this uni(jn, whose 
names are as follows: Helen, Llewellyn, 
Jessie Maud, ddiomas R. and Cluulcs Fos- 
ter. Mr. Emary is lijcated on a good farm 
of 200 acres, where he is extensively en- 
gaged in raising-, feeding and dealing in 
stock. Idis farm is under excellent culti- 
\ation, and his improvements among- the 

dren — Je,■^=e E.. Samuel F,. and licrtha Mav. i best in his neighborhood. He has a very 
Dr. Landis graduated from the College of j fine residence, erected in 1885, and fur- 
Pliysicians and .Surg^or,s, at Keokuk, lov.-a, I nislicd throughout in a comfortable mar:- 
in February, 1874, ha.ving practiced four } ner. His farm buildings are comfortable 
years previous. He continued the iiracticc ' and commodious, and are well adapted for 
of medicine at Hop.jville, Clarke County, 1 the accommodation of his stock. Although 

'. *1 >J S >J ;*"*; S SiK *u«i -■*;'*; A*i jii 




but a 3-onng man, Mr. Emaiy }kis gaiiic;! 
a good position, both socially and finan- 
cially, among the best citizens of the 


^rietor of the 

.'//V ^^'o'"-"''-^"''" Mouse, Clarke County, 
~ :^ Iowa, wai born in McNar\' County. 
Tennessee, April 20, 1834. His father, 
Thomas Hill, was a native of Virginia, born 
February 14, 1797, and was reared in his 
native State. He married Matilda Shrob- 
shier, a native of North Carolina, of Ger- 
man ancestry. He was by trade a house- 
carpenter and also followed agricultural 
pursuits, hi 1S27 he moved to Tennessee, 
where he lived nine years, and in 1S36 
took his family to Red River Countv, 
Texas, where he was one of the first set- 
tlers, and received a settler's right to 1,200 
acres of land, which he intended as a home 
for himself and children, but improved onlv 
enough to support hisfamilv. He was op- 
posed to the institution of slavery, but by 
marriage came into possession of several 
slaves, which he carried to Texas with hiin. 
His principles not allowing him to sell 
human beings and the laws of the South 
not permitting him to free them, he finally 
moved North, selling evci-ything except 
his real estate and slaves, and located in 
Fulton County, Illinois, and shortly after 
moved to Mercer County, the same Stale, 
where he entered Government land and 
improved a farm. A few years later he 
retired from active farm life and Fcbruar}- 
S, 1S80, died at the residence of liis son. 
William, near Norris, Fulton Countv, Illi- 
nois, aged eighty-three years. His wile 
survived him two years and died at the 
home of her daughter, Catherine, i:i Cherry 
Vale. Montgomery County, Kansas, May 
-7, 1885. They had a family of thirteen 
children, seven of whom arc living — Will- 
iam A. of Norris, Illinois ; T. W., of Bur- 

lington, Iowa; G. R., of Bourbon C(jinitv, 
Kansas; Catherine, of Cherry Wale, Kan- 
sas; Martha Jane Thompson, of Allen 
I County, Kansas; Cynthia C. Birdv/ell, of 
I Austin, Texas, and Abner K., the subject 
I of this sketch. Abner K. Hill was married 
I April 6, 1856, to Amanda Martin, a native 
I of Warren Coup.ty, Illinois, born August 17, 
] 1S38, a daughter of Jesse and Sarah Mar- 
I tin. Her lather died when she was four 
I years old and she was taken to the home 
of her grandfather, Seely iNlitchell, near 
Oquawka, Illinois, where sh.e remained un- 
til sixteen 3'ears old, when she returned to 
her mother, who was living near Oneida, 
and there she was married. After his mar- 
riage Mr. Hill lived on rented land two 
3'cars, and then bought a small farm in 
Mercer County, where they lived a num- 
ber of years, and in the fall of i36S sold out 
and moved to Iowa, settling near Chariton, 
Lucas County, where he bought 120 acres 
of land, which he improved, butafter living 
on it four years lost nearlv all he liad paid, 
together witli his improvements, owing to 
failure in crojts and inabilit}' to get money 
due him in Illinois. Fie then took the little 
he had left and moved to Clarke CouPit}-, 
and after many years of toil succeeded in 
getting a small farm of i2oacresiii Liberty 
Towhship, where they lived till 18S1, when 
they rented tlieir farm and moved to ^Vood- 
burn, where they rented the first ^"ear and 
subsequently bouglit the Woodburn House, 
which under their care has come to be re- 
garded as one of the best hotels in South- 
ern Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Hill have a fami- 
ly of five children. Their eklestson, \. F., 
married Miss Iowa Ann Marquis, February 
12, iSSo, and now li\-cs at Tyrone, ^Monroe 
Count\', Iowa, where ho is telegiaph oper- 
ator and agent for the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad; Sarah Matilda was 
married Octobei" 15, 1G80, to W . E. Young, 
a farmer of Liberty Townsh.ip ; J. L. was 
married April 23, 1084, to Miss Lucy Iliim- 


/j/sTou)- OF ci.AP.Ki: ccHwrr. 

islon, of Woodburn ; he is U-lc.;-raph opera- 
tor and a<jcnl for tiic Chicago, BinlingLor. 
& Qiiincv Ivailrcad, at \Vor>dburn ; W. A. 
is unmarried, and at present is agent for 
tlie Ciiicago, Burlincrlon & Ouincy, at Lu- 
cas, Iowa. 'J~hc youngest, Minnie, is still 
at home. Mr. Ililliias held several locil 
offices of trust, and has proved a reliable 
public He was constable lour 
years in Mercer Counlv, Illinois; has been 
justice of the [leace in Libert}- Townshij) 
and mayor uf Woodburn. He is a man of 
good moral character and stands liigli as a 
citizen in the c<imnuinity wlicre he ix'sides. 
Although a Southerner by birth, he is a 
strong Republican in politics. 

.TV^EVI RE.\^f was born near Somerset, 
\\-i( Somcisct County, Peiuisylvania, No- 
tr-^ vember 28, 1S16. His father, Samuel 
Ream, v.-as a farmer and also a blacksmith, 
and of German ancestry. His mother was 
Mary Ream before marriage, although not 
relatci.l to her husband. They reared a 
famil}' of twelve children, six boys and six 
girls. Levi lemained upon the farm \yith 
his parents until he was twcntx'-fiye years 
of age, when he married Hila King, of .Som- 
erset County, and settled on the farm 
^vherc he was born and which had belonged 
to his great-grandfather, Andrew Ream, 
before tlic Revolutionar}- war. His grand- 
father, Jolui Ream, served as a soldier in 
ttiat wai'. On this farm Levi resided until 
1S6S, tiien sold the old homeslead for 
$25,000 and rcmo\-ed to Osceola Town- 
ship, which was then the terminus ijf the 
Chicagii, Burlington & Ouinc}- R.ailr<jad. 
Here he engaged in wagon-making for 
six months. J le would often send freight 
for citizens many miles. He lias made 
and sold o\er 200 wagons in one A-eai", 
often shipjiing five car loads every day 
for months. Two of his sons, John and 

N. B., dealt largely in cattle and hogs, 
but the juice went down and they lost 
hea\'dy. N. B. then seUled up his busi- 
ness and went to Chicago, where he worked 
in tlie stock yards thice years. He then 
went to dealing on the Board of Trade, and 
is now reported lobe worth over $2,000,000. 
He and Armour gave each $500 to aid the 
police who suffered fnim the effect of tlie 
bomb 1 hrown at the Haymarket meeting, 
May 4. John owns a good farm in v.'hat 
is now Long Creek \'alley. C. K. Ream 
resides in McLean County, Illinois, and 
Frank is at the Isthmus of Panama. Of the 
three daughters, Mar}- is the wife of Aus- 
tin Ganelson, Ida married J. Mills and re- 
sides in Kansas, and Samantha is the v.ife 
of ^I. T. Johnson. Mrs. Ream died in 
March, 1864. Mr. Ream has been an ex- 
tensive traveler, having visited twent)'- 
nine States and Territories. He is nearl}^ 
sevent)- years of age, and is hale and heai ty. 
His father died at the age of eight3'-eight, 
and his mother at eighty-one, she being 
just seven years younger than her husband. 


'OHN T. SWITZER, an active and 

successful young farmer of Washing- 
■^ ton Township, was born in Des Moines 
County, Iowa, September 22, 1854, the 
third son of .Samuel and Margaret (Lowerv) 
Switzcr, his father being a nati\-e of Penn- 
svh'ania, and an early settler of Ohio. They 
were the jjarcnls of eleven children, eight 
sons and three daughters, ten of the chil- 
dren reaching maturity. The father em- 
igrated to Iowa with his family in the fall 
of 1S51, locating in Des Moines County, 
coming to Clarke County in 1S65 when he 
settled on section 3. Ward Toivnsliip. H.eie 
he had a line farm of 120 acres, and was en- 
gaged in general farming till his death, 
wliicli occurred in I'ebruary, 1886. His 
wife died about 18S1. He v/iis an acti\c 



.iiid influciUinl citi/cu, and licid the office 
of ti u>tcc ol" Ward Towiisliip fdr several 
3ear.s. John T. Switzcr, t!ic suhjcx'L of tliis 
sketch, was eleven years of a,i;e when he 
accompanied his parents lo Clarke Cunntv, 
and here he received his education in tlie ] 
common schools. IJe was nianird m 1879 
to >riss Ella Holmes, the eldest daughter 
of Archibald Holmes, of .Madison County, 
Iowa. He has one son — Franklin A. He 
removed to liis iiresent farm in iSSs, where 
he has 120 acres of choice land well im- 
proved and under high cultivation. 

^^EIMDIAH KNOTTS, farmer and 
^M^ raiser and dealer in stock, residing on 
5£' section 11, Troy Township, Clarke 
County, lovra, was born in Taylor County, 
^Vest Virginia, November 13, 1S41. His 
father, Absalom Knotts, was a native of 
the same county, then known as Monon^a- 
hela County, and was a merchant, and con- 
tractor on public works. In 185^^ he came 
to Iowa, locating in AVarren County, 
where he laid out the town of New Vir- 
gmia, and imjiroved a large farm. He i'e- 
tunied to Virginia and came with the 
family to Warren County in the fall- of 
■S57. In the spring of 1S61 he removed 
with them to Osceola, and engaged in the 
mercantile business. He lived some time 
at Council Bluffs, Iowa, but subsetpiently 
settled in Lucas, Lucas Countv, Iowa, 
where he died several years later.'his death 
occurring February 27, 1S85. He was an \ 
active business man, a public-spiiaied citi- ''\ 
2cn, and made many friends wherever he i 
resided. He was twice married, his first : 
wife being Matilda Sayre, by wlniinhe had \ 
ten children, eight reaching maturitv. of i 
whom six still survive— Joseph, of Council 
fluffs: Mrs, Polly A.McGee.of Indianola, \ 
I^'wa; Jedidiah, our subiect ; ]-:iijah W., i 
f'f Lucas. Iowa ; Mrs. Susannah Daily, of I 


Lucas, and James D , of Indianola. For 
his second wife Mr. I^notts married Mrs 
Maria Marsh. Jedidiah Knotts, whose 
name heads this sketch, was reared to a- 
ricultuial pursuits, and in his youth re- 
ceived the benefit of the common schools 
He enlisted in the war of the Rebellion in 
Company H, Forty-sixth low a Infantry, 
and was on guard duty most ol the time 
while in the service. Septemb,:r 7, 1865, 
he was united in marriage to M.iry J.' Hud- 
gel, a native of Auglaize Countv, Ohio, and 
daughter of Thomas Hudgel, who is now 
deceased. Thcv have seven children- 
Matilda E.. William L., Liilie M.. Edwin 
P., Charles S,, Ernest W. and Lena L. He 
-settled on his farm in Troy Township, 
which he still owns, and which contains 
460 acres of choice land under good culti- 
vation. He left his farm in 187;:. and was 
a resident of Murray until .March, 18S2, 
when he moved again to tiie farm. 'wher'e 
he has since lived. On coming to Murray 
he began dealing in grain and stock, which 
he followed for five years, and is at pres- 
ent engaged in buying and shipping stock. 
Mr. Knotts is a member of the :dcthodist 
Episcopal church. He is a comrade of the 
Grand Army post at Murray. 




7H0MA,S J. ANDERSON resides on 
section 29, Jackson Township. He 
?p~ came to Clarke County, April 3:;, 
1856, and at once commenced improviri-r 
his ]jresent farm, which consists of 120 
acres, all under a good slate of cultivation, 
with comfortable buildings. He was born 
in Marshall County, Virginia, February 2G, 
1832. His father, Robert Anderson, died 
m 1S34. His widowed mother, with her 
two children— Thomas and Renjamin F., 
witli her own mother, Mrs. .McCane, in 
1S39 came to Burlington, Iowa, then a 
small village. Thomas J. lived eight miles 

■ J-. \y ■ '.-'■'■ :■! 

, - ,; 1 .; \rii 

■)[.' ii; ,,'ru; ,ii 



south of Wapello, Louisa County, near ; Frances \"anlanin-li:im, daughter of Lu- 
Bnrlingtoii, sixteen years. November 5, j tiier \'anlaniiighaui, of jo'nison Coun(\-, 
1854, lie married Miss Hester Auw Brown, ' Nebraska. .Siie was born in Mastjn Couniv, 
born in Indiana, and the fallowing spring ; Illinois, September 29. 1S60. She lived 
came to Clarke County, lii Maicli, 1S66, ; under the parental 1 oof until her marriage. 
Mrs. Anderson died, at the early age of ' In 1S81 Mr. and Mrs. Gaidner occui^ied 

thirty years, leaving four children, two 
having died before her. Their names are — 
Marv.\.,now wife of Samuel Adamson; 13en- 
jandn, deceased; Sarah \l., deceased; Jane, 
who lives with her father; John L., now in 
Nebraska; IDora, who has been engaged in 
teaching school during the past five years. 
In 1865 Mr. Anderson married Mrs. 
Samardha Johnson., widow of Charles John- 
son, wlio died in the United Slates service 
during the war for the Union. Bv this 
marriage 'Sir. Anderson has six children — 
Thomas J., Jr., Belle, William H., Laura, 
James R. and Bessie. ]Mr. and Mrs. Ander- 
son are members of the Seventh Da}- Ad- 
ventist church. In politics Mi'. Anderson 
is an ardent Ivepublican. Mr. Anderson's 
world}' possessions were not extensive 

their jjrescnt home, which consists of 
eighty acres of land. They have one child 
— Olda C, born October 26, 1884. ^Ir. 
Gardner was reared under Quaker teach 
ings, ami in politics is a Republican. 

/=T01]N M. WALLACE, a successful and 
"^:\ enterprising farmer and stock-raiser, 
^ residing on section 36, Green Bay 
Township, was born January 8, 1833, in 
Ross County, Ohio. His parents, John 
and Jane (McCunc) Wallace, had a family 
of six children — Sarah, Caroline, Mar}', 
Elizabeth, John and Ellen. John ,M. was 
two years old when his parents removed 
with their family to Jasper County, Indi- 

when he came to Clarke County, but he \ ana, where the father died some six years 

later. After the father's death, the mother 
and her children settled in Cumberland, 
Pennsylvania. John Yi. Wallace was reared 
to maturity on a farm, receiving his educa- 
tion at the common schools. At the age of 
eighteen years he v\'ent to Clarke County, 
Ohio, remaining there three years, \\'hen 
he went to Knox County, Illinois. In Au- 
gust, 1S62, he enlisted in Company E, 
Eighty-third Illinois Infantry. Ik: was at 

now has a good home and is fairly pros- 
perous. Llis brother, Benjamin F., lives 
near him. Their mother died in 1S79, at 
the house of Benjamin, aged sixty-six 

^TT-iLPHONZO GARDNER, farmer, sec- 
0^\ tion 2, son of Asa E. and Amy Crard- 
'^}~^ ner, was born in Rush County, Indi- 

;o>; ana, Jar.uary 22, 1S52. Lie was three years ; Fort Douelson, Fort Henry, Clarksville, 
;«•■;*; of age when his parents came to Rush ■ and in the camp.aign from Nashville to 
H;»! County, making their home in Osceola Florence, Alabama. He v.-as honorably 

Township. The death of his father oc- 
curred undicr particularly j^ainful circum- 
stances. August II, 18S3, as he was 
returning to his home fi'om Garden Gi'ove, 
his team Ijecame frightened, and lie was 
throv.n fi'oni his carriage and his neck 
broken. He lived only a few moments. In 
October, 1S81, Mr. Gardner married Miss 

discharged at Nashville, Tennessee, June 
26, 1865, and niustered out of the service 
at Chicago, Illinois, wdien he returned to 
Knox County, Illinois. Fie remained there 
till the fall of 1S6S, v.'licn he came to Clarke 
Count}-, Iowa, locating in Green Bay 
Township, on the farm where he still re- 
sides. He has brought his land from ci 

nioGR. xpin CA L ski: tches. 


^^•ii(i State int'i a well-inipiovcd f;irm, has 
ciccic'l a substantial residence, wluch is 
Ci):iifr)itably furnislicd througiioul, a:id lias 
s;i>od barns an. J out-buildings for ihe ac- 
iMiiimodalion ot his stock. Uis farm now 
("ontains 225 acres of choice land, under 
t!!!' !)est of cultivation, and lie is numbered 
auiong the representative men of his town- 
sin;), where lie has made his home for so 
many years. Mr. \\'allace was married 
(Jct'jbcr ig, 1.S65. to Mrs. Friscilla i^West- 
fiiU) Mall, of I\n:;ix Count}'. Illinois, and to 
liiis union ha\'e been born five children — 
Franlc C, Jolm E., Jenny M., Ilarvex' E. 
and Frederick E. (twins). Mrs. \\'alkice 
li i^ two cliildren by her first marriage — 
(.i;.<)rge W. and Ella S. In politics Mr. 
Wallace is a Republican. He has ser\-ed 
elTicienll)' as townshif) trustee for two or 
tiiree terms. 

.•■"T .XDREW JACIvSOX, one of the 
■ )^V earl}- settlers of Libertv Township. ^vas 
■" ":^ born in ?\Iorgan County, Ohio, July 
2 1, 1S15. Mis j.'arents, George ar.d Nancy 
(James) Jackson, were pioneers of that 
counly. Ilis father was a native of New 
York, and miother of New Jersc}'. Ilis 
p:itei'nal grandfather, George A. Jackson, a Re\'olutio!iary soklier and died in 
ill'; ser\-ice. His father, when fourteen years 
<)! age, was bound to ser\"icc at tlie black- 
smith's trade at'Marietta, Ohio, a tiade that 
he fi)llo\vcd daiing his active life, lie 
died at Mai'ielta maiiy years ag(i; his v,ife*s 
death preceded Ids. ,\ndrew Jackson ^^■as 
'du- Second child, anrl only son, of his ]i:ir- 
'. lit--. He worketl on a farm fj'om the time 
':•■■ was of sufficicar age imtil h.e was tv.-en- 
t\-'>ric \ ears old, gi\irig his wages in sup- 
i'"il of his father's family. In August, 
i^3;', lie marri'.'d Eii^abjlii Frevrnan, 
daughter of Jonnihan l-'reeman, of.Mus- 
^viagiun County, (Jliio, where the was bora. 

After marriage Mr. Jackson followed 
farming in Morgan County coitil 1845, tlien 
emigrated to McLean County, Illinois, 
where he remained until i!S56. In Septem- 
ber, of tliat year, he came to Clarke County 
and has since resided in Libei-t}' Township. 
W hen he came here his family consisted ol 
hinrself, wife and four childi'en. Tiie first 
two or three years he lived at the old vil- 
lage of Liberty. He had visited the 
county in 1S54, and pui'chased eighty acres 
01 kind <ni section y. In 1S59 ^i^" settled on 
his land and commenced improvements. 
May 23, 18S0. his wife passed awav at the 
age oi sixty years. She was a consistent 
member of the Methodist church. They 
reared seven children — JohnWesley resides 
in Nevada, so'vetl in the late war in Com- 
jiany D, Tinrtv-nintli Iowa \'oluntce!"s ; 
Melvina, wife of James Spencer, of Lucas 
County; Josi^ph Freeman, a resident of 
Furnas County, Neb;-aska; Ann.i, wife 
of George Earlywine, Liberty To\vr,ship; 
Mary, wife of Lemuel McKinney; Thomas 
resides on the old hon^icstead; Jane, widow 
of James Wilkinson, resides in Liberty 
Township. Mr. Jackstjn resides on Ids 
farm of 120 acres. He is a member of 
the Methodist church, and politically an 
ardent Democrat. 



^' B. \VELLS, dealer in wood and coal, 
at Osceola, was born August 14, 183S, 
I M^ in Ijelmont County, Ohio. His father, 
I Isaac Wells, was a carpenter by trade, 
and J. B. learned tlie same trade, wluch he 
I followed for several years. His mother 
; was Provy (B}ers) Wells, a native of Mary- 
land. In 1S53 ib.e family started for Iowa, 
i coming b_\' wav of .VIexandria, Missouri. 
j ^\dli!e at this jdace the father died. The 
j faudly then came to Clarke Countv and 
I sctiled on Otter Creek, in Osceola Towri- 
I shi|). Ilei-e tlie fandh' scp>arated. The 

* 1 *.*r*v*'*7*'*'"*'*^*"*^*^^''.*'"'*"^^^ 

.!! .-J. 

^■*° . ///STOKl or CLA/^KE coux/r. . 

mother had died (nic j-ear i>revi.)us 1., their 
leaving Ohio, and J. B. was thus early 
tlirown upon his own resources. His lirs'r 
work was Lo carry niortar for i;he plaster- 
ing-, of the ohi court-house, which is still 
standing, but abandoned. lie rented a 
farm one year, and after putting in a corn 
crop, sold that and moved to Osceola, 
where he engaged in carrying the mail 
from Osceola to Afton. In the fall of 1856 
he went to Nebraska, remained tlirec years 
and returned to Osceola. Later he again 
went to Nebraska, thence to Denver, Col- 
orado, returning to Nebraska, and, finally, 
came to Mahaska County, Iowa. In 1S61 
he enlisted in Company C, Thirty-third 
Regiment Iowa Infantr}-, as a private sol- 
dier. He was promoted to iMrst Oiderly 
Sergeant, then to First Lieutenant, and in 
TS64, to Captain of his company, in which 
rank he served milil the close of the war. 
He was mustcix-d out July 17, 1SG5, at 
New Orleans. He took part in the battle 
at Jenkins' Ferry, Apiil 30, 1S64, Helena, ' 
Arkansas, July 4, 18G3, and ma.iv small en- I 
gagements. At Jenkins' Ferry he received ' 
a gun-shot wound through the right thigh, ' 
for which he receives a pension. After I 
being honorably discharged, Mr. Wells ■ 
went to Plattsmouth, Nebraska, and re- 
mained there until the fall of 1S66, enrrag- ' 
ing in auctioneering, and subsequently ran a | 
meat market and grocery, then removed to ' 
Osceola and worked at his trade one year ; : 
then followed teaming for about three 
years, after which lie again turned his at- ■ 
tenlion to his trade. Later he t'). ik a tiip 
to 01<1 Mexico fin tlie interest of the 
Kiiott's Mexican SiUej- Mining Companv'); 
then returned to Osceola and engaged in 
the stock ;ind grain business, shipping to ! 
Chicago and Peoria. This he continued 
until 1S81, when he commenced dealing in ' 
wood and coal. He discontinued the cat- 
tle and grain trade. He is located on Main 
street, one half block from the southeast 

' corner of the square. He Is doing a thriv- 
ing business. In 1865 .Mi. Wells married 
Miss Harriet S., daughter of John Cliick, 
of Oskaloosa. They have two cliildren,' 
—Nellie F., wife of Charles II. Currier! 
cashier of the Osceola Dank, and Grace! 
M-ho lives at home. Mr. Wells has served 
as township clerk, four, and as trustee two 
years. He is a member of the Odd Fellows 
order, the Gond Templars, the Grand Army 
of the Republic, and V. A. S. 

I -yrlNOCH J. EVANS, of Osceola, is one 

: ' X^ of the princii)al breeders of iine 

[ A.-, horses in Clarke County. He is 

I among the early settlers of the county, 

I coming here in 1S56, young in years, and 

! with but small capital, he engaged in his 

present business, beginning on a small 

' scale. Seeing the growing demand for 

good horses, he concluded to invest part of 

his means in fine horses. He has two 

farms well seeded to grass, which afford 

the best of pasture for liis stock. His fine 

stock barn is large and convenient, and is 

well arranged, the stalls being large, light 

and airy, and there aj-e large yards for the 

slock to exercise in. He has at present 

four of. tlie finest horses in the county, all 

being well bred. The head of the stud is 

Scottish Clyde, an imported Clydesdale 

stallion, a handsome dark bay horse of 

great size and quality, good back, capital 

fiat legs, heavy bone, and a good mover. 

His second horse, Roderick, is a beautiful 

bright bay star, white feet, heavy bone, 

fine feather; short legs, very superior 

action, a remarkably fine temper, is heavy 

set, and has already proved hiniself to be a 

most successful horse. Duard. the third 

horse, is a good bay color, has a sensible 

head and fmc neck, is very strongly Inn'It, : 

muscular (piarters, good bone, very sound : 

feet, fine style and a goud mover. I'he : 


B/oa.'CA niic. XL ske iches. 


fourth horse, Souvenir, sired b\" Encluiiitcr, 
has not only size, loi'ni and substance, hut 
is a son of the best son ol Adminisli afor, 
and out of one of the best brood hkux-s of 
the Royal George family. lie is a brii^ht 
bay star, has white hind ankles, with 
g'reat bone and muscle. The farms are 
well slocked with hnc brood mai es and 
colts, which are a.lso c\cellentl\- bred. 

?!j^;ETEll RIXNEf^, farmer and stock- 
tiw I'^iser, section 23, Madison Township, 
'^--( was boiai in Germany, near the river 
Rhine, November 14, 1S31. Mis father, 
Peter Rinncr, came willi his family to 
America in 1S36, and settled at Lockjjort, 
Ohio, whci"e he died nine weeks aftei' his 
arrival. Our subject, on the death of his 
father, was taken by Uavid Stiffler, of 
Beaver Dam, Tuscarawas County, Ohio, 
b)- whom he was reared to agricultural 
pursuits, lie entered the United States 
army during the Mexican war when in his 
si.\teenth veai', under Scott, and was at the 
battles of St. Augustine, woimded atChere- 
busco, Mcllina, Del Ra.y, Chapultepec, 
and at the taking of Mexico. He re- 
entered the United States service in 1S50, 
and spent two and a lialf v-ears in teaching 
recruits. He then entered the cavalr}- ot 
the Second United States dragoons in 
1S55, remaining ill the service till Februai-y, 
1S64, \vheii he was clischarge(.l as Second 
Lieutenant. During tlie late civil war he 
participated in the battles of h^irst Bull 
Run, after which battle he carried the first 
white flag to the rebel army, Williams- 
jiort, battle of tlic Wilderness, the seven 
days hght on the peninsula, Antii.tam, 
Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Culpeper, 
and others of minor imporlrmce. Before 
the war ol the Rebellion he v/as engaged in 
fighting v.-ith Intlians in Utah, and while 
there ])art. of the time his company ha'i Ijut 

. two ounces of fli^uj- fen- cacli man for tiieir 

■ daily allowance, and for a while tliev lived 

j on nettles cooked as greens. He served 

I his country as a soklier lifteen vcars and 

j eight months. Mr. Rinner came to Iowa 

I in i.SG^, locating at Des Moine-, wlicre 

j he remained till 1S71. He then canic 

j to Cla)-ke Count\-, where he has since fol- 

I lowed farming and stock-raising on liis 

i jircscnt farm, where he has 126 acres of 

1 well-improved land. He began life a pioor 

I boy, but his habits of industry and ccon- 

j omy have been crowned with success, he 

I having acquired his ju'esent hue property 

] by his own efforts. Mr. Rinner was mar- 

\ ried Jatiuary 14, 1874, to Diantha Gray, a 

I daughter of U'illiam Gray, (jf Rush 

I Count}', Kansas. They have had six chil- 

I dren, four still living — Franklin P., INlar- 

I garet E., George L. and Katherine D. Mr. 

I Rinner still lias in his possession his old 

j sword, which was given him by General 

1 Pleasanton. 

;ff|OHN A. JONES, one of tlie old and re- 
^v j sjiected pioneers of Iowa, was born 
'^' in Hagerstown, Washington. Count\', 
Maryland, the date of his birth being June 
II, 1S16. His parents, William and Cathe- 
rine (Appleton) Jones, v,-ere naii\es of Dela- 
ware and Penns3dvania rcspectivelv, the 
mother born and reared in the city ol Phila- 
delphia. The\' moved from Marylaiid with 
their family to the State of Ohio, in 1S24, re- 
maining theie till 1S45. ■^'i'hen the motlier 
died. After her death the fattier made his 
home with a younger brother, dying in his 
eight\-third year. John A. Jones, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, passed his bo3diood 
davs on the lionie farm. At the age of 
sixteen yeais he learned the carpenter's 
trade, which he followed a number o'. 
vears. I le was married in Ohio, in 1841, 
to Matilda Holmes, of Harrison County, 






' ■■;r.\-' 



that St-ile. Thc_\ came to the Tcrritoi-y of i 
Iowa in the sjiriiiL;- of 1S44, scLiliac; in Van ! 
Biiroii County, where to:;-eth?.i- thev on- ; 
dure! inaiiv of t!ie hardships and priva- ' 
tions incident to pioneer life They left '' 
Van Buren Count)- in (lie spring- of '.S55, \ 
removing- to Clarke C'Jiint)-, Missouri, and \ 
in April, 1S56, came to Clarke Countv, ' 
Iowa, locating- in WasliMigton Township, 
where liis wife died in 1862, leaving 
eight children, of whom five arc nou- liv- 
ing. The children of his first marriage are 
— Susan C., mari-ied Jaau's Patterson in 1 
it^oi; Priscilla, wife of Joseph Davis; John j 
B.. a skillful physician, who was killed at ' 
Caddo. In.lian Territory; Catherine, de- [ 
ceased; Benton; Theodore V/.; Matilda \ 
A., married Millard Ellis; William, and ; 
Isaac, wlio died aged onc' year. 'Jdieir ■ 
son, John B., served in the late war three { 
and a half years, enlisting in the Fifteenth | 
Iowa Inf.mtry, v.-ith which he i)articipated ! 
in the battle of Shiloh. 1 le was discharged j 
o-a acc(Kint of disability, but re-enlisted in i 
the Twenly-ninlh Iowa Infantr3% taking I 
jinrt in all the battks and campaigns in ! 
which his regiment participated. For his 
present wife :\Ir. Jones married Nancy 
NiKon, February 26,1863, she being a native 
of Fayette County, Penns\-lvania, born in 
April, iSii. To tiiis union has been born 
one daughter. Jennie. 0\\ coming to ; 
Clarke County, Mr. Jones entered a tract j 
of land Jront tlie CTOvernmcnt, containing '' 
240 acres, located on section 10 Washing- I 
ton Township, but now ov,-ns over 400 
acres. lie has since impnn-ed his land, 
bringing it under gjod cultivation, an:l is , 
devoting his entire att:-!ilion t ) farming ' 
and stock-raising. He is meeting with e.v- : 
celleut success in the latter enterprise, 
m ik-ing a specialty of cattle and hogs. Mr. 
J>jnes being a carpenter, built a good, com.- ' 
fortable residence, in wiiich he has lived 
since CMning to the countv, making addi- ; 
tions from time V) time till he has a lanre ' 

commodious and substantial dwelling. In 
polities he was formerlv a Den-iocrat, but 
since the organization of tiie Republicans 
he lias cast Ins sutTiage with that party. 
For many years he was a .Alethodist in liis 
religi(;uis views. 

.^RANCIS M. SHERER, one of the 
'rt pioneers of Clarke Countv, and an en- 
~>' terprising citizen of AVard Township, 
was born in Holmes County, Ohio, June 
5, 1836, wheie he was reared till the fall of 
1S49. Hi5 father, John Shcrer, then re- 
moved with his family to Iowa, spendino- 
the hrst winter at Pella, and in the follow- 
ing March came to Clarke Countv, locating 
four miles south of Osceola, where he en- 
tered 160 acres of land. In the fall of 1S50 
he went with his family to Osceoia, v.-rLere 
he built a double log house, in which he 
kept an hotel, this being the on'y hotel in 
the place at that time. He ran the hotel 
till 1S56, when he sold out and established 
an hotel in the north, part of the towi;, v,-hich 
lie kept for two years. He then i-emoved 
t(j a farm two miles from Osceola, where 
he followed farming till 1R6), when, dis- 
posing of his farm, he returned to Osceola. 
In 1S63 he went to California, whe-re he 
met his death. Francis M., whrise name 
heads tliis sketch, recei\->-'d a rudimentary 
education in the old court-hou = e, which is 
still standing on the north side of the 
square, remainiug with his parents till ar- 
ri\ing at maturity. During the war he 
enli^teii lor three years in Comjiariv H, 
Sixth Missoui'i Cavalry, and in 1863 he was 
promoted t'l lio>pital steward, serving in 
that capaciiy till his term of enlistment had 
e.Kpired. He leceived an honuraljle dis- 
clia'-ge, being ninsrered out in April, 1865. 
He then returned to Clarke Countv. and 
foi" the two years following he was cm- 
ployed in clerking for F. Rankin. In 1866 

mOGRM'illCM. SKirrClIES. 

he ciigaycd in the lUiiiiturc husim'ss, and 
in 1867 became ens^agcd \\\ the insurance 
business, acting as ng-cnl. for sc\xral n'iia- 
ble Eastern companies until 1872. lie then 
rcmi^vcd to section 23, Ward rownsiiip, 
where he has since f(jllowed agiacultural 
pursuits, devoting some attenliun to stock- 
raising. His farm, wdiicli contains 140 
acres, is under a higii stale of culti\atii.)n, 
and the surroundings of tlie pkice show tlie 
owner to be a thorough, practical farmer. 
Mr. Sherer lias lieen twice married, his 
first marriage taking place in 1S70, to 
Barbara Switzer, wlio died leaving four 
small cliildrcp. — Theodore M., born Oct- 
ober 21, 1871 ; Belle A., born April 19,1873; 
Mcnrv F., born June 20, 1S75, and John S., 
born November 25, 1876. Mr. Sherer was 
again manaed in 1878, to Mrs. Emma P. 
(Neikirke) Johubon, who Avas b'._)rn in Sen- 
eca Count V, Ohio, in 1S41. This iniion 
has been blessed with three children — 
Mabel I^., born August ] i, iSSo; David A., 
born ]\la)- 14, 1SS3, and Geoige N., born 
August 23, 18S5. Mr. Sherer is a member 
of the Masonic Iraternil)-. 

^OHX EEWIS, the fiist settler c,f Jack- 

'j-'l son Township, resii.les on section ;o 
Q J, ' ^ . 1 

Vf" lie came to Clarke Couiit\- with, his 1 

wife and tliree children in .\pril, 1851, be- \ 

ing one of the pioneer setilei's of the ; 

Count}', lie visited the comity in 1830, 

and in the autiunn ol that year entered the , 

southwest quarter of section 5, Frai klin j 

Townshi]), and the south hall oi the stntlli- | 

west cpiarter of section 30, and the south- j 

west cpiarter of southeast quartei" (jf section i 

30, the northwest (.[uarter of northeast | 

quarler of section 31, Jackson T(j\vns!iip, ! 

He planted corn the next spring. Mr. 1 

Lewis born in I^awrence Count \", Indi- j 

ana, February 19, 1S23. His father. Will- 1 

lam Lewis, was born in Kentucky, and his | 

motlicr, Mary (Morton! Lev.ds, was a 
native of North. Carolina. Tb.ev were mar- 
i"ied in Kentuck\-, and feir several years 
afterward made their liome in Indiana. !n 
1S33 lliey moved to >feirgan Count\', Indi- 
ana. Both lived to an advanced age. Tb.e\- 
reared eight children, John being the sixth 
child. lie was raised a farmei', and that 
has been the occuijation of his life. In 
March, 1844, he was married to Miss 
Sophie Moran, who was boiii in Ohii), and 
died in 1S45, -^f t'i<^' ^S'-' "-'f t\'.ent\ -three 
years. For his second wife .Mr. Lewis 
n.iarried Elizabeth, daughter of Richard 
Collier, born in ^Momoe Countv, Indiana, 
November 15, tS2G. In 1840 Mr. and Mrs. 
Lewis, with their two cliildi'cn came to 
Monroe Coimtv, Iowa. Thvy made a 
claim which he partirdly imjiroved, then 
sold out and came to Clarke Cou.ntv. He 
soon after began to have neighboj-s. When 
Mr. Lewis came to ]oA^"a he had about S500. 
lie now owns 745 acres in Jackse)n Town- 
ship, and also owns other land, making in 
all 1,025 acres, the legitimate j-esult of a 
life ol industi'v and frugcditv'. Thev have 
ten children — Ta}d(n-, of Barton County, 
Kansas; Scott, of Suiilh Count v, K-nsas ; 
Mary Ann, wife of C. W. Neal, of Jackson 
Township; Parlhena, wife of R. J. Gray, (jf 
Jackson Township; Riciiard M.,of (Osceola 
Township; Sarah J., wife of F. P. Hood, 
Osceola City ; Pleasant D.. living neai" his 
parents on ])art of the homestead ; John M., 
le^idcs with his [K'nents; Jolui ^\".. the 
seventh child died in infancy; ^^'iliiam S., 
the youngest died at the ags.- of two years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis have Ix-en members of 
the Christian church many years. Tiiey, 
with ofhcrs, shared all the trials and prix'a- 
tious of ].iioneer life. They ha\e witnessed 
the rnai velous growlli and de\-eloiimeiit of 
Clarke County, and have shared in al! the 
changes ttiat have oceuireel fiom its bii'lh. 
Mr. Lewis is a L)emocrat. Ricliaid M. 
Lewis born Mav 18, 1856. He married 

.1^ ' v.yi;. 

N/sro.'y')- or CLAiiwi: coiwrr. 

Miss Electa Joliiison. c!au<;litcr of Charles | two survive — Fannv Miiicrva and John. 
Johnsrui. of Osceola To\vnshi]i. 71uv have j Mr. Hodges has held the oChce of township 

two children — l.erov and. Monroe. He is 
an inlluential member of the Democratic 
partv, and has twice been the nominee for 
clcik of tlic court, tlioui^h receiving" 
a flattering" vole, was each time defeated. 
He works a p'")rtion of liis fatlier's farm. 





7;/^HARLES HODGES, one of the old 
iHM pioncei"s of Clarke Count v, li\"ing" in 
i^'. Green Bav Townshij), on section 2S, 
is a native oi Wyoming" Couniv, New ^'tn!:, 
wdiere he was born .April 19, i8:?i. His 
parents, Williani and Abigail (Howard) 
Hodges, were natives of Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts, and Vei"mont, i"espcctively. The}- 
had a famih" of eight children — Sin"icon, 

treasurer for several years, and has been a 
member of the School Bo.ird. Although he 
started in life without means he has been 
successful in all his underlaki)"igs, owing to 
his pcrse\"erii"ig industi"v and g"oi)d 
ment, and has a con"ipctence for his declin- 
ing years. He has o)"ie of the best barns in 
Clarke Count}-, erected in i8;5,at a cost of 
Sj,400, its size being 40 x 60 feet, with 
twenty-foot posts, witl"! a stone basement, 
se\"en feet in liei^ht. 



rnTElMH'X C. MESSENGER, a suc- 
'":^~N cessful and enterprising farmer and 
"v"7f^ stock-raiser, residing in Troy Town- 

shijj, on section 16, was born in Richland 
(now Morrow) County, Ohio, the date of 
jolm, .Sallv, Julia, William, Charles, Albert I his birth being April 11, 1833. lEs parents, 
and .^lary. Our subject was reared on the ] James and Rachel (Corwin) ^ilessengei", 
home farm and educated in the common i v/erc natives of the State of Pennsjlva.nia, 
sch(")ols of his native State. He was mar- ' tlie fatlier born in Greene and the mother 
ried Jul)- 30, 1854, to L^■dia Jane Williams, ' in ^^^^shing"ton County. Since the father's 
who was b'lrn and i"eared in ^^^}-oming ! death the mother makes hci home v,"!th o"ar 
Count}-, New Yo)"k. In the fall of tlie same ; subject, being now seventy one years of 
3-ear he came to Iow;i, and ei"ilere(.i land i age. Stephen C. Messengei" passed his 
froni the Government, where he n.ow lives ' youth on the fari"n, being reared to agi"i- 
in Green Day Ti"iwnsh!p, Clarke C(.)ui"itv. \ cultural pursuits, whicli he has made the 
He then built the fi"ame house ^\"hich he j pnincipal a\"ocation of his life. Hiseduca- 
still occupies, and commenced to make a ' tion M-as obtained in the common schools 

permanent h:)me foi" hiniself and family. 
He has been very successfid in liis farming 
and stock-raising, and is now tlie oaner of 
400 acres of choice lan:l, whicli is u"cll 
adapted to the i"aising of grain and grass. 
Duri]"ig the late v,-ar Mr. Hodges enlisted 
in the 'Uiirtx-nlnth lnlantr\", the date of 
enlistment lacing Avigust y, 1862. He was 
on detached duty the g"i"r'.'itcr |<art of the 
time. He w.'is discharged at Clinton. Iowa, 
June 5, 1S65, when he reluriv-.1 to his farm 
in Green Bay Township. Of the five chil- 
drcMi b jrn to .Mi-, .and Mrs. Hodges, only 

ol his native count\". He was united in 
niai"iiag"e August 19. 1854, t(,i Miss Bethenia 
'J'ruex, wh(^ was boi"n in SpMithern Ohio, a 
daugliter of Jrilm f^. Ti"iicx-, deceased. 
Eight chilrlren have Ix'cn b'irn to Mr. and 
Mrs. Messenger, onl\- thr^'C now living — 
^\'illian") II., who married Mina Axtel, 
lives on section 7 ; Mar\ Ellen, wife of 
Waller II. Moffitl, of Unhn, CouiUy, and 
John N. Mr. Messenger came to Iowa in 
tlie fall of 1859, when he located in Unujn 
Countv, hi^ hoiii'.' there being but three 
and a half miles fro'n his present farm. 

it VIM H' 

uiOGi; \riiJCAL ski: 


DuiJni:: tlie late war he enlisted in Com- i 

ijiuiy B, Eighlceiitli Iowa Infantry, but ' 

oiilv served Jh-e n;ont!i<, being- sicl-: most of j 

his lerin of sci'vice. In Aj^uil, 18S2. Mr. | 

Messenger settled on liis farm in Tro)- j 

'J'ownsliiji,' whcie lie has since followed | 

farminr;- and stock-raisinv- \vith excellent I 
success, i^ein;^ now trie owner 01 400 acres 
of valuable land. ]>oih he and his wife 
are members of the Bajitist church. 

^q^USTIN AYRES.— In the year 1S70 a \ 
^'i\ pamphlet \vas published by ^Villiam ■ 
S^ flenry Whitmorc, of Boston, Massa- j 
chnsetts, containing- as complete a I'ecord j 
of the Ayres fai-nilv as it was possible to ! 
collect. To him we arc indebted for cob i 
Iccting in avaihd-ile form much inff>rmalion 1 
reg-arding the Avres family. Mr. Whit- j 
more says : " Captain John Ayres was of j 
Ipswich in 164S and was then a leriant of j 
John Norton's. T know nothing ol his par- \ 
cntagc. lie lemovcd to Brookfield, Mass- I 
achusetts, wdien the settlement of that place ! 
was comi-nenccd, and in 1672 sold all his 
rights at Ipswich. He was killed August ! 
3, 1675, with seven others, at the battle at , 
Brookfield with the Indians. Though he 
had received large grants of land at ]3rook- | 
field — some 2,0'jo acres — his family un- 
doubtedly returned tii Ipswich and it; 1 
vicinity, the settlement having lieen bi-okeu ' 
up and rendered unsafe. His widow pre- 1 
sented an in\-entor\- of his estate n nv 1 e- ; 
corded at vSalem, Massachusetts, on which i 
she wrote, ' 1 ha\'e se\'en sons and one I 
daughter.' O; the seveii sons the tliird one j 
was Thomas, of Xewburv and Ips'vvicli. ', 
lie again lial two sons, ' and ! 
Abrani. This Thomas — th; third genera- I 
fion froi-n fnir progenitor, Captain John — | 
was born Janura-y 23, 167S, or 1679. Of his ! 
cl'.i!drei-i nothing is known to us at present, 1 
I'Ut as Thomas has been the name of sire 

and si)n for several g-cn.erations, and as 
uinclv-c^ne years el.-ii-'sed between the birth 
of thisTiiOi-nas uarlei 1 eview and the gener- 
atie)n folhjwing, of wh.ich we has-e detinite 
knowle.Jge, we reasonably supixisc tliat the 
fo-iirlh generation froiu Captain John was 
als') Thomas. Thonias. as trai.lit;on has it, 
having Ijcen the famil\- i-iame running back 
to the oi'iginal stock Ironi v.hich we arc 
descended, and the lapse of ninety-one 
3-e:irs between the birth of Thomas in the 
third generation and Thomas of Boston, 
are the circnmstanfial lacts wd-iich point to 
there being an inler\-ening generation 
named Thomas. Thomas of Boston, of the 
fifth generation, followed the life of ocean 
sailoi". Me, \'i-hilc sailing in British waters 
or in a British port, was captui;cd and 
pressed into the ]3ritish naval service to 
fight against his own country. In the 
memorable battle off the coast of .Scotlntid, 
in September, 1779, he was captured by the 
American irrivateer, Paul Jones, and re- 
turned to Ids native land. In this terrible 
battle he was Captrun of a guu, and after- 
ward related a story of a little Yankee 
gurinei- who was also impressed into the 
service, Nvho threw the cannon bail out of 
the poit-holc instead of ])utting it in the 
cannon's mouth — which may have an 
influence in the termination of the battle. 
Idioinas, having been gone from home 
seven veais, was supposed to be dead, and 
upon his return finind his wife married 
again. Being of a [■caceable nature he did 
n(jt disturb the relations of wife with 
second hudxind. Me had two sons, 
Thonias and John — the sixth generation in 
descent. J<jhn was a soldier iii tlie war of 
1812, was captured bv the Briti-h and died 
a prisoner on shipboard on the v,-ay to 
Halifax. Thomas removed from B .)ston to 
Wind'-')r County, Yermont, where he 
bought a farm. Aft'-r selling the farm lie 
removed in 1S15 to .Summit County. Ohio, 
then Poitage County, v,-irh family, among 


:n. 17' y.i'. 

r .: 

*■'«? " " " " 


///S'jo.'n- Of-- cLAn.' 

cor.v/ }' 

wliicli \vas live sons — joliii, Steplicn, 
Thomas, Justin and Orrin." Justin, tlic only 
one of the live now livinj;— tlic others liav- 
ing- all died in California — was boiai in 
Windsor C<iunt\-. Vermont, Mai-ch 29, 
iSoS. I lis uiothcr, Polly (Hawkins) Avres, 
was a natix'c ol Conneclicut. J\ was 
raised to manhood on his father's f;!rin, tlien 
in the wilderness of Nortiicrn (^hio. lie 
rcmainetl in Ohio until iSoS, with the ex- 
ception of two Vfars in fennsylvania, en- 
gaged as foreman i)i the construction of the 
Pennsylvania canal, and eight years moi'e 
or less of the time in AVisconsin in manu- 
facturing lumber. In iS6,S he came to 
Clarke County, Towa, and settled on the 
farm where he now lives. Justin Ayrcs 
was married to Angeline Clarke, daughter 
of Johnson Clark, in Ohio, May, 1S35. To 
them were l)Oi"n seven children, but five of 
whom are living —Homer Clark, Frances 
Kimball, Alma L., Charles Thomas and 
Grace M. Rice. Thomas Corw irx Ay res 
died September, 1S-I7, aged nine years; 
George W. died January 4, 1864, aged 
eleven years. Angeline Ayres died in 
Ohio, Scptcmljer, 1866, aged fifty-two years. 
Justin A3res, the seventh generation from 
Cajitain John, their ancestor, as near as can 
be learned, is a typical .\yres of the early 
Stock. About medium height and compact 
build, is rugged and tenacious of life. An 
independent thinker, ver\- hrn.i in his opin- 
ions, and alwa\'s lf)i_)ks lor the ^vh^"S and 
v/herefores belcire foianiiig them. He has 


aspjiralions and never 

filled anv but some mimjr offices. He has 
ahvavs been a consistent temper;ince man, 
as he was anti-slaverv until the \var dis- 
posed of that fpiesiirju. Fugiti\-e slaves 
not a few found aid and comftn t under his 
roof in the days of such events. Duiing 
the few 3'cai's ol old age passing he has 
read, and v.'ritten not a iittlc for the jn't-ss 
upon llie tiipic of " CTO\-ernmcnt Lo.ans to 
the People." The id^-a is to furnish the 

people a ciirrencv, based upon property 
instead of bonds (promises to pav') and the 
interest to inure to the benefit of the •,vhr,!e 
jieople as a ixvenue to tlie Goveianneiit in- 
stead of going to the coffers of banking- 

-•J^o ^^,,^i43^. c^4e- 

•,*r^ ASPER CARTER, one of the promi. 
' [ ' nent and successful fainiers of Clarke 

'?^i Coimty, residing in Osceola Town- 
ship, was born in Decatur County, Indiana, 
in .Vpril, 1S27, the onlv son of Dr. Abraham 
and Harriet Caiter, of whom tlie mother is 
still living, m her eiglity-fifth }"ear, having 
been a resident rif Osceola since 1S56. Cas- 
per Carter was reared and educated in the 
schools of Greensburgh, in his native coun- 
ty, and on attaining his majority he married 
Miss Clara C. Spencer, of Simmer, Illinois. 
They have had eight children born to them 
— Harriet A., married Enoch Shawver, 
who is now deceased ; Elizabetli P.; Adelia, 
wife of J. P. Cadv ; Sarah H., at home, and 
Loy'd P. The others died several years 
since. Mr. Cai'ter came with his family to 
Clarke Countv, Iowa, in 1S56, where he 
followed farmi'.ig till the breaking out of 
the war, wh.en he enlisted in Company D, 
Thirtv-ninth Iowa Infantr}'. After serving 
eighteen mont'is he v.-as transteri"ed to Com- 
pany E, of the same regimeiU", and was tlien 
mustered as Cajjiain (if the company serving 
till the close of the \var. He particijjateJ 
with his regiment in the battk-of Parker's 
Cross Roads, Town Creek. Snake Creek 
Gaji, Rcsaca, siege of Atlanta, and was with 
Sherman on his march to tlie sea. He re- 
ceivetl an honorable discharge at Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, in June, iS6_;, 
and soon after letu'jied to Clarke County, 
wh.ere he has since followed agricultnia! 
pursuits. He is a thejrough, practical 
fa)mer, and in all his unde)t:ikiiiL;s ha.s niet 
with success, and is nuw the o'.\ner of 600 



! /. 

iiQudio^r' KHi 

'.^ 'r^ 




/^. G.^^, c 



.'icic= of v.'iUi.iblc land, which is uikIct qood 
culli'>atio!i. His land is well fcnccLl, aTicJ 
'die greater part seedcc' chjwn tfii^ra-s. lie 
lias devoted considerable attention to the 
raising' of cattle and lings, \\ liich he fetl and 
fattened on his own farm, and has lalelj- 
lurncd his attention to r.iising- hii^li-u;;adc 
short-horn cattle anrl f'oland-Chiiia hoi;s, 
and IS also raising' horses and bn'\'ing' and 
sl;ipping them to Dakota. lie has a good 
residence, surrovmclcd with shade and orna- 
mental trees, and comfortable and coninio- 
diousfarm hnildings for the accommodation 
of his stock. For nianv \ears he has fur- 
nished the agricidtnral slatislics and repuiis 
of his township to the Secretar}- of Stale. 
Previous lo the war Mr. Carter was clerk 
of Osceola Township, and f(.ir man\' years 
has served his township as trustee, with 
credit to himself and salisfaclion to his 

-:if^_HARLES TIIO.MAS .WI^ES, young- 
n'lvi ^^^ ^°" °^ Justin A\'i-es, of Jaclcson 
^fp. Township, was born in Summit Coun- 
ty, Ohio, .September iS, 1S-17. Me accom- 
i^anicd his father to Clarke County, in 1868, 
the year of liis majorit'\', and since then has 
been associated in the business of farming 
and stock-growing, ou'iiing jointh' 500 
acres of choice land. C. T. Ayres is a 
thorciugh st'ddent of the best means to be 
adopted in successful farniing. Mis motl(j 
is "the best is none too good," and hus his 
plans accordingly, as his means will ;idmit of. 
Live-stock breeding is the feature of farm 
life most la'~einating to him, yet has a love 
for ail the beauties aiid benefits of a nice 
home and rural surroui'idings. February 
iS, 1879, C. T. Ayres was married to X(. Hie 
Raymond, who was born in .Miciiigan, 
July 25, 1S5:', a daughter c.f D. R. ]>;ay- 
mond, then of Clarke County, lenva, but 
now a residen! of Hunjii, r)ak<jta. Ciiarles 

j and Nellie Ayres have three children — 
! I..!Z7,ie, ]\omeynand Raymond. Mr. Ayres 
i is an indejiendent in politics. Has sei \'ed 

as president and secrctai-y of the County 
{ Agrirulturad Society, and has served in an 
I official capacity in tovviiship affairs, but 

does not aspiire to ofiice. 

•pV.ENI^Y STIVERS, publisher and cd- 
l?-^, itor of the Osceola Sciitiiul , a history 
T~ll of ^vhich is given in the Fress chapter 
j of this volume, is a son of Aaron .and 
! Susan L. (_Karr) Slivers. The\- were na- 
I fives of New York and Ohio, ]-cspeclively, 
j and were married )ii the Buckc}^ State, 
j where they 'resided a number of years. 
\ Losing his first Nyifc b)' death, Mr. Slivers 
' married again, and in 1S79 fixe^l his resi- 
I dence at Osceola. Mis son, Henry, wliose 
name heads this notice, was born October 
{ 26, 1849, ^'t Middleport, Ohio, and came to 
I Osceola in 1869, entering as a law st'udcnt 
I the office of FL L. Kari'. He was admitted 
; to the bar on liis l\\ enty-first birthday, and 
i practiced law for the Cii'^uing ten ^ ears. 
! He then assumed the duties of vice-presi- 
dent and superintendent of the Des Moines, 
j Osceola tS: .Southern i^ailroad, in the pro- 
! jection of which he had been among the 
i foremost, and to this he gave histinie until 
Ai)ril. 1SS5. During the year and a half 
preceding this date, he had been also 
I president of the Clarke County Bank, 
which he now resigoied. He lias since 
Ajiril, 18S5. deviated his time and energies 
to the Osceola Sentinel, of v/hich he became 
t sole owner m November, 1SS5. Mr. Stiv- 
ers seems equally well adajited to i)rofep- 
! sional and business life, and is a type of 
that group of pushing men who, with the 
\ welfai'c of Osceola at heart, liave done so 
I much to imprcive the capital rjt Clarke 
\ CfJinity. Mr. Stivers was united iri mar- 
I ri;Lge Septeniber 25, I'^j'i, with Miss Lucy 

^ *■* *"*"*"5S'*"s<P5fS!V/r#>'5;.''f^cc'i;s!*;S;*>"'*"<r*'>;!^^ >' 

:lj,.., :-.i,-'Hf; 

} ;v u-., 

KM>"*~vy>!'*"'<'"VV*"> ■*"'<> i^'VVV"*';*"* >■>. ?^. 


*.*.♦.'*.!*, *.*j 

'..*..«•:>"»,*. •■•.>..*■,< 



///STO/cr or clakke covxrr. 

Goclcliius, of Ward 'ro\vn?l\i;i, Claikc 
Coii!U\-. Boih are )ucn!bei"s of the Mcllio- 
(.ii^t I-iliiscojKi] churcli. Mi'. Siivcrs is a 
mtiuhcr of ihc Masonic Odd ]""cllo\vs' 

,'.4^E0RGE GUTCnf^:S. one of the 
jl'T' carl}- sctllois of Clarke Cuiuilv, and a 

promiiienl farmcj- of Ojccola Tiiwn 

J>; ship, \vas born niar the cit\- of Colunilius, 

it;:*.; in Franklin County, Ohio, November 2y, 

YA 1S21, his jjarenls, John and Xancy (^^'aiLb) 

jcj.*; Goetchius, being natives of New ^'ork. the 

■:■>; father being born in Dutchess County. 

:«:*: They moved to Ohio when quite 3'oung", 

v->:>: remaining: in that Stale till their death. 

?=■:•*! Tolm Goetchius died in iSri, aged eightv- 

;*;t! two \'eai's and fi\e d.'iys, .ind Nancy in 

^=*^ 1^55^ ^o<-''^l forty-four years. They had a 

>*ij: family of nine children of wliom four \-et 

^*v sur\i\e. George (lutches, our subiect. 

iS'J passed his youth on a farm, and in attend- 

K*! i'k? f''C common scliools, remaining \vithliis j been a member of the Methodist Episcopal 

_vi;*; parents till t\vent3--four years of age. lie church for many years, uniting with that 

son Comity. Indiana. ?\Ir. Gutchescntercd 
the sei"\'ice of his Ciunitrx' in I S61, cnhslii-,g 
in C"iii]iauy !■", Si\t!i Iowa lr,fainr\-. as 
a hfer. and part iciixited with his regiment 
in t\yen.ty-scvcn hard-lought battles, among 
which \rerc tlic following; Shiluli, siege 
of \'icksburg. Mission Ridge. lie re- 
enlisted as a veteran, and took i;>art in all 
the battles of his regiment, and was with 
Sherman on his march to the sea. lie was 
mustered out at Louisville, and sent to 
Davcnpiirt, w here he received his pay. He 
then letiirned to his liome in Clarke 
ColMlt^•, where his \vile had carried on the 
farm and cared for the family while he 
was at the front, lie now has eiglit)- 
acres of well cultivated land in his farm, 
which is located on section 24 of Osceola 
Township. His pro]icily has been ac- 
quired b\' years of liard toil and industr}-, he 
haying commenced life fcir himself with- 
out cajiital. In his political views Mr. 
Gutchcs is a staunch Ivcpublican. He has 

was united in maia'iage in 1844 to Miss 
Alcinda Armstrong, after which he rented 
a farm and engaged in agricultural pui'- 
suits on his own account, contirfuing to re- 
side on rented land till 1S54. He then 
came to Cuirke County, Iowa, and entered 
120 acres of land from the Ciovcrnmcnt, on 
whicli he erected a small log cabin, and in 
tiie fall of the same year removed his 
family to liis new larm, xsliere lit 
made liis home. His wife diec 
leaving five children- -\\'illiain \V. and 
George, both living in Co!u:nijus ; Em(dine, 
•wiie of George ]3i-igg=, ikjw of Coloi ado ; 
Sarah .\., mairied \\'. R. J(jiics, who is en- 
gaged in the stock business in Color. ido; 
Anna, wife of Harrv Teller, a mer- 
chant, of Colorado. For his present wile 
he married Mrs. h^lkn J. (Jwen, a daughter 
of Thomas and Chiisten;i Ta\lor, natives 
ol Scotland, both of wh.oin died in Jeflcr- 

denomination when a boy. 

-,UFUS E. GARDNER, a resident of 
cclion 26, Jackson To^ynshi|l, is one 

of the pioneers of Clarke County , and 
was born in Union Coimty-, Indiana, .Sep- 
tember 16, 1.849. li's hither, Asa F. Gard- 
las smce | ner, was a native of Indiana. His mother, 
in iS_;S, ' \m\ (Barnard) G,irdner. was born in 
Noith C.'irolina. and at the age of nine 
years went to U'ayne County, Indiana, 
where she was reared. Mr. and Mrs. Asa 
F. Gardner, with their siv children came 
to Clarke County in 1853. They lived in 
Osceola Township three years, improving 
a farm there. In 185S they removed to 
Franklin Townsh.i[>. vvdicre they improved 
a small farm, which tliey occujiied unlil 
the death of .\sa !■'., which occurred i\u- 



<:u<t II, 18S3. He was sixty-seven vcnrs 
(if age, and was rearcii a nuakcr. I-]i<; 
wi(_lww survives and resides with iier 
vejnng'est son in Franklin Township. Tlic 
foHowinij are the names of the ehiMren — 
Sophronia, wliodied in infanc}"; Cha;lesC., 
died in Franl-;Hn Ti~i\\'ns'ii]), av^ed nineteen 
veai's; Eraslus Jv., a i-esident()f W'iehita, 
Kansas; .\r.da!nsia, died at the ai;e rif fil- 
tcen: Rufiis, the subject of tliis sketch; 
Alphunzo. a I'csident of Fiankh'n Tovrn- 
shij); Marv, died at the age c>f nine years; 
AHjcrt L., died at the age of six years; :md 
llai-rison L., who died at t'ne age of twcntv- 
one months. Rufus E., the subiect ot 
tl)is sketch, was rearetl on his father's farm 
and educated in the district schools. Me 
also attended the academy at Garden 
Grove. At tiie age of nineteen he com- 
menced teaching school, and followed that 
vocaticjn succcssfidlv fourteen years, and 
ne.irh- all the time in Claike County. No- 
vember iT,iSSo, Ml'. Gardner was married 
to Mi"s. Al5b\dene Mills, daughter of Isaac 
and Charily Bidwell. Her parents ^\•ere 
among the early settlers of Mahask'a Coun- 
tv, I()wa. She was born in tlie State of 
Illinois, April 15, 1S40, but has resided in 
Iowa since three years of age. May 17, 
1S57, she was manietl to Runa Mai'vin, 
.and in August, of that year, came to Clarke 
C'Hintv and settled on s(-ction 33. Mr. 
Marvin was born in Fijuntain C'")unt\, 
Indiana, Octoljcr 2, i.'~'33. He enlisled in 
Company D, Thirtv-ninth Iowa \'olun 
leers, in August, i?62. and died at Corinlii. 
Mississippi, .March 4, 1863. aged ihirt}- 
_\'ears. Mr. aiul Mis. Marvin had three 
cliildren — EHzabeth X., wdio died at the 
age (jf fi\'c yea'"s; M;ir\- C., now wife ol 
C. \). Cry; and Cliarlotte L., who died at 
tlie age of nine months. The second mar- 
riage of >rrs. Gardner was \\\\h Thomas 
C. Mills. March ii, 1866. He was born in 
■Morgrui\-, Ohio, Sejitembcr i, 1833, 
and died ]aiiuar\' 28, 1.S76, lea\iiig two 

' daughters, Cora and Florence A. One 

child, Idetlie, died at the age of li\'c \-cais. 

'Jdie home of Mr, and Mrs. G.ardncr is on 

section 2C), of Jackson Tcjwuship. Mr. 

' Gaitlner has 1764-20 acres, located on sec- 

. tion«; 26, 27 and 3;. Be)th :ire members of 

i the Ch.ristian clnirch. In jKililics Mr. 

: Gardner is a ]\epul:dican. raid has served 

! as secretary of the School Roard three 

i years. 

i /q'OHN H. MAROUIS. one i>\ the pio- 
! '1 1 neers of Libert\- Township, lixing on 
; >7f' section 12, was born in Highland 
' County, Uhie). January 24, 1S31, a son of 
i John and .Sarah iMcCulIy) Marquis, the 
1 father born in Pennsylvania, of German 
I and Welsh descent, and the mother a 
native of Muskingum County, O'nio, of 
Irish descent. Our subject was reared to 
agricnltriral pursuits, remaining on the 
home farm with his parents until almost 
twent\-one years of age. He tl'.en, witli 
an elder brotlier, Andrew J., came to Iowa, 
making the trip to Henry County on 
horseback, reaching his destination in 
March, 1852. In December of the same 
year he returned to his father's home, 
where he remained till tlie fall of 1853. 
He then drove a team irom Ohio to Henry 
Counlv for his eldest br')thf-r, \\'iHiam W., 
since wliich time !ic has been a resident of 
the .State of Iowa. 1 le was married March 
7, 1S34, to Margaret I'el^'ar, who was born 
in ^\'estmoreland County. Pennsylvania, 
Marcli, 28, 1833. daughter of Samuel and 
Lucre'tia Felgar, \^ ho were nati\es (.if Pen 11- 
s^d\•ania. of French and .Swiss oiigin. Her 
parents were among the early settlers of 
Henrv County, Iowa, \elR-re both are still 
living on a farm. He commenced married 
life with S85; when iiKJving to Clarke Coun- 
tv, his cabin was m;ide of split logs 11x12 
feet, with a clapboard roof, and door of the 
same, and a puncheon fioor. and clapboard 






Cl.AKh'K Ci-'CXTJ-. 

table, and a bedstead with one lc<;- ; there 
was no saw-iiiill neat', ami he hai.1 to i;'0 th.irt\- 
to (ortv miles lo sriist-iiiilL J'iiey were the 
parents of nine chih.iren — Mrs. Cathcriiie 
Black, I •[ Ch.inipai^'n Counlv, (Jhii;); Mrs. 
Marquis, the second child ; Jacob died a^ced 
five years : Ilenrv T. dieiJ ia the ser\'ii.-e (jf 
his coLintr\'. aLjed twent\-four years ; Mrs. I 
Elizabeth Mullen, of llcnr\- Countv ; ! 
San'uud, Ii\'inL;' in the same coiin1\'; John \ 
X., died ciL^ed thii'Lv-two \ ears ; Mrs. ]Mar\' I 
Morehd'use, of Ilenrv County, and Mr.-'. ■ 
Julia .V. Hochritt'^r, a resi'Jent of the same i 
counlv. To Ml', antl Mrs. Marquis have i 
been born nine cliildren — Andrew T. and | 
Lucretia E. twins, the former dying- in j 
Lucas County, Iowa, a^ed twenty-eight ' 
years, and tlie latter, nKirried U) J. \Y . j 
Barnes, of Union Countv: Snr.ih Edwinna | 
iTiarried Eiisha O'Xeal, and died in Libcrtv 
Township ; Samuel D., o! Liberty Town- 
ship, married Martha J., daughter cif Will- 
iam Manlv ; Ma.y L.. Geoige A., Newt'm j 
C. and John IL, living at lujme, and Henry i 
A\'alter, the \ajungcst. died aged fourteen | 
months. Mr. Mai-quis left Henry County I 
In November, 1S35, \\dieu he came to his 1 
present farm. At that time there were but j 
fourteen families in Libert)- Township, his \ 
nearest neighbor being one and a liali 1 
miles away, and tlie nearest stock-and- | 
gi"ani market '.vas Burlington, a distance of 1 
about 145 miles. The first election in the ; 
township was liehl iu the Sj.iring after Mr. j 
Marfpiis located heie, when aliout iwent)-- ; 
two V(jtcs were cast. In the fall of iS_;6 ' 
the parents of ^^r. ?^Iarquis made their 
home in Liberty Townsliip, wdicre botli j 
died, the father in 1S71, and the mother in ' 
1S80. Mr. Martpiis commenced life in ; 
Clarke Count \- with hmited capital, haNing 
less than $ ,(>j. His first purchase was ten 
acres of timbc-r, fin- \\-iiich he jjaid .Sio j-^er j 
acre, and 120 acres he entered from the 
Government. ().\ir,g to his industrious ; 
habits, combined, witli his excellent lurm- I 

agenient, he has prospered, and his lion-ie- 
stead, which now contains 255 acres, is one 
of the tinest-im]no\-ed fainis in Liljertv 
Tinvnship. He also has a farm in Lucas 
C(./nnt\- of 100 acres, well in-iproved, and 
one in Union Count\- of eight\- i'cres, well 
impi-ovcd. His farni is well stocked with 
eight}- head of cattle, many of them high 
grade ; eighteen head of horses, all of'good 
giade, and other stocic, hogs and sheep. 
'J'hey have accumulated their jir^iperty by 
close eci-Hvini}' and attci'ition to business, 
and have gi\-en their u-iarried children a 
reasonable outht. Bolli Mr. and Mrs. 
Marquis are menibers of the Christian 
Union church. In politics Mr. Marcjuis is 
identihed with the Greenback ]>arty. The 
brothers and sistei-s of iMr. Marquis arc as 
follows: William W., who settled in Liberty 
Township ill 1856, and died in 1S72; An- 
drew J., came to Libei-ty Township in 
1S55, where he still lives; Samuel N. has 
been a resident of Libert)- Township since 
1S56; Mrs. Rachel Ann Trout, of Page 
County, Iowa: Mrs, Sarah L. ivook, of 
Liberty Townsliip; Mrs. Eliza J. Sh^nt, 
livH-ig iu Nebraska, and Mrs. Mary E. 
Welch, of Lucas County, Iowa. 

OHN B. HUI5ER, who is engaged in 
farming and st'.ick-raising in ]\tadison 
Township, Clarke Count)-, wliere he re- 
sides on section 3, is a nntive of jladcn, Ger- 
many, born Fcbruarv 6, 1S20, liis father, 
Lawrence Huber, beinga nati\-c of the same 
count i-\-, w-here he lived till his death. John 
B. Ilubcr, whrjsc n;inie heads this sketch, left 
his natise cnuntiy in i^'Sj, iinn-)igi ating to 
the I'nited States. He si)ent the first three 
vcars of his lesidence in tliis country in ;h.e 
State of New Jer^c) , when he came to 
Iowa, locating in Builingtnn. and making 
his liDine in iJes Moines County til! 1SS2. 
He tiicn came to Clarke County, when lie 

.'i/oaj\\\r:!/CAL sA'/rr-c/n: 

'^if:"^^ 5?.c*:o- sfx:-f ;^''i^:c*" >"0;.*rw»'':tf"*>: ■* <r;v»r>;?f •!• ♦: •♦: >: ■< ♦; *■ >; 

^c'.ticd on his ]ircscnt faiTii in Macii^on | turnc'! lo Pcniisvlvani 

Tiiu'lishiji. where he has i6o;icicsot j-i-.iirie i n parineisliip with lii,- 

iaiul aiici thiii\ acres of timber, with a 

comforj able residence and yor.d larin bnildi- 

iiii^s. In connection wilii his L;enei;il tarm- 

iniT- ^I'"- Id^nber is sncccssfullv eny/.^ed in 

ll'.e raising of stock. He was married in 

Germany, Jnnc 6. 18-46, to Miss Susan In- 

o-ersol, a daughter ol Michael Inporsol, 

who is now clccc<ased. Mr. and Mrs. Mnber 

» iiave liad no children of theii" own, but ! three childien — Anna B., Ik' 

have reared four children, wlio ha\-c found 
a pleasant home with them. Mr. Ilnber is 
one of the self-made men of Madison Town- 
ship, he having- commenced lile for him- 
self entirely without capital, and l;as by 
his own efforts acquii'xl a good proijcrty, 
the reward of vears of toil and strict econ- 
omv. During his residence in the C(">untv 
he has gained tlie respect of all who know 


whci'C he 
o!-mcr employer. 
Idiis continued eighteen months, '.vhcn he 
;igaiM returned to Cl.arke Countv, locating 
in Osceola, and purchasing the stock ot 
II. V\'. )3eckett. lie is v,-en pre]iared to 
sup|)lv all customers, and giiarante'\s satis- 
faction. In 1S77 Mr. Boden was mariied 
to ]Miss Matlie Kn'ght, of Woodburn, a 
daughter of E. T. Knight, Esq. TIk v have 
trle\" E. and 
Robert K. He is a member of Masonic 
Eodgc No. 212 at ^^'oodbln•n. and Chapter 
at Osceola, No. 63. . • 

— <►— 5' 




iEEIAM W. MARQUIS, deceased, 
was I'orn in Higliland C'juntv, 
i— r — S Ohio, the date of his i^irth being 
Mav ^o. 1825, the eldest son of Jolm and 
Sarah (McCullv) Marquis. His carlv life 
was passed on the home Irnm in liis native 
county, liis }'Outh being" spent in assisting 
with the work of the farm. October 30, 
1847, lie marrii.'d Luc\' B. Pace, slie being 
a danuhter of Joseph cmd Mai-\' Ann Pace, 
both of whom arc deceased, t!ic father dy- 

/"JOIIN \V. BODEN, dealer in harnesses, j 

"j^ I saddles, collars, bridh-S aiid Avhips — 

'>^' successor to H. \V. Beckett, was Ijorn 

in Favette County, Pennsyhania, ]3ecem- 

iier 31, 1853. While he was \et an infant his 

parents, Robert and Mary .\. (Gibsoni Bo- | ing in Osceola Township, and the mother 

den. removed to Clarke Countv and Settled ' in the State of Ohio. Mrs. Mcirquis is a 

in Libertv Township, wlierc hi- lather died , native of the State of Virginia, b.irn Sep- 

aliout eight years afterward. His mother \ tembci- 5, 1828. To Mr. and Mrs. Marquis 

carried on the farm; pihn being the eldest i were born the foUowing children — Sarah 

child, rendered lier consitlerable assistance. 
lie remained with his mother imtil lie was 
i.fteeii years of age, then started out for 
Inmself. He worked, on a farm foi' aw iiilc, 
attending scho(.)l rhiriirg tlie winter. He 
tiien returned to Pennsylvcuha. w here lie 
leained the harness-maker's trade, servirig 
•'•.a api]jrenticeship of tliree years witli D. 
P. CJihson, al" l'nion:wwn. Having cinn- 
pietcd his trade, he lelurnel to Ciarke 
County, and Ojiened a slio;. at ^^•'o..iburn 
on a sma.ll scale, lie remained tlicre se\ en 
years, tiicn sold out his business ar.d, re- 

M., deceased \vife of Levi Wolf; Jo!m M., 
of Liberty Township ; Joseph T., of Adair 
Count\-; ^^'il!iam. of Libeiiy To\\-nslii];) ; 
Albert, died in lbs sixth veai' ; Eli;'a, wife 
of Levi Wolf, of Madison County; Jack- 
son B. and Alfred B., of Libertv Town- 
ship; Jarnes P.. died, aged one year, and 
Ci::i:les. Mr. Marfjuis came with his fam- 
ilv t" Ciarke Countv. Piwa, in i-^-sT), and 
made iiis home on section i, Libei'ty To'i\'n- 
sliip, [lurchasiiig eigluv acres of Go\-ern- 
meiit land, on which he resided till A])ril, 
t86v Helr.ensold that piopeiiy toOhver 

r y"'#-i"-'c"*' ■*''-r.if'4i' VV^v*>' V>' '«■'<■ v^: :*• C<> V< S'^^ 


///S7'0/n' OF C/.JUA'/: COC'XT}-. 

Pelt, and bought k'>o acres of paitiallv-im- 
proved land located on section 13. of the 
same township, and there he spent the rest 
of liis life. At his deatli, whicli occnrred 
Ani^nst .'■I, 187:!, lie left a wii.h iw, who was 
united in inarriag'e to diaries Miller Sep- 
tember I, 1S81, and eiyht ciiildren. He 
was a good citizen and neighbor, a kind 
husband and an affectionate father, and his 
death was a source of universal regret 
throughout the township. In liis youth 
he joincfd the Methodist church, but in 
later years he became a mendjer of the 
Christian Union chnich. 

3^1I0MAS G. VINSON, who has been 
\- s identified with Clarke County for 
■n?J many years, is a native of \\'n);>ell(j 
County, 'Iowa, where he was born ^March 
7, 1S45. His parents, Isaac and Charit}" 
(Glenn) Vinson, weic natives of Tennessee 
and Indiana rcspiecti\'ely, and were among 
the first settlers of A\'apcllo County, Iowa. 
They had a family of eleven children — 
Josepli, Thomas T., Martha ]., ^Villiam, 
Elizabeth, Jesse, David, Marv, Sarali Ann, 
Susannah and Belle. Our sui)ject was 
quite young when his parents moved to 
Jeilerson Conntv, and sometime later thev 
remo\"ed to Marion County, w hoe thev re- 
sided till Thomas G. was al:)out twelve 
years old. In 1S57 the^- located in Clarke 
County, lou'a, near Lacelle, in Knox 
Township, \ihcre our subject was reared 
to manhiuid, recei\-irig a limited edncatiou 
in the eonnudn schimls. In Februaiy, 
IS64, he enlisted in tlie l.ate war in Com- 
pany F, Sixth Iowa Infantry, and wa^ witli 
General Sherman in his famous march to 
the se.a. 1 ie N'/a-, shot through the hand by 
a minie ball, at Atlanta, and was in a h','S- 
pital for some time. On the way 1(j join 
his regiment lie was ta]-:en sick, and \yas 
sent to Fairfax llijs])ital, where he ]:i\ at 

the jioint of death for many days. On Ids 
rec<.>yery he was horiorablv dischai-ged at 
Davenport, Iowa, and relurnod to his 
liome in Clarke CimntN'. He has been a 
resident of his present farm since 18S2. Il 
is located on secti<,in ^t,, Knox Township, 
and contains 290 acres of well impiroA'cd 
land, w hicli lie h;is made by his own un- 
tiring ellorts, he having commenced life 
withijut means. He devotes considerable 
attention to dealing in stock, raising, feed- 
ing, selling and buying, and is meeting 
with good success. Mi'. \'inson was mar- 
ried July 14, 1868, to Julia Ann Chanev, 
daughter of Francis Chancy. Mrs. \'in- 
son died F^ebrnaiy 28, 187^. To them 
were born two ciiildren — Aljilia Omega 
and \\"alter L.; .Vljiha died before her 
mothei', and \^'alter two moiiihs after. Mr. 
Vins'jn was again niarried -September 10, 
1S73, to Margaret Emily Barr, a daughter 
of Samuel raid Mary Bar)", ami to this 
union have been born four children — Julia 
Ann, George H., ^^'i!ham H. and Samuel 
Isaac. Mr. Vinson is a comrade of Lacelle 
Post, G. A. R. In politics he affiliates 
with the Republican party. 

jFNJAMIN ARNOLD, one of the old 
\ and honored p)ioneers of Clarke 
""7 County, residing on section 19, 
C.ireen Bay Township, is a native of Mor- 
gan Count\', Indiana, born February ?3. 
1835. His parents, Barnard and Nancy C. 
(LUterb.'ick) Arnold, were natives of Ken- 
tuck\', the father born near Frankfort. 
The\- leai'cd a famil)' of ten children — 
Agnes, Noel, James, Elizalieth, Fliza Jane, 
Willis, Nanc\-, Benjamin, Willia.m G. and 
Mar\- C. In iS49tlie famih- left Morgan 
Counlw Indiana, and started toithe New 
West be\'ond the Mississippi. They spent 
the first \\inter near PleUefonlaine, Iowa, 
and in August, 1850, came to Clarke 


B/OGR.iriJ/CAL SKISTCHES. -< = -■ > '; 

Coll^t.^■. luwn. iDcaliiiL:; on pcclion lo. ('iwn 
13,1V lownsliii', wIkm'C the I;ithcr ciitL-ricl 
.]^o ncrcs of hiiid from the C.>i.ivcnui!cnt, 
anil biiik a log cabin lor himself and fani- 
il\-. Al thai lime not a lu/usc ^v,'ls to be 
icnmcl in Osceola, and the settlers were few 
and scattered, and hci'e amid piiMieer 
scenes, our subject g;re\v to manhoini. lie 
also licl[ied to build a log- schoobhouse, 
eighteen feet square, in which liis sister was 
among the tiist teachers. Benjamin Ai'- 
nold \\"asin"iiled in marriage Mrirch .?o, iSOo, 
to Miss Sarah ]\. Johnson of Green Bav 
Townsiiip, a tlaiightcr o! Reidien Jijlinson. 
Three childi'en were born to this union, 
Elizaljcth, Williain and Anne. Mi's. Arnold 
died August i, i86S, and June 4, 1870. Mr. 
Arnold was married to Miss C. C. iJcSelin. 
By this marriage he lias two children liv- 
ing, Emma and May. ]Mr. Arnold located 
on his present farm in 1865 wdiich contains 
38J acres of highly-cultivated land. He 
has a good residence, comfortably fur- 
riished, and surrovuidcd by siiadc and oiaia- 
inental trees, anel his impi ovcments are 
among the best in his neighborhood. In 
1875 he engaged in the mercantile business 
at Green Ba\-, wdiich he fidlowed for thice 
years. Me then returned lo his farni 
where he lias since been engaged in gen- 
eral farming, and raising and tecrjing stock 
and by his fair dealings with his fellow 
citizens he lias won the rcsfiect of all wlio 
know him. In politics he voles the Re- 
publican ticket. 


T^'illlLU^ L. FOWLER, ex-county au- 
Y: (btor, of Clarke Count \', is a native uf 
. i Ohio, born in Tuscarawas Countv, 
•September 3. 1845, a son nf L. D. and 
jo;mria (Laifei) hV'wIer, nati\'cs of Oiiio 
ancj Kentuckv respectivelw Tlie latlier 
niovcd his famil\- to Clarke Ciumtw lo'.wi, 
in 185. 1. localiiig in Osccila. He was an 

I active business man and hail purcliased the 
! grouiul where the ..Vrliiigton Hotel now 
] stands (southwest cinmr ol the public 
. square) and v,-as building a frame hotel, 
! when he was accidiently killed in a saw- 
I mill then loc-ated in the noi-theast part ol 
j Osceola, August 26. 1854. I Ic was engaged 
1 in moving a slab and a wrong step caused 
] him lo be thrown against a saw, which 
I caused his death almost instantlv. The 
j m(-)lher is still a resident of Clarke County. 
j Phili]) L. Fowler was Init eight years ot 
j age when he accompanied his parcnis to 
j Osceola, lie attended th.c piublic schools 
j of Osceola and later entered a select 
] school, where he made rapid progress in 
his studies. At the age of seventeen he 
■ entered the clerk's office, as deput}- under 
[ A. II. Burrows. In 1864, at the age of 
j eighteen, he entered the army, enlisting in 
j Company I J, Forty-sixth Iowa. At the 
close I'lf the \var he returned to tlvc clerk's 
office and remained in that office a nuinber 
of years. In 1873 he v>^as elected autlitor 
of Clarke Count\-, which office he held for 
two terms of two years each. Retiring 
from office lie contracted with the Chicago, 
Jjuiliiigton I'^c Ouincv Railroad, and the 
Chicago, I\.ock Island tt Pacific Raili-oad 
to work out tlieir roa:l taxes upon the 
higliwavs through the State, which con- 
tract he has ha^l ever since. In 1880 he 
went t(j Kentuckv w here he j.^'urchascd a 
car load of tine Jersev cattle, and \va^ the 
first to introduce a herd of this celebraterl 
stock into Clarke Coimtv. He owns 300 
acres of the be-t land iov st(.)ck-ra:sing in 
O^ccola Township. It is well stocked with, 
catlle and horses, auKjng the latter being 
sjiecimcns of the celebrated Hamljletonian 
roadsters. Mr. Fowler was inaii-ied in 
1871, to Maggie A. McKee, of O-ceola, a 
daughter of Pi'ofessor W. .V. Mclvee, \'. ho 
is neiw a resident of Knowille, lo\\a. Mr. 
l-"owler has been iircsifjent of the Ciai l;e 
Count \' banners' and .Mecl.'aiiics' Agii- 

'-■*..*,.»^»;;*;:v.5.>,>;;v;>;>.;«,>;>. ;»;<-;«; i(>;;.-,;<> ■»;;.»;;* ;*;^ 



tiiltural Si)i;it'lv fui" several ^■eal■s, \\lilc!i | wile oi \\"-\\\\:\m Cilvin. oi Kaiisab, and 
has [)i"oved \ci v succe-slul iiiidei- his iiiaM- 1 Edward h'\di._q' in Libcrl\' 'j"owii>!)ip. 
.ngenient. He is also piesideni of Ihe 0\d , Mrs. Marquis was born i;i Henry Coiuil\-, 
vSeltlers' Association. Mr. Fowler is not ; Iowa, Sciitember 20, iS.^o. a daui,diter of 
only an acti\-o man in the stock interests (.^f i Simon and Susan Loziei' wdio are uo-v I'esi- 
his coinily, but is lirst and icjremost in 1 dents of Tage County. They were amorig- 
evciy enterprise which lends to the public | the pioneers of Heni-y C(;unlv, goiui; ih.cre 
good. lie is a member of the Methodist ' from the State of Oin'o. Bv his present 
Episcopal cliuich, and takes an active in- , wife Mr. Ahirquis has had five children — 
tercst in the Sabbath-school of which he is | J(jsephine, Calvin C, James, Simon, died 
superintendent. ag-ed three years, and Clark. Both yU: 

and Mrs. Marquis arc members of the 

^~»i3>-.-j«j.v£<5,^vC«f- Christian Union church. They moved to 

I their present hoine in March, 1SS2, on 
^^^AMUEL N. MARQUIS, an early ; ,vhich all the improvements have been 
1^ settler of Libci ty Townshiji, living j made by our subject. The homeslead con- 
■^ on section 14, was born April 10, : tains 320 acres, and is one of the bcstdm- 
1S33, a native of Highland County, Ohio, | proved farms in the township, and tlie 
He lived in his native county till 1S57, ; buildings on his place arc new, commodi- 
when, in the fall of that year, became with | ous and substantial. All lliis line propenv 
his parents, and Sarali (McCully;) j has been acquired by 1 he industry and per- 
Marquis, to Claj'ke County, Iowa, making , severing energy of Mr. Marquis, he liaving 
their home on section 12, Liberty Tcnvn- ; commenced life in Clarke County wdtli no 


capitad, but a stout hear! and a detci 

shi]), where tlie bought 120 acres of 

land. Samuel N., at the same time, pur- j tion to succeed. In his political views he 

chased forty acics on sectiori 13, but did 1 is a E'emocrat, ' ■ i 

not commence the improvement of his | ■ ' 

land till i860, he assisting his ]:iarents in -«-— !===i.OC>C>i=^^^--»^ 
building up the home wheic thev spent I 

the rest of tlieir days. SariUiel N. Mar- ; ^"rtDHN W. RICHAl\DS, president of 

quis \'i"as mairied Sc])!embcr 14, 1858, to , "., the Osceola Bank, is a native of .Massa- 

Rachel J, Lozio", v-Ik; was born in Ohio : r-^' chusetts, born in Greenwich, Hamji- 

November 2, 1S33, and died March 3. 1863, j shii-e Conntv, in October, 1833, a son of 

leaving- two children, Su>an, wife of Homer : Jarnes and Priscilla (Xewcomb) Richards, 

Kennedy , of Osceola, :md Ced(j)-a E., en- '■ natives also of }>Iassachusctts. His mother 

gaged in the millinerv business at Lucas, ; died in 1881, in tiie eight\-hrst year of her 

Irjwa. ji)hn \V.. tlieir youuga'St child, died age, and his father m February, 1S86, in 

in infanc}-. Mr. .Marrpiis made his fust ' tiie ciglil v-li'tli year of his age. Their 

home fia scclioa 13. where he remained ; latnih' of live scms and four daughters are 

till 1864. He then sold Ids jilace to his ■ all living. John W. Richards j.assed his 

brniher Wiliiam, and bougiit i j^ acres on : vouth on a farm. rceci\dng a c<;)mmon- 


:♦;:♦: section 12, Liberty T<r.\mshi],i. Mr. Mar- school education. U'hen twentv-one yea 

:«;g quis was nuiriied a second time November ' of age, in October, iSr, |, he came to Iowa, 

1805. lo .Mr-. Jemima i'L(j.rier) Puis, sister and taught school in \'an Buren Count\- 

his hrsL wile, and wnJow of John Pals, tiie hiilowing win.ter, ami in March, 183-;, she: Inid t\\'o childi-en, Ann.!, , came to CI. irke Count v, arid was cpijil-jyed 

BionnAi'iiicA L sh-j; rc//ES. 

as cleik for George W. ITowc t^ Scth 
Richards, of Osceola, nine ycai's. In Octo- 
ber, T.~^-'J4, lie bought Mr. Mowc's inlercst. 
niid from tiint time until 1S76 was associated 
with Seth I'J.ichards, the firm name being 
S. iV J- W. Riciiards. On the organization 
of the Osceola Bank he was one of I he 
stockholders and was elected its jji'esident, 
a position he still holds. In 1S65 Mr. 
Richards rctin-ned to Massachusetts and 
was riiarricd to Anna M. Currier, a native 
of Vei inont, and immediately returned to 
Iowa, and has since made his heime in 
(3sceola. Mr. and Mrs. l^ichards have one 
son — II;u"r\' S. 



eACOB CROWLEY, merchant, Wood- 
burn, purchased the stock of D. B. 
.;^ Johnson five 3-ears ago. He also 
brought, his own stock of goods from Ot- 
tawa and added to it, tlien built an exten- 
sion of tliirty feet to tlic store building, 
making it 20 .v 60 feet, the largest in the 
town. lie has a warehouse, 9x20 feet, by 
the side of the main store. He carries a 
general line of drj" goods, groceries, hats, 
caps, boi..ts, shoes, implements, etc. Mr. 
Crowk')' carries the largest and best-as- 
sorted stock of goods in to\\'n, and is tlie 
lea.'ling meixhant. He was born August 
15. 1S2S, in Mansfield, Bristol County, 
Massachusetts, and fs tlic son of AA^alter 
and Annie M. (.Skivmerj Crowley, natives 
iif the same town, as was his grandlalher, 
..Vnrahajn Crowley. The famih' all lived 
and died in that town except ^^'aller, v/ho 
died in Illinois, in iS'j.j, while \isiting a 
i-irot!iei\ He was sixt\--f)ve years of age. 
Our subject was reared in the town of liis 
Huti\iiv, where he li\ed m;m\- \ears, re- 
ceiving educalioi! in the scliools (.)f that 
no'ole Slate. He li\>.el (jn a farm, and 
learned the black-smith's trade, folhiwing 
:> .tl; his trar.le and frrrming, unlil l;e was 

twmty-five years of age ; then, entered the 
mercantile Inisiness, which he lul!i.)wei.l 
fhiee or fuur years. He tlien went to 
Fraiikhn Counl\-, Maine, puichased jCk:' 
acres nf land, and farmed f'jr a few years. 
\Vhile there he was appointed h\ tlie Gov- 
crnoj" to the office of trial justice, wliicli 
brought him a sa!ar\ of S500. In 1S62, Ins 
health failing, he sol<:l his piopertv, and in 
compjany with his brother-in-law, Charles 
Hallelt, captain of a ves'^el, took a trip lo 
Xc:w Orleans, then in possession of B. F. 
Butlei". Three months later he returned 
and engaged in building telegraph lines, bv 
contract and otherwise, in Connecticut and 
New York State. Later he spent two years 
in Ohio and Indiana in th.e same \\ ork. in 
1 86", he rcmox'CLl to Oak Creek, Milwau- 
kee Cour.t\', Wisconsin, and engaged in the 
manufacture of hats and brjnnets, an occu- 
pation in whicli he had j)reviously iiad 
exjierience in Massachusetts. l\lr. Crow- 
lev, like neaidy all New Englanders, was 
skilful in all kinds of business, and has fol- 
lowed nearly all the trades of bis time. He 
v.-orked in a thi'ead factor^' al)ont a year. 
In iSCS he removed to Decatur County, 
Iowa, and purchased a fine farm of 250 
acres near Garden Grove. He worked at 
carpentering some, as he numbered that 
among his trades. In i.Sjo he \vent West 
to the Sac and Fox Agenc)', Indian Terri- 
tory, Avhen he followed blacksmithing and 
carpentei ing. He remained in the cmplo}" 
of the Goveriuncnt two 3ears. From there 
he went to Smyrna, Clarke County, Iciwa, 
and embarked in the mercantile trade, 
wliicli he continued two years, tlien I'e- 
turnccl ti3 his farm in Decatur. In the 
spring ()f 1878 he mo\'ed back to Clarke 
C'luntv and settlerl in Ottawa, and alter 
one year (jf blacksmithing, again went into 
the ni' icantile bu'-iness. In Jaiiuar\-, iS.Si, 
he canie to \\'oo'iburn, \vdiere lie ha^ been 
engaged ever since. He has the most ex- 
tensive trade of any meichant in this pai"l 


jy/S'jojn- or CLAJiiv'E couxrr. 

of the count V. Octubcr 2S, 1S40. Mr. 
Crowley was married, in M:iiiie, lo Miss 
Mar}- 1'. Guilti, \v!io died in Garden (rrovc, 
Aiigiibt 2C,, iS;7. September iS, 1S7S, he 
was married lo Eliza A. Clr.ik. He is the 
parent of seven children, fciiir of wdioiij ai'e 
living — J. A., Rosa A., Carlotta AW, and 
Walter S. The deceased are — Lerov, 
Winnie and Milo C. From I074 till 1SS4 
jMr. Cro\\de_y was a minister in the Societ}- 
of Friends, and spent considerable time 
and money traveling and holding meetings 
among tliem. But, feeling he was not 
wanted, he withdrew and turned his w hole 
attention to business, with whicli lie is at 
present engaged. "Mr. Crowley is a mem- 
ber of Unity Lodge, No. 212, of which he 
has served as master three years, and 
of PiiUalpha Chapter, R. A. M., Osceola. 
In politics he is a Republican. He lias lield 
the offices of selectman, civerseer of the poor, 
etc., in Massachusetts, and township trus- 
tee, and justice of the peace since coining 
here ; is now township treasurer. His 
Grandfather Ciowley was one of the pa- 
triots of the Revolution. His uncle, Jacob 
Crowley, served in the war of i8i2-'i4. 

/fJOHN H. MARTINDALE, editor and 
'- pruiirictor of tlie Muiray A\'Zl's, is a 
c^' son of Mason and Mar^' (Simonds) 
Martlndale, natives of New York. They 
came to Clarke Countv in 1S69, \\ heie the 
mother is yet li\ ing. J(jhir H. li\-ed with 
his parents until twenly yeai'S old, receiv- 
ing :i connnon English education. He then 
learne'J the trade of carpenter aui.i joiner, 
which he followed for a time and tiien en- 
gaged in farniing. In 1862 he enlisted in 
the One llundi-ed and r^orty-secund .\ew 
York \'o!untcer Infantry, serving until the 
clri^c of the wai , and lecciving iiis dis- 
chaige ill J'-il.v, 1S65. He came to .Musca- 
tir.e Countv, lov,-a, and in 186(3 rented a 

farm in Clarke County. AVheu tlie village 
' of Murray was start clI he found profnable 
I emj.loyment once more as a carpenter. 
j From 1S73 to 1S76 he was engaged in mer- 
j chandising. He was then occupied as po-.t- 
j muster and justice of the peace until 1880. 
, In. 1879 he ^^'-'"^ chosen repi-esen!ative from 
: this county to the General Assembly, in 
j Nvhich he served one teim. In 1881 he en- 
I tcred upon j.nirnalism, to which he has 
I since devoted liis time. Mr. Martimlale 
I was mai-ried June 26, 1S66, at NichoUville, 
St. I.awience Countv, New York, to Jane 
i D. Claik. Their si.K children are named — 
I lilla J,, now Mrs. Dewey; HerscvM., now 
1 Mrs. Kadcl; Edmund M., Mary D., Ralph 
[ M. and Gertrude L. Mr. Martindale is a 
Republican, a Good Templar and a mem- 
ber of the Grand Army of the Rcjuiblic; 
and, with his wife, belongs to the Bajitist 


,n'OHN M. CARDER, a pi-ogressive 
^','j farmer and stock-raiser, residing on 
.-' section 2, of Madison Township, was 
born in Parke County, Indiana, June 18, 
1832, a son of George Carder, who is liv- 
ing in [Murray, this countv. John M. Car- 
der was reared to manhood on the home 
farm, receiving such education as was com- 
mon to farmer boys in tiiat early day, in 
the subscription schools of his neighbor- 
hood, attending school in the rude log-cabin 
school-houses with their split-log seats, 
j greased-paper windows, and laige fireplaces. 
j He was married to Miss Hester A. Everett, 
j July 28, 1S52. They have no children of 
their own, but have reaied two, wlnsc 
I names are — Lucinda Knott and l-'lora M. 
I Darnell. Mr. Carder came to lo'wa in the 
I fall of 1854. and after sjr-nding a few davs 
j in Clarke County located in ."\1 ad ii^on Coun- 
ty, remaining in that countv till 1S65. He 
I then returned to Clarke Count\-, since 
I wliich he has followed agricultural imr- 



'I^'^v V ;*'4^ ;*■>" < 


'..■*>*;»!'*"•>■>■ 1 

]jjog2:.\fiih:al sketches. 


suits on l.lic lai in v.'here lie still I'C.idcs. 
Hf li^is met with fair success thiouLrh life, 
(n\'ning' his home laina in Madison Town- 
ship, which contains 126 acres of well-cul- 
tivated land, liesides sixteen acres located at 
Muira\'. Ml". Carder is a membei" of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. lie also be- 
loni^s to the Maseinic liaternity. 

"rfSAIAH JdANKS, one of the pioneers of 
; Ward T(jwnshlp, was born near the 
r— town of Zanes\illc, in Muskingum 
Count\-, Ohio, February 5, 1819- Mis par- 
ents, Jeremiah and Catherine (.Snivel}-) 
Hanks, were both natives of the State of Vi)-- 
ginia, r.nd were among the carh" setileis of 
Ohio, locating in that State in iSiS, and 
making their home in Muskingum County 
till their death. They were the parents of 
twelve children, five sons and seven daugh- 
ters, of whom only eight arc n(iv\- living. 
The falhci" was a soldier in the \v:\r of 1S12, 
and for his services recei\cd a land war- 
rant vdiich he reserved for his sons, the 
land being in Union Count^■, Iowa. He 
died at the advanced age of cighty-tuo 
years. Isaiah Hanks grew to manhood in 
his native count\". i"cmaining there till 1S40. 
He then went to Illinois and lived in Ed- 
gar County until iS-o, wlicn he went to 
California, O'.crland Vvilh ox-teams, re- 
mained there tu'O <ears an^i returned, 
via the Isthmus of I'anamri. ^Vhile liv- 
ing in Edgar Count}- he v.'as mari'ied, 
in 1S43, to Miss Ruth Lewis, a native 
of Edgar County, and a daughter of Will- 
iam Lewis. Her f;ithei- scr\ed both in the 
Nvar of 1S12, and in tlic Black Hawk war, 
and died at the age oi eighty }'eai-s. To 
Mr. and Mrs. H.anks were b;irn seven chil- 
dren, all li\-lng to maturiiy — Jeremiah 1 lar- 
inan, died from sickness contracted whih; 
serving in the late war; John \\'., dicd, 
aged twenl}--fo'.!i- }'ea.i s : Catliciine, died at 

llic age of twenty-tluce years : Jane, wife of 

John Leekliter. living in Xebraska : Mariiia 

E., wife of William Cluirch, oi ^\'arren 

County, Iowa ; Benj.unin E., living in Xe- 

bi'aska; and Mary .\., at home. In the fadl 

j of 1 85 5 yiv. Hanks k-ft liis farm in Edgar 

I Count}- and came to Iowa. He lei/iaincci 

I in Eddyville, Wapello Count} until the 

following spring, when he rcmovetl with 

his family to Claike County, and settled on 

the farp.i 0!i section 5, Ward To^-nship, 

where he has since followed agricidtiiral 

pursuits. He came to Claike County w ilh 

but small capital, but owing to his liabits 

I of iudnstry and frugalit\' he has met with 

j success, and to his original purchase of 

j forty acres lias been enaljled to add from 

: time to time, till his farm now crmtains 160 

I a.crcs of valuable land, well imj.iroved. Mr. 

I Hanks has lield many of the lownsliip offi- 

j ces, being supervisor some eight years 

under the old law, justice of th.e peace four 

I years, assessor two years, and also seivcd 

as trustee, and as a member of the School 

Board, holding all of these cfnces with 

credit to himself, and to the satisfaction of 

his constituents. 

AROUISC. FORSTER, a resident 
I Y of Jackson Tow nship, was born in 
Knox Countv, Illinois. November 
12, 1S30. His parents, Frederick H. and 
Martha J. Hlaroldi Forslcr, were natives 
of Indiana. His father always f<jllov,-cd 
farming, and to that avocation Jiarcd all of 
his sons. Marquis was the eldest, of thir- 
teen children, the names of the others are 
— Martha A., -\\-ife of S, S. Chritchlield, of 
Liberty Township; ]-"rances J., wife of 
1-vObcrt Clin'ch.field, of Jackson Township, 

I Lucas Count}-; Robert, a resident of 
Hodgman Count}', Kansas; James T., of 
Knox Count \-, Illinois' Sarah Ell<?n, wUc 

I of George Painter, nodgman Countv, Kar- 


ii/si'o/x'r OF CL.iA'Ki: cocvT}: 

sas; Mary, wife of X. Klveiuioi ph, Liberty 
Townshiji, Lucas Counly; Au;;'u^la, died 
3-oiing; Lmlicr, rcsitiL'S in Onqon; Xcir.;, 
wife of Douglas Gr'.-y. of Liberty 
shij'), Lucas County: Jolin, of 1 lodL^iuan 
County, Kansas; Edwin, lives with ^L^r- 
quis; Minnie and Nettie, are willi their 
parents. The family came to Iowa in the 
Springs of 1869, fir>t settling" in Jackson 
Townsliip, Lucas County- Marquis re- 
mained with his jjarcPits luitil twenty-one 
3'ears of age. Me married in Lucas County 
Miss Amanda E. Sater. daughter of Eph- 
raiin Sater, of that county, February 28, 
1872 ; slie was boin in Ileiu'y County, Iowa, 
Ma)- 28, 1853. Her mother is deceased. 
The Forstcr famil)" came to their present 
home in 18S1. Later the parents moved to 
Kansas, where the mother died in 187S. Mr. 
Forster, the subject of this sketch, owns a 
large farm of 280 acres situated on sections 1, 
2 and 12; also owns eighty acres on section 
3, and a small tract of timber on section 
15, and five acres in Libeit}' To^'usliii). 
He is a member of Unity Lodge, X^o. 212, 
at Woodbarn, and in ]Jolitics, a Repub- 

-i lit- ^"-"^ ^^ Clarke Count3''s pioneer set- 
i'^-5 tier, ^^'illiam Rook, resides on section 
27, Liberty Township. He was born in 
Fulton County, Illinois, Xovcmbei" 28, 
1S36. His fatlier was an early settler of 
that count\', and in 1S41 mo\ed to Jelfer- 
son County, Iowa, and thence, in 1S42, to 
Holt Count V, Missouri, where he was the 
first settler. .NL'iv 5, 1S50. tlie iainil\- moved 
to Clarke Count)', Io